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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXIX. 



EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NOEGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STEEET, CO VENT GAEDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCOLXXX. 



<V'' 






HINT] ]• I'.Y sril.l. AM" COMPANY, EDINBURGH. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. (1878-79.) 



T. -Chapters on the Mineralogy of Scotland. Chapter Fifth. — The 
Micas; with description of Haughtonite, a new Mineral 
Species. By Professor Heddle, .... 1 

II.— General Theorems on Determinants. By Thomas Muir, M.A., . 47 

III. — Chapters on the Mineralogy of Scotland. Chapter Sixth. — 

" Chloritic Minerals.'" By Professor Heddle, . . 55 

IV. — On some Physiological Residts of Temperature Variations. By 
John Berry Haycraft, M.B., CM., B.Sc, Assistant to the 
Professor of Physiology, Edinburgh University. Communi- 
cated by Professor Turner, one of the Secretaries to the 
Society. (Plate I.), . . . . . .119 

V. — On the Physiological Actions of Drugs on the Secretion of Bile. 
By William Rutherford, M.D., F.R.SS. L. and E., Pro- 
fessor of the Institutes of Medicine in the University of 
Edinburgh, . . . . . . .133 

VI. — On some New Bases of the Leucoline Series. Part II. By G. 

Carr Robinson, F.R.S.E., and W. L. Goodwin, . . 265 



VI CONTENTS. 



HAG] 



VII. — On some New Bases of the Leucoline Series. Part III. — The 
Action of Iodide of Methyl on Tetracoline, Pentacoline, 
Hexacoline, Heptacoline, and Octacoline. By G. Carr Robin- 
son, F.R.S.E., and W. L. Goodwin, .... 273 

VIII — On the Transmission of Sound by Loose Electrical Contact. By 

James Blyth, M.A., . . . . . .281 

IX. — The Solar Spectrum in 1877-78, with some practical idea of its 
probable temperature of Origination. By Piazzi Smyth, 
F.R.S.E. and Astronomer Royal for Scotland. (Plate II.), . 285 

X. — On the Structure and Affinities of the Platysomidae. By Ramsay 
H. Traquair, M.D., F.R.S.E., Keeper of the Natural 
History Collections in the Museum of Science and Art, 
Edinburgh. (Plates III.-VL), .... 34:; 

XI. — The Anatomy of the Northern Beluga (Beluga catodon, Gray ; 
Delphinapterus leucas, Pallas) compared with that of other 
Whales. By Morrison Watson, M.D., F.R.S.E., and 
Alfred H. Young, M.B., &c, of the Owens College, Man- 
chester. (Plates VII. and VIII.), .... 393 

XII. — On the Carboniferous Volcanic Rocks of the Basin of the Firth of 
Forth — their Structure in the Field and under the Micro- 
scope. By Professor Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., Director of the 
Geological Survey of Scotland. (Plates IX. -XII.) . . 4:37 



PART II. (1879-80.) 

XIII. — On Minding 's System of Forces. By Professor Chrystal, . 519 

XIV. — On the Action of Sulphide of Potassium upon Chloroform. By 
W. W. J. Nicol, M.A. Communicated by Professor Crum 
Brown, . . . . . . .531 



CONTENTS. vii 



XV. — A New Method of Investigating Relations between Functions of 
the Roots of an Equation and its Coefficients. By J. Douglas 
Hamilton Dickson, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of St Peter's 
College, Cambridge, ...... 535 

XVI. — On the Phenomena of Variegation and Cell- Multiplication in a 
Species of Enteromorpha. By P. Geddes, F.R.S.E., Demon- 
strator of Vegetable Histology in the University of Edin- 
burgh. (Plate XIII.), ..... 555 

XVII. — On the Disruptive Discharge of Electricity. Part IV. By A. 
Macfarlane, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., and P. M. Playfair, 
M.A. (Plate XIV.), 5(51 

XVIII. — Researches in Thermometry. By Edmund J. Mills, D.Sc., 
F.R.S. Communicated by Professor Sir William Thomson, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., ...... 567 

XIX. — Preliminary Note on the Compressibility of Glass. By J. Y. 

Buchanan, ....... 589 

XX. — On the Variation with Temperature of the Electrical Resistance 
of Wires of certain Alloys. By Professor J. G. MacGregor, 
D.Sc, and C. G. Knott, D.Sc, .... 599 

XXI. — On the Differential Telephone. By Professor Chrystal, . 609 

XXII. — Notice of the Completion of the New Rock Thermometer's at the 
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, and what they are for. By 
Professor Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer Royal for Scotland. 
(Plate XV.), ....... 637 

XXIII. — Note on a Theorem in Geometry of Position. By Professor 

Tait. (Plate XVI.), . . ' . . . .657 



Viii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

XXIV. — On the Structure and Arrangement of the Soft Parts in 
Euplectella aspergillum. By Professor Franz Eilhard 
Schulze, Gratz. Communicated by Sir Wyville Thomson, 
V.P.RS.E. (Plate XVII.), 661 

XXV. — On Minding' s Theorem. By Professor Tait, . . . 675 



TRANSACTIONS. 



I. — Chapters on the Mineralogy of Scotland. Chapter Fifth. — The Micas; 
with description of Haughtonite, a new Mineral Species. By Professor 
Heddle. 

(Read 3d February 1879.) 

MUSCOVITE. 

Muscovite is so easily recognised by its optical properties that the only 
cases which seemed to me to call for analysis were those which, from being 
possessed of characteristic colour, were of special interest. 

Of these the most singular is a variety found rarely in the great vein of Ben 
Capval, Harris ; it occurs in crystals of a peculiar green tint, the crystals are 
small and have somewhat of a pearly lustre. 

On 1 • 2 grammes — 



Silica, 

From Alumina, 



511 

6 



•517 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, 
Soda, 
Water, 



Loses in bath 2 ■ 793 of the above water. 

It would thus appear that the ferrous oxide is the source of the colour. 

VOL. XXIX. PAKT I. A 



43 


•083 


32 


•858 




•736 


2 


•764 




•083 


1 


•073 




•333 


9 


•084 




•847 


9 


122 


99 


983 



'1 • 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



The iron of muscovite has hitherto been almost invariably set down as being 
in the ferric state : — it is very probable, however, that its condition had not 
been often determined. 

The amount of water is here high ; most analyses of micas would seem to 
have been executed on material dried at 212°. 

Two other delicately-tinted micas may be suggested to future investigators 
for examination; namely, a brilliant-lustred yellow mica, from Struay Bridge in 
Ross-shire, and a somewhat rose-tinted variety, from Glen Skiag in the same 
county. 

Muscovite is not so markedly typical of granites in Scotland as elsewhere, 
being largely replaced by the dark-coloured micas ; — doubtless some dark grey 
muscovite may exist, but I have never myself found such, or any of a brown or 
black colour. 

The finest specimens of muscovite in Scotland are found at the following- 
localities : — 

Large rosette crystallisations occur in a very quartzose vein to the west of 
Bigsetter Voe, in Mainland, Shetland ; still larger at Loch Glass, in Ross-shire, 
at Glen Skiag in the same county, and at Struay Bridge in Inverness-shire. 
A crystal 15 inches in length was found in the very singular vein, if vein 
it should be called, in Glen Skiag. The windows of the smaller houses in 
Duffus are said to have been at one time " glazed " with sheets of muscovite. 

I have determined the optic angles of the following micas : — 

Axis in plane of longer diagonal. 

Rich brown, great vein of Rubislaw, 
Yellow green, great vein of Ben Capval, 
Light brown, third vein east of Portsoy, 
Pale rose, Glen Skiag, . 
Silvery, exfiltrative vein, Rubislaw, 
Light brown, Loch Glass, 

In taking the specific gravity of the Glen Skiag mica, it was found that after 
having been boiled in water — to expel air bubbles — and being suddenly cooled, 
its specific gravity was 2 ■ 832 ; but after lying for twenty-four hours in water, its 
specific gravity was only 2*782. Upon being suddenly cooled after boiling, the mica 
seems to contract beyond its normal condition ; there being a difference of "05. 

A specimen of the Rubislaw mica, treated in the same way, gave after 
boiling and sudden cooling a specific gravity of 2 ■ 813 ; after lying in water for 
four hours, of 2 ' 783. Here there would appear to be the same undue contrac- 
tion, resulting from the sudden cooling, though not to the same extent. 

The larger plates of mica contain imbedded substances which will be after- 
wards noticed. 

Muscovite chiefly occurs in veins, either intrusive or exfiltrative ; in these 





67° 


45' 




72° 


15' 




64° 


30' 




71° 


45' 




69° 


5' 




71° 


40' 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 3 

it invariably presents itself in larger crystals than those which are present 
in the general mass of the rock ; and it would also appear to be present in 
these veins in a greater total relative amount than in the parent rock itself. 
This, should it be so, is not altogether difficult of explanation, if we are entitled 
to regard the rock as the parent of the vein. 

To the granitic belts of metamorphic rocks, and the intrusive granitic dykes 
of all rocks, such a term of relationship could only be very indirectly applied ; 
but to the exfiltrative veins of granitic rocks themselves, there is every reason 
to believe that the word fittingly applies. 

Such veins, in the old terminology of the science, were called contempora- 
neous, — a word somewhat puzzling in its application, and misleading at the best. 

A disquisition by Professor Jameson on these " contemporaneous veins " 
forms the first of the publications of the Wernerian Society. 

It would appear to have been Jameson's purpose to show the distinction 
between these veins and what we would now call metallic lodes ; though it is 
not altogether clear that his description would not in some respect include 
injected veins therewith. 

He thus defines them : — 

" 1. True veins traverse different strata, and are confined to single beds or strata only in those 
cases where the strata are of uncommon thickness. Their direction is not tortuous, and they 
seldom give off many branches. The mass of the vein is generally distinctly separated from 
its walls : it is frequently disposed in beds or layers, and these are parallel with the walls of 
the vein. The beds of these veins are so arranged that the newer beds are contained in the 
older. They often contain fragments which lie promiscuously, and are either acute angular, 
blunt angular, or rounded. Lastly, the materials of true veins are more or less different from 
the rock which they traverse, and the same vein contains several formations. 

" 2. Contemporaneous veins. — Their course is tortuous, and they give off numerous branches. 
The mass of the vein is generally intimately mixed with, and passes into that of its walls, and 
differs but little in its component parts from that of the rock which it traverses. They never 
contain more than one formation, and when they contain apparent fragments the structure of 
these is ever conformable to that of the contiguous rock. Lastly, they traverse but single beds 
and strata, and are observed to wedge out in every direction, and consequently have no out- 
going above, below, or laterally, intimating that they have not been filled from above or below, 
but are as it were a secretion from the rock itself." 

The above, so far as it goes, is an admirable description of exfiltrative veins, 
but it hardly sufficiently draws a line of demarcation between them and injected 
veins ; while the illustrations which Jameson supplies show unmistakably that 
he had confounded exfiltrative veins both with injected veins and with the 
granitic and other bands or belts of rocks. 

Such bands in gneiss are instanced as illustrations, as are also the quartzose 
and micaceous bands of mica slate ; and these are placed in the same category 
with the " veins of calcspar which traverse transition-limestone." 



4 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

Perhaps nothing could better show the objectionable character of the term 
contemporaneous than Jameson's statement that " serpentine contains contem- 
poraneous veins of asbest, talc, steatite, and lithomarge." 

In Jukes' "Manual of Geology" the name is confined to their occurrence 
in intrusive rocks, but the above quotations from Jameson will show that the 
word orginally had a much wider application. The authors of the most recent 
edition of this work propose to " retain the name for the purpose of expressing 
that the veins belong to the same intrusion as the masses which contain them." 

While the very name of vein is objectionable, there is little hope of setting it 
aside, or, sooth to say, of getting a more fitting word from our own language ; but 
it is the adjective to which strong exception must be taken, if contemporaneous 
is held to be at all synonymous with simultaneous. It is more than difficult to 
conceive of any one of the structures to which the term has been applied being 
paragenetic in time with the rock-masses in which it is imbedded. 

Of such of these structures as occur in volcanic rocks, we read in Jukes' 
"Geology:"— 

" They seem in certain cases to have been produced from some movement of the whole 

mass during consolidation, whereby yet fluid portions were injected along cracks or 

between divisional planes of the mass. 
" In other instances, where they are found to merge into the surrounding rock along both 

their bounding surfaces, they rather suggest the idea of segregation and crystallisation 

of the mineral along particular lines." 

The former of these modes of accounting for their formation is certainly 
adequate to explain the mode of filling up of crevasses, — especially volcanic 
rents, — in lava streams or other plastic igneous rocks ; while the second may 
suffice for rectilinear, though hardly for branching or angularly tortuous veins : 
but it is evident that the above explanations are intended to be restricted 
to veins in igneous rocks ; and as regards their occurrence in metamorphic 
rocks, where they are not only immensely more numerous, but very much 
more important as bearing upon the nature of metamorphism itself, no such 
modes of explanation can meet the facts of the case. 

Putting out of consideration, meanwhile, the granitic bands or layers of 
hornblendic gneiss, and also the intrusive dykes which cut and ramify through- 
out them, we observe of these so-called contemporaneous veins, where they 
show themselves in their extraordinary development in the grey granite of 
Aberdeenshire, that they present three features which are unvarying : — 

First, — That though their course may be in the main tortuous or curving, 
it, if followed sufficiently far, will suddenly become angular and zig-zag ; as 
if, though the general solidity and cohesion of the rock mass was only such 
as to enable it to rend by tearing, it in certain of its parts was so rigid that 
it had been cracked or split. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 5 

Second, — The occurrence in the veins of fractured, and occasionally of 
apparently floating angular fragments of the rock, likewise points to an actual 
solidification of the rock previous to the disruption and envelopment of the 
fragments. 

Third, — The gradual increase in the size of the crystals which fill these 
veins as they approach the centres thereof, the frequent capping of the quartz 
crystals (a recognised proof of intermittent growth), and the fact that any free 
crystalline summits which may be present invariably point to these centres, 
show that a sudden injection from without, and consequent more or less uni- 
form and rapid cooling and solidification, could not be the manner in which 
the rents were filled. The relationship of the vein to the rock mass itself also 
negatives injection. There is no line of separation between the vein and the 
rock ; the granular structure of the rock is, in narrow space it is true, but 
still gradually augmented in size ; and this ampler crystalline structure of the 
vein seems to grow out of, to be rooted in the substance of the rock. 

The change of structure takes place within the space of an inch, but within 
no part of that inch can the stroke of a hammer effect a separation. 

The information conveyed by the hammer is indeed of a most instructive 
description. 

Granular though the structure of granite is, its grains do not lie in con- 
fused arrangement. It may not be to the smallest extent bedded in the 
quarry, though it generally is ; but granite has a perfect cleavage and cross 
cleavage, so determinate in their directions that the workmen speak of the 
bedding of even such quarries as present great faces of apparently perfectly 
continuous and unvarying rock. 

These cleavages result from a general polarity in the crystals of felspar, 
which have their axes, and hence their cleavages, lying in the main in one 
direction. Thus the quarryman by blow and cross blow cuts the rough 
paving stone, so as to leave himself only the narrower faces to " dress to 
square." 

But, inasmuch as the crystals of felspar which grow out of the rock to fill 
these exfiltrative veins do so at right angles to the sides of the vein, and as no 
one of the cleavages of felspar is at right angles to its main axis, the hammer 
blow cannot effect a separation throughout any part of the space wherein this 
rectangular riveting of the two structures is effected. 

It would be far from easy to adduce any evidence which could more 
conclusively show that the present contents of these veins had exuded from 
the rock mass itself; and it need hardly be noticed in this connection that 
these veins never contain a single mineral substance which is not to be found in 
the rock mass itself; though, in the latter, many of these substances are of 
difficult recognition from their comparatively very small magnitude. 

There is a fourth feature, moreover, which is not infrequent, namely, that 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. B 



6 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

the veins are cut by others. In one of the smaller openings of the granite 
quarry of Anguston this is admirably seen : here a darker shaded, finer grained, 
and narrower set of veins cuts others, which are wide, and which are paler in 
colour than the ordinary granular rock. 

The numberless quarries which pockmark Aberdeenshire afford unusual 
facilities for studying its " grey granite ; " such study, whenever entered upon, 
tends to the conclusion that the granite results from the metamorphism of the 
gneiss in which it is everywhere embosomed, and with which it is so intricately 
wrapped up. 

In this district the metamorphism appears to have taken place under three 
different sets of circumstances. 

In the first of these, — by what may be called a gradual incrementation of 
the granitic over the normal gneissic structure. 

In the second, — by an abrupt and, as read by the eye alone, an inexplicably 
sudden transition of the latter into the former. 

In the third, — by a general fading or softening away of the transmutible into 
the transmuted. 

Throughout the whole of the gneiss of central Scotland, and more especially 
in these districts where the rock exhibits the clearest marks of alteration, it is 
pervaded by granitic bands, which, there is reason to believe, have not un- 
frequently been considered to be intrusive or injected veins. 

That they are not so, but are merely the segregation of certain of the 
mineral constituents of the rock — like consorting with like— is evidenced by the 
following four facts. 

These bands or layers of felspathic and quartzy matter invariably follow 
implicitly every flexure of the rock (developed and disclosed by the adjacent 
micaceous layers), never cutting across these or branching to the smallest 
extent. They do not maintain anything of a uniform width, but repeatedly 
diminish and expand, in accordance with the abruptness or looseness of the 
folds into which the rock is thrown. Though highly felspathic, and often 
markedly crystalline, they exhibit unmistakably in some portion of their bulk 
a laminated arrangement of particles, which becomes more and more distinctly 
pronounced as it passes into the ordinary structure of the rock. The blow of 
a hammer recognises no point at which the two structures are of facile separa- 
tion ; the transition of the one into the other being so gradual that no two 
persons would agree as to the point where each terminates, — and a hand- 
breadth would not cover the debatable space. 

The ingredient of mica, moreover, is markedly deficient in these so-called 
granitic bands. 

I instance the north-east side of the hill of Scoltie, near Banchory, as a 
locality where such " veins " may be studied, specially in connection with the firs! 
of these changes ; because about a couple of miles north of this, in the railway 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON" THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 7 

cutting west of Banchory, this gneiss is becoming granitic through a regular 
increase in the number and in the volume of these granitic bands. Here also 
there is a marked change in the nature of the bands themselves ; they no longer 
exhibit the laminated structure, but are throughout their whole extent true 
granite of a uniform fine grain ; and although the hammer can still discover no 
line of separation, yet a finger's breadth will here cover the space through 
which the structures pass from one to the other.""" 

In following the line of railway to its next cutting, nearer to the Hill of 
Fare, the granitic bands will be seen progressively augumenting in width, and 
the gneissose bands dwindling to evanescence. 

For such as I have now described, and also for the more rectilinear modifica- 
tion thereof which occurs in hornblendic gneiss, I would propose the term 
bands of metamorphic segregation. 

The second mode of change is well seen in the quarries at Tillyfourie. 

The gneiss, which here presents bold features, — being highly contorted, 
broadly banded, the bands showing an abrupt contrast in their coloration, — 
passes into granite with an abruptness which is quite startling. 

There is not a trace of interstitial skin or intermediate mineral body ; most 
assuredly there has been no intrusion of the granite here,— the one rock ceases 
to be, and the other commences along no line which can be seen or felt ; there 
is no portion of space in which the one can be said to be in contact with the 
other : the continuity is everywhere unbroken, the material continuous, the eye 
alone appreciating a marked change of colour and of structure, for the openings 
between the folise of the gneiss suddenly cease to exist, but this they do not 
along a rectilinear but a wavering course. A hammer blow rends the rock in 
any direction, the line of fracture crossing the zone of changed structure at all 
angles, and the straight course of the fracture being uninfluenced in the so doing. 
The only modification of this structure is, that occasionally the dark mica of the 
granite has its plates disposed in arrangement somewhat parallel to the course 
of the transition, within the space of an inch or two from the unchanged rock. 

The third mode of change is seen in the several quarries of the Stony Hill 
of Nigg; here a fine-grained, plicated, and darkly-striped gneiss may be 
traced, with gradually fading layers, into a uniformly granular, dark grey 
granite. In many of the Aberdeenshire quarries, moreover, semiangular frag- 
ments, large and small, of the darker and more micaceous layers of the 
gneiss, are found imbedded, rounded in their outlines into kidney-form 
(" neres "), and darkening the granite in their immediate vicinity by a quantity 
of the black-mica (Haughtonite) which these " neres " contain. It would 

* While confounding these hands with " contemporaneous veins," Jameson saw clearly their marked 
features. He writes — "These veins do not present the slaty structure which is one of the discriminating 
characters of gneiss when it occurs in strata ; hence contemporaneous veins, filled with common granular, or 
what may be called granitic gneiss, have been confounded with true granite." Thereby meaning common or 
eruptive granite. 



8 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

appear that the plates of the black mica have been loosened from the surfaces 
of the neres, and have become impacted in the adjacent substance of the 
granite, but have remained unresolved into smaller crystals ; the metamorphism 
being arrested, or incomplete at these points. 

Of the metamorphism of this granite, however effected, the exfiltrative 
veins would appear to have been one of the last stages. 

How often the grey granite may have been depressed to the zone of 
metamorphism we cannot say, any more than we can how often the aquo- 
thermal agencies had to operate upon it ; but, during some one of the sub- 
sidations, it is rational to conceive of its having been rent by pressure, and 
that subsequently — perchance forthwith — the rents were filled up, not by any 
sudden injection from their open terminations, but by a process of tra?isfusion 
from all points of the surface of the rent, a transfusion of the plastic or soluble 
matter of the rock itself, — endosmose and exosmose exercising their resistless 
force. The resulting plug is thus — to use Jameson's words — "a secretion from 
the rock itself" 

Daubree's experiments have shown that in the presence of water a tem- 
perature of 400° C. sufficed for the alteration of silicates, — crystallisation 
of silica and of felspar, — or for the actual formation of the latter and of mica, 
through the action of alkaline silicates on argillaceous rocks. Considering the 
changes which would result from aquo-thermal action in the light of these 
experiments, and knowing that the repeated action of heated water upon the 
more highly siliceous rocks invariably results in the greater adhesion of water 
for the alkalies, — progressively abstracting them, to leave more and more 
highly-aluminous silicates, — it is not difficult to understand how the amount of 
mica in these exfiltrative or exudation veins should be in excess of its pro- 
portion in the parent rock. For, if the general mass of that rock be held in 
solution through aquo-thermal action, — or if not in actual solution, in a condi- 
tion favourable to chemical change, the rock upon solidification must yield a 
mass which is less alkaline as a whole ; and as in the case of granite it is the 
orthoclase which is the alkali-bearing mineral, it is this which would suffer loss. 
The resolidifying material, after the watery abstraction of some of the alkali, 
could no longer attain to the production of so much felspar, — some of which 
would be degraded, so to speak, into an increase of the amount of mica. 4 ' 

Now there is what may be called a physical-outcome of this change. 

In virtue of this abstraction of alkali from orthoclase, and consequent 
increase of free silica and formation of mica, there results the production of a 
less alterable, that is, a more enduring material ; and if it be the case that 
granite-veins contain more mica than does the rock which they intersect, these 
veins must necessarily be more enduring than the granite itself. 

* The alkali-charged waters are, however, potent, even at low temperatures, to change clay slates 
and argillaceous gneiss into granite, and so to extend the sphere of the metamorphism. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 9 

The protrusion of granite veins above the ordinary level of the rock — quite 
a familiar fact — may be partly clue to their less minutely granular, that is, less 
uniformly porous and loose-grained structure ; but the almost invariable pro- 
trusion of the plates of mica, even above the quartz, in granite veins, vouches 
unmistakably for the greater endurance which that mica must impart. 

The not unfrequent occurrence of loose blocks of large-grained granite 
in straight line across a heath-covered or grass-clad surface points also to 
a former vein, which had longer resisted the denudation due to atmospheric 
decay than had the inclosing rock. 

This is a subject which, as a whole, has certainly not engaged the amount 
of attention which it merits. Probably the following structures have to be dis- 
criminated, and have been more or less confounded with one another : — 

Ingredients same as those of the Rock-Mass itself. 

1. Plugging prc-existent Bents. 

Contemporaneous plugs of rents in igneous rocks 

intersect rock in curving and angular manner ; structure smaller than that of the rock- 
mass ; both branching and intersecting ; formed by sudden injection. 

Veins of exfiltration 

intersect rock in curving and angular manner ; structure larger than that of con- 
taining rock ; both branching and mutually intersecting ; formed by a single con- 
tinuous process. 

Metalliferous veins 

frequently intersect more than one rock-mass; generally rectilinear but angular ; struc- 
ture larger than that of containing rock ; branch, and cut rocks of different natures ; formed 
by intermittent actions, diverse in their natures, and markedly so in their products. 

2. Not filling prc-existent Bents. 

Bands of dominant crystalline action 

accordant with the floor or surface of igneous flow ; structure larger than that of contain- 
ing rock ; neither branching nor intersecting ; frequently spherulo-radiate in structure. 

Bands of metamorphic seggregation 

accordant with flexures of rock strata ; structure larger than that of containing rock ; 
neither branching nor intersecting ; of ever- varying thickness in plicated rocks. 

Veins of seggregation 

angular, and intersecting rock strata; structure larger or smaller than containing rock; 
both branching and intersecting ; generally accuminated at their terminations. 

Ingredients not the same as those of the Rock-Mass 

intersect more strata than one, in all directions and ways ; frequently branch and 
intersect each other. 

a. Granitic dykes, structure larger than including rock ; frequently fill faults. 

b. Trap dykes, structure smaller than including rock ; till rents. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. C 



10 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



MAKGARODITE. 

From Gneissose Hocks. 

1. From a stratum of kaolin which occurs at Mouwick, Lambhoga, Fetlar, 
Shetland. 

Kaolin is not found in many localities in Shetland, but when found it 
occurs in considerable quantities. Mouwick and Grunies' Geo in Fetlar, the 
burn of Tractagill, and the trough which runs north from Weesdale Hill are the 
chief localities. It has been in these islands used as a Fuller's-earth, and for 
white- washing houses. In all of the above localities it has a glistening appear- 
ance, which seems in all to be due to its containing, like that found at Mouwick, 
a quantity of minute scales of margarodite. Of this the kaolin of Mouwick 
yields to elutriative processes about one-fifth part. This margarodite has a faint 
yellow colour, a pearly lustre, and is very unctuous to the touch. It may by 
continued friction be reduced to very minute scales, but not to an absolutely 
impalpable powder like talc ; this is a physical mode of discrimination between 
these minerals. 

1 • 302 grammes of this margarodite yielded — 



Silica, 


•655 






From Alumina, 


•006 






661 = 


50- 


768 


Alumina, . 




31 


711 


Ferric Oxide, . 




1 


315 


Manganous Oxide 


'> 




23 


Lime, 






946 


Magnesia, 






■786 


Potash, 




5 


11 


Soda, 






•53 


Water, 




7-969 



99 • 347 



It absorbs ■ 89 per cent, of water. 

The " kaolin " also contains a quantity of grains of angular quartz. 



2. From Vanleep, Hillswick, Shetland. Occurs, associated with reddish 
coloured kyanite, in the quartz veins of a very micaceous gneiss ; it is imbedded 
along with ripidolite (?) in crystals, or crystalline plates, among the interlacing 
crystals of the kyanite 

Colour almost white, sometimes very pale greenish : lustre very high 
pearly, almost equal to talc. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



11 



Crystalline system the orthorhombic, form like muscovite,— optic axis in 
plane of longer diagonal of the crystal, — optic angle 67° 5'. 

A twin crystal, with two intersecting systems of rings, is in the author's 
possession. 

A small quantity was treated with sulphuric acid, and a similar quantity 
with hydrochloric. 

The sulphuric acid seemed rapidly to decompose the mineral, the silica 



rising in light clouds when stirred. 



The hydrochloric acid was rapidly turned yellow ; but, even after repeated 
evaporation with fresh quantities of acid, perfect decomposition could not be 
effected ; the mineral remaining as a heavy white powder. 

Specific gravity 2 • 825 ; H. 2 • 25. 

22 • 87 grains yielded — 



Silica, 


45-426 


Alumina, . 


29-652 


Ferric Oxide, 


8-328 


Manganous Oxide, 


•022 


Lime, 


•788 


Magnesia, . 


1-702 


Potash, 


6-94 


Soda, 


2-267 


"Water, 


5-293 



100-418 



Insoluble silica, 5 * 68 per cent. ; possible impurity, kyanite. 
Was examined under the supposition that it was Damourite. 



3. It is very probable that most of what has been regarded as talc-slate in 
the Highlands of Scotland will in almost all cases prove to be margarodite- 
slate, or other hydrated mica-slates. 

Hibbert mentions many such slates as occurring in the Shetlands. One, 
which he specially draws attention to, he says is to be found a little to the 
north of Vanleep in Hillswickness. He describes the pellicular form, brilliant 
pearly lustre, and remarkable unctuosity of the mineral to which the schistose 
character of the rock is due. He also notes the want of elasticity in the 
" pellicles." These pellicles were analysed specially to ascertain if so-called 
talc-slates were of the nature assigned to them in the name. 

The pellicles were picked from the more quartzy bands of the rock, as there 
they seemed always to be of increased size. 

They had little or no elasticity, but this I find to be not unusual with 
margarodite. 



12 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

18 • 5 grains yielded — 



Silica, 


45 • 421 


Alumina, . 


30-3 


Ferric Oxide, 


6-874 


Manganous Oxide, 


•816 


Lime, 


•6 


Magnesia, . 


2-6 


Potash, 


6-088 


Soda, 


2-01 


Fluorine, . 


1-06 


Water, 


5-011 



100-78 



4. From Botriphnie, Banffshire. Is the matrix of kyanite, in a specimen 
ticketed by Abraham Clark of Portsoy. 

Lustre very splendent, colour white ; appeared to be in six-sided plates. 
On 11-011 grains — 



Silica, 


45 • 103 


Alumina, . 


. 29-9 


Ferric Oxide, 


7-87 


Manganous Oxide, 


•031 


Lime, 


•62 


Magnesia, . 


.723 


Potash, 


7-836 


Soda, . 


2-556 


Water, 


5-512 


Fluorine, . 


tr. 




100-151 



Possible impurity, kyanite. 
Was thought Damourite. 



From Granular Limestone. 

5. Occurs in the limestone quarries in the balloch between Glenbucket and 
Glen Nochty, Aberdeenshire. 

Is associated with pyrite, pyrrhotite, rutile, and actynolite. Occurs in 
rosette groups of crystals ; colour white ; lustre silvery ; very much resembles 
talc,— for which it was taken, until the hardness was tested. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



13 



•141 grammes yielded — 






Silica, 


•505 




From Alumina, . 


•022 






•527 = 


46-18 


Alumina, . 




31-83 


Ferric Oxide, 




41 


Lime, 




1-66 


Magnesia, 




1-23 


Potash, 




8-81 


Soda, 




1-31 


Water, 




5 • 714 



100-834 

Absorbs - 2 per cent, of water ; possible impurity unknown. 

Loses its water at the temperature afforded by a Bunsen burner, — talc 
requires a blast furnace for its dehydration. 

Both the stratum of limestone which first shows itself on the coast of the 
Moray Firth, at Sandend, in Banffshire, and which passes up among the flags 
of the Vale of Deskford, Glen Rinnes and Strath Avon, cuts the high ground at 
Inchrory and Loch Bulg, and possibly reaches the low country through Glen 
Tilt, — and that which first appears at Boyne-mouth, coursing to the east of the 
quartzite and causing the ballochs of Glenbucket, Glen Nochty, Strath Earnan, 
and Tornahaish, afford this brilliant margarodite. Throughout it simulates 
talc, and has as its unfailing associate pyrrhotite, — less frequently rutile, and 
sahlite or actynolite. 

MARGAEODITE. 





Si. 


Al 2 . 


Fe 2 . 


Mil. 


Ca. 


Mg. 


K 2 . 


Na 2 . 


F. 


H 2 . 


Total. 
99-35 


Lamblioga, with Kaolin 


50-77 


31-71 


1-32 


•23 


•95 


•79 


5-11 


•53 




7-97 


Vanleep, Shetland, with Kyanite, 


4543 


29-65 


8-33 


•02 


•79 


1-7 


6-94 


2-27 




5-29 


100-42 


Vanleep, Shetland, with Quartz, . 


45-42 


30-30 


6-87 


•82 


■6 


2-6 


6-09 


2-01 


1-06 


5-01 


100-78 


Botriphnie, Banffshire, 


45-1 


29-9 


7-87 


•03 


•62 


•72 


7-84 


2-56 


tr. 


5-51 


100-15 


Glenbucket, Aberdeenshire, . 


46-18 


31-83 


4-1 




1-66 


1-23 


8-81 


1-31 




5-71 


100-83 



Black Micas. 

Most geological works enumerate among the constituents of certain granites 
and gneisses, — " a dark magnesian mica," — " a brownish-black magnesian 
mica," — or " a greenish-black magnesian mica," — as the case may be ; but 
do not specify what the mica is. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. D 



14 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

Mineralogical works, again, present us with three " dark magnesian-micas,'' 
— phlogopite, Biotite, lepidomelane. Mineralogical works, one and all, are 
unsatisfactory as regards the amount of information they convey as to the 
habitudes of minerals, — their lithological habitats. 

Phlogopite there is some precision as to ; it is said, to be " especially 
characteristic of serpentines, and crystalline limestone, or dolomite." Biotite, 
or the micas placed under that heading, would, on the authority of said works, 
appear to occur almost everywhere. Lepidomelane is given as occurring in 
syenite, granite, and quartzite. 

Dr Haughton has imported some precision into this question, as regards the 
dark granitic-mica, so far as Ireland is concerned ; but the conclusion he arrived 
at does not, singularly enough, apply to Scotland. And again, while I have 
not yet met with a single specimen of phlogopite in Scotland, I find that it 
must, as regards this country, be said of Biotite, and not of phlogopite, that it 
is " specially characteristic of crystalline limestones," seeing that, with the 
exception of margarodite, and it only rarely, I find no other mica in that 
rock. 

The dark magnesian mica, which, in Scotland, is specially characteristic of 
granites, will be shown to be a new, or at least an unrecognised species. 



PHLOGOPITE. 

I have not yet, by analysis, been able to show that phlogopite occurs in 
Scotland. 

The light-brown Biotite from the limestone of Shinness — the analysis of 
which is given below — is in appearance very similar to some foreign phlogo- 
pites ; but upon this proving to be Biotite, all resembling it which were not 
analysed were considered to be Biotite also. 

In specimens of granular limestone from the Vosges, there is a mica named 
phlogopite by Professor King, which is so similar to the limestone-mica of Glen 
Elg, that it is possible that the latter may prove to be this most highly magnesian 
species. It however occurs in so small an amount in the lime, that a spec ial 
visit to the locality could alone ensure a sufficiency for analysis. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



15 



BIOTITE. 



From Granular Limestone. 

1. The limestone, which is the near associate of the serpentine of Polmally, 
in Glen Urquhart, appears in greatest amount, at a height of 700 feet, in the 
hill above Milltown. The somewhat schistose gneiss, which here carries the 
lime, is thrown into endless and most intricate folds, which are laid bare in the 
numerous limestone quarries which are sprinkled over the hill-face ; several of 
these, and markedly the most northerly, show a peculiar granite vein or belt, 
which generally cuts but occasionally follows the bedding of the lime. This 
vein consists of little quartz, and much of a bluish white, opaque, fatty-lustered 
andesine, carrying imbedded crystalline plates of Biotite. 

Any associated minerals belong to the lime. 

The Biotite is in plates of an inch or more in size, of a dark pinchbeck brown 
colour, a shining lustre, sometimes somewhat greasy. 

Its specific gravity is 2 ■ 867. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 

Silica,. . . . -476 
From Alumina, . . -037 





•513 = 


38-692 


Alumina, . . 17*661 


Ferric Oxide, 






•255 


Ferrous Oxide, 






. 12 • 952 


Lime, 






1-163 


Magnesia, . 






17-538 


Potash, 






8-917 


Soda, 






•126 


Fluorine, . 






•522 


Water, 






2-137 



99-963 
Insoluble silica, 1 • 391 per cent. Possible impurity unknown. 
A similar vein in the large quarry carries, in addition to the above minerals, 

crystals of delicate green apatite, crystals of brown sphene, of grammatite, and 

of dark-green Allanite. 

2. Found in a quarry on the north side of the road about a mile east of 
Laggan Inn, Inverness-shire. 

The lime, which has a north-north-east and south-south-west trend, contains 
little else than a fine-grained chlorite, and this is immediately associated with 
the Biotite, which is usually imbedded in the former in thin plates of an inch or 
two in size. Its colour is bronzy. 



16 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



On 1 • 2 grammes — 

Silica, 

From Alumina, 



'458 
•016 



■474 



Alumina. . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Fluorine. 

Water, 



Insoluble silica, 2 • 531 per cent. Possible impurity, chlorite. 



39 


5 


15 


036 




244 


10 


229 




75 


1 


4 


18 


461 


9 


366 




618 




73 


3 


214 


QQ 


K*a 



3. From the limestone at Shinness, Sutherland. Biotite, similar in appearance 
to the last, is to be seen rarely at this locality. More frequently it occurs 
in dark-brown almost black plates which sheathe sahlite, and still more fre- 
quently in the form which was chosen for the analysis, — namely, in small 
crystals superimposed on one another, so as to present a foliaceous structure. 

It was in immediate association with sahlite and brown sphene. 

The crystals were of a light greyish-brown colour, and a greasy lustre ; they 
were suspected to be phlogopite. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 

From Alumina, 



■513 
004 



517 



Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



Insoluble silica, 1 ■ 74 per cent. Possible impurity, sahlite or sphene 



39 


769 


16 


•676 




■653 


6 


•73 




•615 


2 


•196 


20 


923 


6 


•5 




•476 


5 


•398 


99 


936 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



17 



4. From granular limestone at Glen Beg, Glen Elg. 

At about one-fourth of a mile to the north-east of the hamlet of Balvraid, 
the limestone contains Biotite (in association with the hydrated labradorite— 
noticed in Chap. II. of this series), necronite, and balvraidite. 

The mineral is generally immediately in association with the balvraidite. 

Its colour is rich chocolate brown, its lustre brilliant. 

1 • 28 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . 

Alumina, 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, 

Manganous Oxide 

Lime, . 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, . 

Fluorine, 

Water, 



39 


46 


16 


45 




39 


10 






53 


1 


59 


19 




8 


•22 




•26 




•32 


3 


•34 



99-56 



Possible impurity, balvraidite. 



From Hornblendic and Serpentinous Rocks. 

5. Hornblendic gneiss, highly contorted and fractured, occurs in the pen- 
insula of Hillswick, in Shetland. 

At the point called the banks {i.e., shores) of Nudista, a bed — simulating a 
vein of precious serpentine — protrudes, just north of the spot where these 
" banks " rise into rocky cliffs. 

This bed is in contact on the south with one of matted anthophyllite ; while 
it carries, partly in its centre and partly on the side opposite to the antho- 
phyllite, another consisting of actynolite with a matrix of snow-white talc ; 
this latter, in passing shorewards, loses the actynolite, and gradually merges 
into a soft talc-chlorite, as it reaches and passes beneath high-water mark. 

Just about this point a considerable portion of the bed — here almost pulpy 
from absorbed water — consists of Biotite. 

It is in a very loose and incoherent state, much resembling a friable talc. 

Its colour is bronzy brown ; it is translucent in thin fragments. 

The scales fall asunder in water, so that the specific gravity could not be 
determined. 

1'657 grammes gave — 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. E 



18 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



Silica, 


•634 






From Alumina, 


•026 








•660 


== 


39 • 803 


Alumina, 






14-185 


Ferric Oxide, 






2-594 


Ferrous Oxide, 


11*373, 11 


748, 


11-578 


Manganous Oxide, 




•24 


Lime, . 






•097 


Magnesia, 






18-32 


Potash, . 




m 


8-43 


Soda, . 


• . ■ 


. 


2-11 


Fluorine, 






•56 


Water, . 






2-52 




100-437 



7 " 905 per cent, of the silica were insoluble ; possible impurity unknown. 
The larger than normal quantity of soda was, doubtless, due to marine submer- 
gence. In the larger quantity of ferric oxide which replaces alumina this 
Biotite differs from the others. 

From Edenitic Rock. 

6. At a turn of the road a little south-east of the Free Church of Milltown, 
Glen Urquhart, the serpentine appears at the surface, and here there is a 
small quantity of a very peculiar rock. 

This is composed of large pale-green crystals of edenite, of the form of 
actynolite ; these are bedded in a mass of plicated crystals of what has more 
resemblance to talc than to Biotite ; their usual colours being a very pale green, 
little removed from white, and they are devoid of elasticity. As accessories, 
there occur thick veins of hydrous-anthophyllite, thinner ones of fibrous 
Wollastonite, garnet with imbedded zircons, and crystalline granules of a new 
mineral resembling chondrodite in appearance. This talc-like Biotite is 
unusually soft, softer indeed than the nail ; its specific gravity is 2781 : occasion- 
ally it passes into flat and elastic plates of a rich brown colour, and high lustre. 

The imle-coloured yielded on l - 3 grammes — - 



Silica, . . . • 51 




From Alumina, . ■ 005 




• 524 40 • 307 


Alumina, 


. 12-582 


Ferric Oxide, 


.' 1-809 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 3-335 


Manganous Oxide, 


•384 


Lime, 


. 7-581 


Magnesia, . 


. 21- 


Potash, 


. 6-561 


Soda, 


•953 


Water, 


. 5 • 738 



100-25 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



19 



Loss in bath -454 per cent. 

The amount of iron only was determined in the dark brown plates ; these 
contained of ferric oxide 4-913, and of ferrous oxide 19*802 per cent, this 
large amount replacing lime and magnesia. 

The large amount of lime in the pale variety is singular, taken in connection 
with the small amount of that earth contained in the Biotite found in limestone 
from a near-adjacent quarry. (See analysis No. 1.) 

Biotite. 



Glen Urquhart, 


S.G. 


Si. 


Al 2 . 


Fe.,. 


Fe. 


Mn. 


Ca 


Mg. 


K 2 . 


Na 2 . 


F. 


Ho. 


Total. 
99-96 


2-867 


38-69 


17-66 


•25 


12-95 




1-16 


17-54 


8-92 


•13 


•52 


2-14 


Laggan, 




39-5 


15-04 


•24 


10-23 


75 


1-4 


18-46 


9-37 


•62 


73 


3-21 


99-55 


Shinness, 




3977 


16-68 


•65 


673 


•62 


2-2 


20-92 


6-5 


•48 




5-4 


99-95 


Glen Beg, 


2-85 


39-46 


16-45 


■39 


lO- 


■53 


1-59 


19- 


8-22 


•26 


■32 


3-34 


99-56 


Hills wick, . 




39-8 


14-19 


2-59 


ll -58 


•24 


•1 


18-32 


8-43 


2-11 


■56 


2-52 


100-44 


Milltown, Urquhart 


2781 


40-31 

1 


12-58 


1-81 


3-35 


•38 


7-58 


21- 


6-56 


•95 




574 


100-25 



The latest published analyses of Biotite show that the iron is almost totally 
in the state of protoxide, and the above analyses put the matter beyond doubt. 

The above Biotites were optically uniaxial, or biaxial to a very small 
extent — 1° to 2°. 



LEPIDOMELANE. 



From Gneiss. 

1. This mica — which Haughton has the credit of first introducing as British, 
if not of firmly establishing as a species — I have only found in Scotland at two 
localities. The first is near the north shore of Loch Shin, in Sutherland. 

Not a little of the gneiss of central Sutherland is, in this neighbourhood, horn- 
blendic. A bed of hornblendic rock occurs immediately over the limestone of 
Shinness, like it, with a northerly dip ; to the north, and superior to this, again, 
a hornblendic gneiss stretches west and east for several miles. 

The country is for the most part covered, but the rock has been exposed 
here and again in the drain cuttings made in connection with the great 
improvements at present being undertaken by His Grace the Duke of 
Sutherland. 



20 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



Masses of rock, raised on the farm of Achadhaphriz, contained, imbedded 
in a felspathic and hornblendic base, crystals of sphene, very rarely of rutile, 
more commonly of apatite, and plates of from two to three inches in length of 
lepidomelane. 

Colour yellowish brown to chocolate brown. Easily cleavable, but only in 
small pieces, being brittle ; slightly biaxial ; of a muddy yellow-brown by trans- 
mitted light. 

Reduced to powder with comparative ease. Specific gravity, average of 
three pieces, 2 • 971. 

On 1 • 3 grammes — 



Silica, 


•51 




From Alumina, 


•015 






•525 = 


= 40 • 384 


Alumina, 




. 12-11 


Ferric Oxide, 




. 14-523 


Ferrous Oxide, 




. 3-03 


Manganous Oxide, 


. 3 • 146 


Lime, 




. 1-033 


Magnesia, 




. 13- 


Potash, 




. 7-128 


Soda, 




. 1-801 


Water, 




. 3-567 



99-722 



Insoluble silica, 2 ■ 856 per cent. ; possible impurity unknown. 
The " glass " formed by the fusion of the mineral with Fresenius flux is of 
a very dark, almost black, colour. 



From Exfiltration Veins in Granite, 

2. Is one of the numerous minerals which accompany the Amazonstone 
in the vein in the " syenetic " granite, a boulder of which was found on Ben 
Bhreck, Tongue, as described in Chap. II. The lepidomelane was found in 
considerable quantity, in plates of an inch or two in size. 

The appearance was very similar to the last. The colour was of a deep 
rich brown ; it cleaves into somewhat larger folias than does the mineral from 
Achadhaphriz, these foliae are almost opaque, slightly biaxial, and crush with 
ease. Specific gravity, 2 ■ 965. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



21 



• 3 grammes yielded — ' 






Silica, 


•511 




From Alumina, 


•01 






•521 


= 40 • 076 


Alumina, 


. 


. 12-408 


Ferric Oxide, 


. 


. 13-474 


Ferrous Oxide, 




. 2-668 


Manganous Oxide, 


•615 


Lime, 




. 1-076 


Magnesia, 




. 14-661 


Potash, 




. 7-57 


Soda, 




. 2-153 


Water, 




. 5-293 



99-994 

Loss in bath none ; insoluble silica, 2 * 879 per cent, 
same pitchy blackness as that from the last locality. 



The " glass " is of the 









Lepidomelane. 
















S.G. 


Si. 


Al 2 . 


Fe 2 . 


Ffl. 


Mn. 


Ca. 


Mg. 


K 2 . 


Na 2 . 


H 2 . 


Total. 

9972 
99-99 


AcbacLhaphriz, 
Tongue, 


2-971 

2-965 


40-38 
40-08 


12-11 
12-41 


14-53 
13-47 


3-03 
2-67 


315 

•62 


1-03 
1-08 


13- 
14-66 


7-13 

7-57 


1-8 
2-15 


3-57 
5-29 



HAUGHTONITE. 



From Dykes in Hornblendic Gneiss. 

Lepidomelane — the ordinary black mica of the granites of Ireland — has 
been shown to be extremely rare in Scotland. There is another black, 
indeed much blacker mica, which is extremely common ; this, however, 
is a perfectly different, in fact an unrecognised, if not an altogether new 
mineral. 

I give the occurrence, description, and analyses first, and consider the 
question of specific-individuality later. 

Two huge vertical granitic dykes cut the north-eastern foot of the great 
hill of Eoneval in Harris ; the most southerly of these runs from Loch Finsbay 
through the hill, striking towards the west shore ; the other is seen half-way 
between this and Scuir Kuidh. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. F 



22 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



The white orthoclase of these veins is plentifully studded with crystalline 
masses of magnetite, and intersected by large plates of a dark brown-black 
mica, which are disposed more or less parallel to the sides of the vein, so as to 
exhibit only their edges on its glaciated section. 

These edges are frequently eight to ten inches in length ; some, measured 
by my confrere Mr Dudgeon and myself, were fifteen and sixteen. This mica 
splits readily into plates of considerable size, being tough, and not brittle like 
those of lepidomelane. 

The plates transmit light of a dark brown-black colour, and are slightly 
biaxial. The mineral is powdered with extreme difficulty ; the powder is black, 
with a slight shade of green. 

The specific gravity is 3 * 03. 

1 • 34 grammes gave — 



Silica, 

From Alumina, 



•486 
•012 



•498 = 



Alumina, 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, 

Manganous Oxide 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



37 


164 


. 15 


006 


. 7 


•689 


. 17 


353 


. 1 


•044 


. 1 


128 


. 8 


•88 


. 8 


•18 


. 1 


605 


. 2 


121 


100- 


16 



The specimen seemed absolutely pure. The glass was of a light olive 
brown colour over the Bunsen ; of a light blue after having been subjected 
to the heat of the blast furnace. 

The state of the oxidation of the iron and its quantity were twice deter- 
mined, — on both occasions by the action of calcium fluoride * and sulphuric 
acid, — a stream of carbonic acid being passed, during the whole process, through 
the apparatus. 

On the first occasion 1178 grammes yielded of ferrous oxide, 17 • 26 
per cent; on the second -172 grammes yielded of ferrous oxide, 17-443 
per cent. 

* My assistant, Mr Dalziel, finds it advisable to use a mixture of potassium fluoride and calcium 
fluoride — the former being in excess. Less calcium sulphate is thus formed, and the platinum crucible 
is more speedily emptied of its contents. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



23 



In the ascertaining the percentage of water, it was found that the heat of 
the Bunsen produced no change of colour or of molecular state ; the heat of 
the blast, however, caused some agglutination. 

1 • 499 grammes lost ■ 022 in water-bath ; over the Bunsen for two hours, 
lost -0238; over the blast for a quarter of an hour, -0318. The water is, 
therefore, retained with extreme tenacity. 



2. From the great vein of Ben Capval. 

Though this vein and those parallel to it, which cut the strata on the 
south shore of Harris between the Toehead promontory and Huishinish House, 
afford this mica, it occurs in these north and south veins in such very small 
quantities as to constitute a marked point of distinction between them and 
the radiating veins which intersect Roneval and the adjacent country. 

Towards its northern extremity, the Capval vein afforded a sufficiency for 
analysis. The crystals here are of only an inch or two in size, elongated 
and diverging, jet black, rarely slightly rusty. They are biaxial to a small 
extent. 

Their specific gravity is 3 • 071. 

25 grains yielded — 



Silica, 

Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



36 


806 


15 


■22 


7 


•611 


17 


353 




96 


1 


•54 


8 


•784 


8 


•31 


1 


342 


2 


•47 


100 


•396 



Possible impurity unknown. 



3. From Loch Roag, Lewis. 

The road which passes along the north shore of Loch Roag skirts a small 
fresh-water lake called Loch-na-Muilne. 

Granitic veins cut the gneiss on its northern banks, and in these and in 
similar veins in the cliffs, and in the highest knoll which is to be seen to the 
north-west, the mineral is to be found in plates of an inch or two in size. I is 
associated with pinkish orthoclase, pale blue oligoclase, fatty quartz, and occa- 
sionally hornblende. Its colour is dark brown to black. 



24 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



1 • 3 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . 

From Alumina, 



468 
006 



474 = 



Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, . 

Water, 



Loss in bath, ■ 325. 

4. From Foinaven in Sutherland. The mineral occurs in bundles of inter- 
locking plates, imbedded in great veins, at a height of 750 feet, on the west slope 
of the hill. The associates are large crystals of orthoclase, and oligoclase. The 
Haughtonite is here jet black in colour, and of an extremely brilliant lustre. 

It seemed to be in hexagonal crystals. 

Its specific gravity is 3 • 032. 

1 • 2 grammes yielded — 



36 


461 


17 


253 


4 


18 


15 


325 




•538 




689 


12 


23 


9 


204 




657 


3 


385 


99 


922 



Silica, 

From Alumina, 



428 



441 = 



Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, . 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



Loses ' 967 per cent, of water in the bath. It is reduced to powder with 
extreme difficulty. 

5. From Rispond, Sutherlandshire. The mass of graphic granite which 
occurs in the gneiss at the north side of Rispond harbour has been described 
in Chap. II. 



36 


75 


17 


858 


2 


781 


15 


175 




•416 




•933 


11 


•166 


9 


■437 


1 


•247 


4 


232 


99 


•995 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 25 

The other associates of the Haughtonite are here oligoclase and magnetite. 

The crystalline plates are here generally of only an inch or so in size ; 
occasionally, however, they are much larger. They are of a deep black colour. 
AH other characters and reactions agree with those of the Roneval mineral. 

The specific gravity is 2 ' 99. 

1 • 3 grammes gave — 



Silica, 


•457 


From Alumina, 


•028 




•475 


Alumina, . 




Ferric Oxide, 




Ferrous Oxide, . 




Manganous Oxide, 


. 


Lime, 




Magnesia, 




Potash, 


. 


Soda, 


. 


Water, 


, 



36 


•538 


22 


•282 


2 


433 


16 


009 




•784 


1 


•249 


10 




8 


•264 




•794 


1 


•506 


99 


856 



Insoluble silica, 3 ■ 791 per cent. Possible impurity, oligoclase. 



From Micaceous Gneiss. 

6. The gneiss of the hill of Clach-an-Eoin (Yone), situated between the 
mouths of the Navir and the Borgie, in Sutherland, exhibits on its glaciated 
front a peculiarity of structure which I have not seen described. In feeble, 
comparatively very feeble development, something of the same kind is to be 
seen in the gneiss of Boggierow quarry near Portsoy,— at Strath Virick Bridge, 
near Arguish, — and at Innisbae, on the Dirrymore road in Eoss-shire. 

At the first, and possibly also at the second of these localities, the structure 
may be regarded as a mere modification, or a badly-developed instance of 
porphyritic arrangement in the felspathic portion of the stone. At Boggierow 
the crystals of the felspar, if crystals they be, are devoid of all edges and 
angles, appearing rather as kernels or nodules, of some half inch or so in size. 
Of these there is here no definite arrangement whatever,- — they are pro- 
miscuously scattered throughout the mass. 

As regards the size and want of angularity of the felspathic portions of the 
Innisbae rock, the above also holds ; but there is here no promiscuous scattering 
— no absence of arrangement. These felspathic kernels lie in regular layers 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. G 



26 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

accordant with the micaceous lamination of the rock, following obediently that 
lamination where it has been crumpled * 

This approaches, though it does not come up to, — it resembles, though it is 
really different from what is to be seen at Clach-.an-Eoin. 

The study of the Boggierow rock leaves the impression that the felspathic 
portion had attempted to arrange itself as crystals, or had been crystals, 
porphyritically disposed. Such a conclusion will hardly apply to the Innisbae 
rock ; the felspathic matter is certainly not porphyritically disposed when it is 
confined to a regular arrangement in layers ; and such a conclusion certainly 
will not apply at all to what obtains at the northern locality. First, it will not 
apply in size; the individual collections of felspathic matter, to which inches 
applied at the other localities, are here of the dimensions of feet and yards. 
Second, it will not apply as to internal structure ; a certain amount of rough 
cleavage which is to be obtained in the first cases showed that each — all being 
much of a size — was to be regarded as an individual mass, of which the 
components were its molecules ; here nothing like cleavage is to be got ; the 
components are crystals, granules, plates, promiscuously agglutinated, and 
forming masses of greatly varying size. Thirdly, it cannot apply as to shape ; 
there is here no trace of geometric form, for the masses are lenticular. 

The strike of the rock is north by east and south by west ; it stands nearly 
vertical ; its bedding is well shown by the parallel disposition of its layers 
of black mica ; it is singularly free from all plication ; but, between the 
bedding of its mica sheets, there occur in marked abundance, but at quite 
irregular distances, parallel arrangements of the segregated felspar of the 
rock, disposed like the glands on a duct, or ganglia on a nerve, the enlarge- 
ments being of ever- varying size. 

In one respect the comparison with ganglia on a nerve is not satisfactory; the 
felspathic bands are generally not continuous, but the juxtaposition of the two 
micaceous layers which lately sheathed what I have represented under the 
figure of ganglionic enlargements, leads, in straight course, to the next, and 
not far separated lenticular mass. 

There can be little room for doubt that this is a modified development of 
that segregatory process in virtue of which the felspathic material of gneissose 
rocks so frequently arranges itself in layers or bands. As these bands consist of 
a material more plastic than the less fusible quartz and mica, they are, in the 
ordinary case, when plicated, thinned off to nothing at the more compressed 
flexures, only to re-appear in ampler development among the loosened or more 
drooping folds. But at Clach-an-Eoin we have no plications to compress or 

* Something very close to this is given by Cotta as his description of typical porphyritic gneiss, — " In the 
otherwise uniform schistose mass there occur at intervals large egg-shaped crystals of orthoclase (sometimes 
amorphous), round which the foliated texture bends itself with a wavy sweep." Ruskin, in treating of the rock- 
Ktructure of the Alps, gives an admiral >le drawing of such gneiss. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 27 

loosen ; and the portions of the rock where the felspar thins off are actually the 
least compressed of the whole. This is seen by the opening out of the micaceous 
layers there, and in the immediate vicinity. 

Can it be that the metamorphism — for it is a district of considerable though 
not extreme metamorphism — has rendered the more fusible material so plastic 
that cohesion has here been tugging hard to cause it to assume actually a 
spherical form, and has been baffled only by gravitation (acting before the 
rock was tilted), which flattened out the sphere into a lens-like shape, — or 
rather retained in a lens-like shape, that which without its action would, 
through the operation of cohesion, have assumed the form of a sphere 1 

But the description is as yet faulty. I have used the recognised geological 
term " lenticular " as the adjective altogether most applicable — but the relative 
proportions of these masses, which vary from the size of a goose's egg to that of a 
grampus, is a length about twice as great as their breadth. As they, however, 
thin away also somewhat as they merge into their connecting band, they present 
in section an appearance so similar to that of an eye, that it appeared to my 
fellow-workers, Dr Joass and Mr Dudgeon, that it would be most fitting that 
we should, meanwhile, designate what I have described as an occulitic structure. 

The black mica, which so clearly defines the rock layers, is here Haughtonite. 

Towards the north-east cliff of the hill it is to be found in plates of some 
inches in size ; these plates protrude edgeways from the quartz veins of the 
rock, are much weather-worn, and have the colour and lustre of tarnished metal- 
lic lead. They are associated with garnet, rutile, ilmenite, and chlorite. 

The colour of their cleavage surfaces is clove-brown ; red-brown by trans- 
mitted light , they are uniaxial, or very-slightly biaxial. 

Specific gravity (average of three specims), = 2 • 96. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded— 



Silica, 


•453 




From Alumina, . 


•013 






• 466 = 


= 35 • 846 


Alumina, . 




. 21-539 


Ferric Oxide, 




4-467 


Ferrous Oxide, . 




. 18-306 


Manganous Oxide 


) • 


•307 


Lime, 




. 1 ■ 249 


Magnesia, . 




. 8-076 


Potash, 




. 7-759 


Soda, 




•794 


Water, 




. 1 • 956 



100-299 
[nsoluble silica, 3 ■ 648 per cent. ; possible impurity, quartz. 



28 



TROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



From Intrusive Veins in Gneiss. 

7. The following specimen was found by Mr James Wilson of the Geological 
Survey, and I examined it at Professor Geikie's request. 

It was imbedded in a very pale lavender almost white orthoclase, which 
forms a vein which in a semicircular curve cuts the schists to the north of the 
Kinnaird Head lighthouse. 

The orthoclase is interesting not only from its rare colour, but also from its 
showing in an unusually distinct manner, the structure described by me in my 
paper on the felspars, — it is probably Descloizeaux' microline. 

Radiated cleavlandite is imbedded in bundles of divergent crystals at the 
surfaces of the orthoclase ; its colour is the same, or somewhat paler. 

The mica is in folise of half an inch in size. It is black in mass, but when 
cleaved thin it has a fine, dark, grass-green colour. It is very slightly biaxial. 
It powdered with unusual facility, being brittle. Its specific gravity is 3 • 126. 

1 ' 2 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . 
From Alumina, 



■42 

008 



•428 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, 
Soda, . 
Water, 



35 


666 


17 


947 


7 


191 


18 


063 


2 




1 


4 


1 


5 


9 


273 


3 


81 


3 


■2 


100 


•05 



The portion examined seemed quite pure : the possible impurity was the 
felspar, in which it was imbedded. 

This specimen is remarkable on account of the small quantity of magnesia 
which is present. 



From Intrusive (?) Veins in Granite. 

8. From the granite quarry of Cove, Kincardineshire. Occurs in veins, in 
elongated crystals, which lie frequently imbedded in and parallel to the 



PROFESSOR IIEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



29 



longer diagonal of crystals of muscovite. It calls for the exercise of some 
force to separate the plates of the two micas. This is somewhat singular, 
seeing that they are so seldom associated even in the same rock, not to say 
locality. 

Colour very dark brown. Uniaxial, or axial divergence small. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded— 



Silica, 


■431 




From Alumina, . 


03 






•461 30-409 


Alumina, . 




. 18-798 


Ferric Oxide, 




. 4-611 


Ferrous Oxide, . 




. 19-188 


Manganous Oxide 




•643 


Lime, 




•904 


Magnesia, . 




. 7-007 


Potash, 




. 8-188 


Soda, 




•238 


Water, 




. 4-97 




100-016 



Possible impurity, muscovite. 

The " glass " of this mineral was of a dingy green colour, slightly tinged with 
yellow. 

The state of the oxidation and quantity of the iron was twice determined. 
First on ■ 4 grammes by hydrochloric acid and fluorspar ; secondly, on ' 1407 
grammes by sulphuric acid and fluorspar, yielding identically the same amount. 



From Exjiltration Veins in Granite. 



9. A mass of fine-grained granite occurs on the west shore of Harris, 
opposite to Taransay, forming a point of land which lies intermediate between 
Nishibost and Borve. 

This granite has many veins, plentifully studded with jet black crystals of 
this mica. 

These crystals are here some inches in size, of somewhat unusual hardness, 
and of high lustre. 

They are seemingly of great purity, though occasionally coated with a loose 
ochrey rust. 

They are biaxial to the extent of 2° to 3°. Their gravity is 3 • 05. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. H 



30 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



1 ' 3 grammes yielded — 




Silica, . . . -4AI 




From Alumina, . • 01$ 


j 


•457 35-154 


Alumina, . 


. 16-704 


Ferric Oxide, 


. 5-961 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 19-063 


Manganous Oxide, 


. 1-016 


Lime, 


•818 


Magnesia, . 


. 7-461 


Potash, 


. 9 • 243 


Soda, 


. 1-259 


Water, 


. 3-133 



Possible impurity unknown. 

From Exfiltration Veins in Syenitic Granite. 

10. From an exfiltration vein in the so-called syenitic granite of Cnoc-dubh, 
about a mile east of Lairg, Sutherland. 

The associated minerals in this vein are quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, sphene, 
and Allanite. Colour dark green. Lustre greasy. No plate large enough and 
transparent enough to determine the optical properties could be got ; nor 
could a portion large enough for determining the specific gravity be found. 

On 72 grammes — 



Silica, 


•245 


From Alumina, . 


•on 






•256 35-555 


Alumina, . 




. 16 • 694 


Ferric Oxide, 




. 1 • 883 


Ferrous Oxide, 




. 18-037 


Manganous Oxide, 


•694 


Lime, 




. 2 • 722 


Magnesia, 




. 8 • 472 


Potash, 




. 9-896 


Soda, 




• 105 


Water, 




. 5-714 



99-772 

Insoluble silica, 10 ' 546 per cent. No fluorine ; possible impurity, ortho- 
or oligoclase. Some lighter-green plates had a slight appearance of decom- 
position. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



31 



From Dior tie. 

11. For long I had fruitlessly endeavoured to procure specimens such as 
could be analysed of the black mica which occurs throughout the dioritic rocks 
of Banffshire, in some localities sparsely, in others in large amount. 

In the summer of 1878, along with Mr Peyton, lately of Portsoy, I, how- 
ever, by the merest chance obtained, on the west shore of the Bay of the Durn, 
a large mass thereof, consisting of interplated crystals : it apparently formed 
a part of a vein ; it was attached to diorite, and passed somewhat into it. 

The colour was brown, somewhat bronzy ; the crystals, of about half an inch 
in size, were twisted among each other, and so had a glimmering, somewhat 
greasy lustre. Specific gravity 3 • 074. 

On 1 • 3 grammes — 



Silica, . . . -425 






From Alumina, . . '018 




•443 s= 


34 


076 


Alumina, . 


17 


339 


Ferric Oxide, 


3 


613 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


18 


703 


Manganous Oxide, 




384 


Lime, 


. 3 


•23 


Magnesia, k 


10 


538 


Potash, 


6 


78 


Soda, . 


1- 


193 


Water, 


4-052 



99 • 905 



Loss in bath, • 217 per cent. 



12. The next specimens differ from the foregoing in containing more 
magnesia. They were obtained out of a granitic mass which lay on the south 
side of the road which runs along the side of Loch Stack, Sutherland. The 
mass lay towards the west end of the loch ; it appeared to have fallen from 
the cliff on the north side of Ben Stack, but whether it was from an in- 
trusive vein or from a band of metamorphic segregation could not be ascer- 
tained ; it had much of the appearance of the former. 

It was in plates of some inches in size ; colour, brownish black ; greenish on 
being crushed ; lustre not very high. 

The only associates were the quartz and felspar of the granitic vein. Specific 
gravity, 3" 05. 



32 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



1 • 3 grammes yielded— 






Silica, 


•445 




From Alumina, . 


•019 






•464 = 


3.5 • 692 


Alumina, . 




. 20-086 


Ferric Oxide, . 




. 2-233 


Ferrous Oxide, . 




14-011 


Manganous Oxide 


; • « 


1- 


Lime, 




1-895 


Magnesia, . 




14-769 


Potash, 




7-381 


Soda, 




•529 


Water, 




2-465 



100-058 
Insoluble silica, 3 • 448 per cent. Possible impurity, quartz ; no fluorine. 
These micas were not all examined for fluorine, but it was not found in any 
ot those which were examined. 

HAUGHTONITE. 



Roneval, 

Capval, 

Loch-na-Muiine, 

Foinaven, 

Rispond, 

Clach-an-Eoin, 

Kinnaird Head, 

Cove, 

Nishibost, 

La irg, • 
Portsoy, 
Ben Stack, 



S. G. 



3-03 
3-07 

3-03 
2-99 
2-96 
3-13 

3-05 

3-07 
3-05 



st 



37-16 
36-81 
36-46 
3675 
36-54 
35-85 
35-67 
35-47 
35-15 
35-56 
34-08 
35-69 



Al, 



15- 

15-22 

17-25 

17-86 

22-28 

21-54 

17-95 

18-8 

16-7 

16-69 

17 34 

20-09 



Fe, 



7-69 
7-61 
4-18 
2-78 
2-43 
4-48 
7-19 
4-61 
5-96 
1-88 
3-61 
2-23 



Fe. 



17-35 
17-35 
15-33 
15-18 
16-01 
18-31 
18-06 
19-19 
19-06 
18-04 
18-70 
14-01 



Mn. 

04 
96 
54 

'42 
78 
'31 

•64 
02 
•69 

'38 



Ca. 

3 

.04 

69 

•93 

'25 

'25 

4 

9 

82 

72 

■23 

89 



Mg 



8-78 

12-23 

11-17 

10- 

8-08 

1-5 

7-01 

7-46 

8-47 

10-54 

14-77 



K,. 



8-18 

8-31 

9-2 

9-44 

8-26 

7-76 

9-27 

8-19 

9-24 

9-9 

6-78 

7-38 



Na, 



1-6 
1-34 

•66 
1-25 

•79 

•79 
3-81 

•24 
1-26 

•11 
1-19 

•53 



2-12 

2-47 

3-39 

4-23 

1-51 

1-96 

3-2 

4-97 

3-13 

571 

4-05 

2-47 



Total. 

100-17 

100-40 

99-92 

99-99 

99-86 

100-33 

100-05 

100-02 

99-81 

99-77 

99-9 

100-06 



The two micas which follow, though probably belonging to the same species 
are, on account of their differing somewhat from the others, meanwhile placed 
apart. 

13. The first occurs on the west coast of Sutherland, about a mile and a- 
halt south of the lighthouse at Cape Wrath. 

In two of the small indentations of the coast, beds of the red conglomerate 
are to be seen covering the tilted strata of the hornblendic gneiss. The more 
southerly of these little bays may be additionally recognised by several striking 
granitic veins which intersect the dark hornblendic rock. On the north side of 
an indentation immediately to the south of this, a bronzy mica is to be found, 
plentifully interspersed in a brownish white felspar (oligoclase). 

Its physical characters are the same as those of the micas already noted- 
it is . m rich dark-brown crystals of an inch in size. It seemed slightly altered 
at the edges, but these were cut away from the portions analysed ; still from 



PROFESSOK HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



33 



the loose state of the rock I conceive that alteration and peroxidation may 
have extended to the centre of the crystals, and that specimens from a greater 
depth will altogether accord with Haughtonite. 

Its sole associate was the felspar. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded— 

Silica, . . . . -44 
From Alumina, . . -004 



•444 


= 34-153 


Alumina, . 


. 14-837 


Ferric Oxide, 


. 10-961 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 13-474 


Manganous Oxide, 


. 1 • 384 


Lime, 


. 1 • 809 


Magnesia, . 


. 10-307 


Potash, 


. 7 • 93 


Soda, 


. 2-136 


Water, 


. 2-8 



99-971 

14. The following does not accord with the others as regards the quantity of 
alumina, which is here much larger ; in other respects it seems the same. It 
occurs in comparatively small amount on the southern slopes of the hill of 
Clashnaree, in Clova, Aberdeenshire. 

It is associated with red andalusite, labradorite, fibrolite, and margarodite, 
which minerals occur not in veins, but in layers or bands of the rock. The 
mica is of a brilliant lustre, and a bronzy-brown colour. A sufficiency for 
analysis was got with much difficulty, and it may not have been altogether free 
from gaugue, and possibly also from labradorite. 

1 • 2 grammes yielded — 

Silica,. . . . -448 
From Alumina, . . -02 



'468 = 



Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



39 




25 


096 


6 


514 


9 


801 




666 




933 


6 


166 


7 


084 


1 


626 


3 


466 


1C0 


332 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



34 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



BLACK MICAS. 





bi. 


Al 2 . 


Fe 2 . 


Fe. 


Mil. 


Ca. 


Mg, 


k 2 . 


Naj. 


H 2 . 


Fl. 


"n. 


Totals. 


Biotitc — 
























Glen Uiquhart, . 


38-69 


17-66 


•26 


12-95 




1-16 


17-54 


8-92 


■13 


2-14 


•52 




99-96 


Loch Laggan, 


39-5 


15-04 


•24 


10-23 


V 75 


1-4 


18-46 


9 37 


•62 


3-21 


■73 




99-55 


Shinness, 


39 77 


16-68 


•65 


6-73 


■62 


2-2 


20-92 


6-5 


•48 


5-4 






99-95 


Glen Beg, . 


39-46 


1645 


•39 


io- 


•53 


1-59 


19- 


8-22 


•26 


3-34 


•32 




99-56 


Hillswick, . 


39-8 


14-19 


2-59 


ii -78 


•24 


•1 


18-32 


8-43 


2-11 


2-52 


•56 




100-64 


Milltown, . 


40-31 


12-58 


1-81 


3-35 


•38 


7-58 


21- 


6-56 


•95 


5-74 


n.d. 




100-25 


Haughtonitc — 




























Roneval, 


37-16 


15- 


7-69 


17-35 


1-04 


1-3 


8-88 


8-18 


1-6 


2-12 






100-17 


Capval, 


36-81 


15-22 


7-61 


17-35 


•96 


1-54 


878 


8-31 


1-34 


2-47 








100-40 


Loch-na-Muiliie, . 


36-46 


17-25 


4-18 


15-33 


•54 


•69 


12-23 


9-2 


•66 


3-39 








99-92 


Foinaven, . 


36-75 


17-88 


278 


15-18 


•42 


•93 


11-17 


9-44 


1-25 


4-23 








99-99 


Kispond 


36-54 


22-28 


2-43 


16-01 


•78 


1-25 


10- 


8-26 


•79 


1-51 








99-86 


Claeh-an-Eoin, 


35-85 


21-54 


4-48 


18-31 


•31 


1-25 


8-08 


776 


•79 


1-96 








100-33 


Kinnaird Head, . 


35-67 


17-95 


7-19 


18-06 


2- 


1-4 


1-5 


9-27 


3-81 


3-2 








100-05 


Cove, . 


35-47 


18-8 


4-61 


19-19 


•64 


•9 


7-01 


8-19 


•24 


4-97 








100-02 


Nishibost, . 


35-15 


16-7 


5-96 


19-06 


1-02 


•82 


7-46 


9-24 


1-26 


3-13 








99-81 


Lairg, 


35-56 


16-69 


1-88 


18-04 


•69 


2-72 


8-47 


9-9 


•11 


5-71 








99-77 


Portsoy, 


34-08 


17-34 


3-61 


18-70 


•38 


3-23 


10-54 


6-78 


1-19 


4-05 








99-9 


Ben Stack, . 


35-69 


20-09 


2-23 


14-01 


1- 


1-89 


14-77 


7-38 


•53 


2-46 








100-06 


Foreign do. — 




























16. Brand, 


37-18 


17-53 


6-20 


15-35 


■31 


•79 


9-05 


514 


2-93 


3-62 




2-47 


100-57 


17. Brand, 


37-06 


16-78 


6-07 


15-37 


tr. 


•57 


9-02 


5-96 


2-86 


3-77 




3-64 


101-1 


18. Hartzburg, 


36-17 


18-09 


8-7 


13-72 


,. , 


•52 


11-16 


7-59 


tr. 


2-28 


•36 




98-59 


Schwamvalder, * 


33-6 


15- 


4-99 


19-29 




3-36 


11-62 


7-53 


•51 


4-58 


tr. 




100-48 


Tyrberger,t 


35-5 


18-01 


9-24 


12-11 


tr. 


3-02 


10-86 


9-18 


1-93 








99-85 


Cape "Wrath, 


34-15 


14-84 


10-96 


13-47 


1-38 


1-81 


10-31 


7-93 


2-14 


2-8 






99-79 


Clova, . 


39- 


25-1 


651 


9-8 


•67 


•93 


617 


7-08 


1-63 


3-47 






100-33 


Zepidomelane — 




























Achadhaphriz, 


40-38 


12-11 


14-53 


3-03 


3-17 


1-03 


• 13- 


7-13 


1-8 


3-57 






99-72 


Tongue, 


40-08 


12-41 


13-47 


2-67 


•62 


1-08 


"14-66 


7-57 


2-15 


5-29 






99-99 



In the above table I have inserted three analyses by other observers — 16, 
17, 18 — from Dana's list, and two from a more recent source. 

A condensation of this table gives the following averages of the composi- 
tion of these micas, — from which averages the oxygen ratios are calculated ; 
the Irish lepidomelane being the average of Dr Haughton's analyses : — J 



* Hebenstreit. From gneiss, with axial angle small. 

•f- Hebenstreit. From the granite of the Tyrberger water-fall ; specific gravity, 3 - 07. Zeitschrift 
fiir Krystallographie und Mineralogic, Zweiter Bund, erstis heft. 

\ One or two of the Haughtonites were not included in calculating the average, their analysis 
having been very lately executed ; as they agreed with the others, their exclusion does not effect the 
result. 



PROFESSOK HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



35 



Biotitc. 









Oxygen. 




Silica, . 


39- 


35 


20-99 


20-99 


Alumina, 


16- 


46 


7'67 J 


7-78 


Ferric Oxide, . 




38 


•11 i 




Ferrous Oxide, 


9 


98 


2-28 N 




Manganous Oxide, 




47 


•1 




Lime, 


1 


3 


•4 




Magnesia, .... 


18 


•98 


7-59 


)14-95 


Potash, .... 


8 


■25 


1-4 1 




Soda, ..... 




37 


•08 ' 




Water, .... 


. 3 


•5 


3-1 





21 



15 



Silica, 

Alumina, 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, . 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



Hcmrjhtonite, Scottish. 



35 

18 

4 

18 

1 

9 
8 
1 
3 





Oxygen. 


93 


19-16 


06 


8-41 J 


55 


1-37 j 


06 


3-8 > 


81 


•18 


49 


•42 


07 


3-63 i 


49 


1-44 


12 


•29 


27 


2-91 



19-16 

9-78 



12-67 



19 

10 



12-5 



Hauglitonite, Foreign. 



Silica, 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Lime, . 
Magnesia, . 
Potash, 
Soda, 
Water, 



Oxygen. 



35-9 


19-1 


19-1. . 


. . 19 


17-08 
7-04 


7-96 | 
2-11 j 


10-07 . 


. . 10 


15-17 


3-36 » 






1-65 


•47 J 






10-34 
7-08 


4-14 1 
1-2 j 


12-34 . 


. . 12 


1-64 


•42 ] 






2-85 


2-75 







36 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



Lepidomclanc, Scottish. 



Oxygen. 



Silica, 


40 • 23 


21- 


46 


21-46 . 


. .21-5 


Alumina, 


12-26 


5- 


71 


1 9-91 . 


. . 10 


Ferric Oxide, . 


14- 


4- 


2 

> 
63 


) 




Ferrous Oxide, 


2-85 








Manganous Oxide, 


1-89 




42 






Lime, .... 
Magnesia, .... 


. 1 • 08 
. 13 • 83 


5 


•6 
•33 


, 12 43 . 


. .12-5 


Potasli, .... 


. 7-35 


1 


25 






Soda, .... 


1-97 




51 






Water, .... 


3 • 93 


Q 
O 


49/ 







Silica, 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide 
Lime, . 
Magnesia, 
Potash, 
Soda, . 
Water, 



These ratios show, firstly, that, as 



Lepidomelane, Irish. 
62 



36 
17 

24 
2 
1 
1 

4 
8 



5 

09 

70 

31 

35 

81 

7 

31 

37 



Oxygen. 

19 

8 

7 



19 • 53 

15 • 38 



6-89 



. . 20 
. .15-5 



s usual in the micas, the oxygen ratio of 
the bases is, in each of the above, in excess of that of the silica. 

Secondly, that the ratios of the sesquioxides to the protoxides in Biotite 
and Irish lepidomelane are inverted ; being in Biotite only half of that of the 
protoxides, while in the Irish lepidomelane it is twice as great as that of the 
protoxides. 

The foreign and Scottish Haughtonite is evidently the same compound ; 
and this is one which stands intermediate between Biotite and Irish lepidome- 
lane ; the oxygen of the protoxides and sesquioxides being in'Haughtonite more 
nearly equal in amount than in either of the other species. 

And what I have called the Scottish lepidomelane is, as regards the 
balancing of the oxygen of the bases, more closely associated with Haughtonite 
than it is with the Irish lepidomelane. 

That which really, however, constitutes the distinguishing features of these 
micas is the state of oxidation or the iron. 

In Biotite the relative proportion of ferrous to ferric oxide is as 25 to 1 ; 
in Scottish Haughtonite as 4 to 1 ; while in lepidomelane these proportions are 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 37 

altogether inverted, being in the Scottish lepidomelane as 1 to 5, and in the 
Irish as 1 to 9. 

A consideration of the foregoing tabulation also makes manifest the follow- 
ing additional chemical distinctions between these minerals. 

Biotite differs from Haughtonite in containing an amount of magnesia which 
is twice as great as that of the protoxide of iron ; the iron also is in Biotite 
present almost solely in the ferrous state ; while in Haughtonite the relative 
proportions of the above protoxides are fully more than inverted, there being 
also a considerable quantity of iron in the ferric state. 

In all, the alkalies and water are present in about the same amount ; nor do 
the proportions of the silica and alumina differ largely. 

Altogether, there can be no question that the substance standing in an 
intermediate position in the table is distinct ; and I conceive that it is most 
fitting that it should be named after the gentleman who first analysed the black 
micas of Ireland, and so established the specific individuality of the mineral 
which stands next to this in the system, — happily fitting also, seeing that it 
exists as the distinctive mineral of one of the varieties of granite, a rock in 
the study of which Dr Haughton has for long been closely engaged. 

The geognostic position of these minerals is for the most part well marked. 

As the plates or crystals in which they are found are usually of extreme 
tenuity, it is not easy to obtain, under the ordinary circumstances of local 
collecting, a sufficiency for analysis, and hence the unimpeachable evidence 
afforded thereby is not great in amount ; nor is it, in the absence of charac- 
teristic specimens, easy to distinguish between the three species. The instances, 
however, that I shall adduce in addition to those analysed, have, for the most 
part, been established by partial examination or fairly satisfactory proof. 

Every case in which there is doubt will be notified. 

The four first analyses show Biotite to occur in association with granular 
limestone. In Glen Urquhart, in a most peculiar granitiform belt in the centre 
of the lime ; * also, near Milltown, in a singular rock, in association with edenite 
and Wollastonite ; at Loch Laggan, imbedded in chlorite, in the lime ; at Shin- 
ness, immediately in contact with sahlite, &c, at the junction of the lime with the 
inclosing rock ; at Glen Beg, in contact with two known and a new felspar ; — 
these may together have formed a belt similar to that at Urquhart. Additional 
limestone localities are the following : — In the most westerly of the two great 
beds which traverse the North of Scotland, I only know of it at Eedhythe, 
where it is associated in the limestone itself with talc, pyrrhotite, and rutile. 
In the most easterly it occurs at Glen Gairn, with prehnite and coccolite, at 

* This peculiar granitiform belt I have seen cutting limestone strata elsewhere in Scotland, — as at 
Laggan near Dulnan Bridge, Inverness-shire ; and Boultshoch, in Aberdeenshire. This belt always 
carries Biotite, and the felspar in two of these cases has upon analysis proved to be Andesine. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. K 



38 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

the junction of the bed with the gneissose matrix. At Crathie, in similar 
association. In the great bed which traverses the country down Dee side, it 
occurs here and again, as in the openings on the Leac Ghorm Hill, in Boultshoch 
quarry near Abergeldie, and in Craigs, Muir, and Midstrath quarries — in all 
being imbedded in a granitic belt very similar in appearance to that at Glen 
Urquhart ; this belt is, in the three last quarries, composed of little quartz, 
much fatty lustred white orthoclase, and little of the mineral itself. 

It is likewise found in the limestone of Froster Hill, near New Meldrum ; 
along with blue malaccolite, near lime, at Allt-Cailleach, Coyle Hills ; along 
with zoisite, pyrrhotite, sahlite, and the usual lime minerals, at Dulnan Bridge 
south of Grantown ; and along with similar minerals and cinnamonstone at Allt- 
na-Gonolan, in the same neighbourhood — at both localities in limestone. 

Its occurrence with ripidolite at Hillswick, near the junction of what has 
been called hornblendic gneiss with micaceous rocks, is somewhat exceptional ; 
but that first-named rock, which I shall elsewhere describe, is new to me. 

Biotite is thus seen to occur generally associated with granular limestone. 
This is probably also the dark mica which occurs as an accessory mineral in 
hyperyte and tufa. It is nowhere associated with another mica. 

Passing to Haughtonite, we find it, in the specimens analysed, a component 
of granitic veins, whether these be intrusive or exfiltrative. Extending the 
evidence, it is to be noted as occurring in specimens equally characteristic with 
the above, in Rubislaw, Anguston, Sclattey, and other quarries in the " grey 
granite," and the large, distinctive crystals are always in the veins. 

At Blirydrine, Brathans, and many other places, it is seen in the felspathic 
bands of the gneiss. 

In these situations it may be regarded as replacing muscovite, which very 
rarely, as at Cove, accompanies it. In every case where it occurs in exfiltra- 
tion veins, oligoclase is also present; less frequent associates are sphene, 
Allanite, and in one locality (Anguston) ilmenite ; what may be called chance 
associates are beryl, apatite, tourmaline, and garnet. 

But besides its position in the exfiltration veins of the grey granite, it goes 
largely to form the mass of that rock itself. If the word granite be confined to 
a compound of quartz, orthoclase, and muscovite, then must " grey granite " 
lose all title to the name ; for though quartzose in spots, as a rule it contains 
comparatively little quartz, hardly any muscovite, and not the excess of ortho- 
clase normal to granites, — being composed in greatest bulk of oligoclase, 
quartz, and Haughtonite, with smaller quantities of orthoclase. The distinctive 
feature of the rock is the large quantity of this black mica. 

In the ascertaining the nature of the dark mica of grey granite, it will not 
suffice to evade the trouble of picking out the minute scales from the general 
mass of the rock, by making use, instead thereof, of a portion of those curious 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 39 

dark micaceous patches which so frequently occur in grey granite — called 
n&res by the quarrymen. 

These somewhat kindey-shaped masses most frequently show an angularity 
of form, — they also almost invariably have the dark mica, which is their chief 
constituent, arranged in a laminated manner, parallel to their longer diagonal, 
whatever be the position of that diagonal, — whether horizontal or vertical. 
These facts alone would lead us to regard them as being not concretions in the 
rock, but fragments of gneiss ; — unresolved, if the word is admissible — unre- 
solved or residual fragments of the gneiss, the metamorphosis of the general 
mass of which resulted in the granitic paste which now holds these fragments 
imbedded. 

Till however the actual nature of these " neres " is placed beyond question, 
any evidence derived from them must be received with caution. 

Examination, to the extent of ascertaining the relative proportions of the 
two oxides of iron in the minute black scales of the rock itself, shows that 
Haughtonite is the mica of the grey granites of Aberdeenshire. 

I have only lately been able to offer analytical evidence as to its second 
mode of occurrence ; namely, as the mica which occasionally replaces horn- 
blende in diorite. 

Typical diorite has no mica. In perhaps the most important mass of diorite 
in Scotland, that namely which, showing itself first in the north in the vicinity 
of Portsoy, stretches up the country as far as Morven, the character of the 
rock changes repeatedly and even suddenly to a marked extent. 

This diorite, however, which is most simple in its composition in its northern 
portions, I have elsewhere shown to be not typical even there ; for labradorite 
is there, as it is throughout, the species of felspar characteristic of the rock ; 
indeed, it is the only felspar to be found therein. 

The repeated changes which take place in the rock seem to result from the 
substitution of augite and Haughtonite for hornblende in the first place, — of 
hypersthene for that Haughtonite in the second, — and from the removal of all the 
chief ingredients, except labradorite and Haughtonite, in the third. Marked as 
such changes are, and absolutely dissimilar as are the extremes of such rocks, 
the gradual steps of the transmutation can be detected, leading to the convic- 
tion that all must be regarded as but varieties of one great rock mass. 

Such has been the conclusion of Macculloch, of Cunninghame, and of 
Nicol, who unite in laying them down with one colour, — that colour indicating 
an igneous rock of the granitic type. 

Of this, however, there is, as I have pointed out in my paper on horn- 
blende, considerable doubt ; I therein considered the amount of information to 
be derived from the augitic and hornblendic ingredients of the rock, and we 
have now to see what light may be thrown upon it by its mica. The chief 



40 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OP SCOTLAND. 

difficulty lies in connection with the question of the whole rock so coloured 
constituting one mass, unless it be admitted that the rock has at different points 
suffered a varying amount of metamorphism. 

The rock where first seen, near the old battery at Portsoy, consists of a grey 
striated labradorite and a grey brown (red by transmitted light) hornblende, 
with extremely rarely a speck of menaccanite. Here the rock is of a very 
coarse grain ; it carries occasional veins of labradorite, and in these only is 
Haughtonite here to be seen. As this rock passes to the eastward, the labradoric 
ingredient increases in quantity, the hornblende becomes light green and uralitic, 
and the rock is altogether much finer in structure. This is, however, the only 
change which can be here detected, and an examination of the rock in all its 
relationships, and a consideration of all its appearances, leaves no room for 
doubt that it has a stratified structure, and is here of a metamorphic nature. 

Upon the west side of the Bay of Durn, however, a rock of a somewhat 
similar nature to this appears, the two being separated by bands — well seen at 
the Harbour of Portsoy — which have a minute crystalline and perfectly 
schistose structure. 

The evidences as to the rock on the Durn Shore being a metamorphosed, and 
not an intrusive mass, are by no means so clear ; and its constituent minerals 
also differ considerably. 

The small amount of felspar here visible is, indeed, the same ; but the 
hornblende has given place, apparently entirely, to a mixture of augite and 
hypersthene, both being in minute crystals, with rare and minute occurrences 
of Haughtonite. Now it is the union as laid down in geological maps, of this 
rock with that previously described, which has not been, and, from the covered- 
up state of the country inland, probably cannot be proved ; so that here at 
the outset, as regards this locality at least, it cannot be shown that the horn- 
blende is replaced by augite and Haughtonite, for the rock may be intrin- 
sically different — may, in fact, be of the nature of a non-chloritic diabase. 

In the more southerly portions of this last rock, and also to the eastward, a 
gradual increase in the quantity of Haughtonite and disappearance of the 
hypersthene is obvious ; and when we get further south, the rock which 
appears to be the continuation of one or other, or perchance of both of the 
above, becomes pervaded with exfiltration veins, in which the Haughtonite 
again gives place to true hypersthene. This is to be seen on the west slopes 
of Craig Buiroch and at Retannach. The occurrence of a labradoric pitchstone 
gives countenance to the view that the rock is here volcanic. 

As a rule, Haughtonite and true hypersthene do not occur in the same 
locality ; the rock on the west side of the Bay of the Durn, and that on the 
north side of Barra hill, however, contain both. Pyrite is a rare accessory at 
the first, pyrite and menaccanite at the second of these localities. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 41 

In many localities the angite and hypersthene both give place to the mica, 
the felspar only remaining the same ; these transmutations occur repeatedly. 
At the Barry granite quarry near Knock the mica is hardly to be seen, at the 
Bin of Huntly augite and hypersthene replace it entirely. Where the rock 
appears on the south side of the Burn of Craig, near Towanrieff, the labra- 
dorite has again the mica as its sole associate. A loose block or two of a 
similar rock occurs at New Merdrum near Rhynie ; in these the crystals of both 
minerals are over an inch in size. 

Up the valley of the Blackwater, a bed of diorite, with occasional specks 
of doubtful hypersthene, or in its place of a black mica, is to be seen. There 
can be little doubt that it is the same belt of rock which reappears at Glen- 
bucket and Colquhanny, and here hornblende, with a little Haughtonite, is again 
present, menaccanite and sphene also occurring.* 

The lithological position of the new mineral is, therefore, clearly defined and 
altogether distinct from that of Biotite ; they never occur together, or replace 
each other in the same rocks. 

Of lepidomelane this cannot, to the full at least, be said.. 

Though I have never found it in association with Haughtonite, one of the 
specimens analysed was taken from an exfiltration vein in a rock very similar 
to that which at Lairg carried the Haughtonite ; the other lay bedded in the 
felspathic belt of a hornblendic gneiss. 

It is possible that lepidomelane may also be the dark mica of other gneisses, — 
ex grege, of the peculiarly bronzy gneiss of Tiree, which carries garnet. 

Chemically quite different from the former micas, this is not clearly 
separated from the last in its modes of occurrence, being found, though only 
once, in an exfiltration vein. Still in Scotland it does not, as in Ireland, per- 
tain to the granites, being here probably solely a gneissic mica. 

Be this as it may, these geologic relations go to establish very clearly the 
specific individuality of Haughtonite. 

Two important distinctive properties remain to be noticed, — crystalline 
form, and chemical features. 

* Localities in which it is doubtful whether the black mica is this species or Biotite are the 
following : — 

At Badnagauch on the Deskery there is a rotting syenite, which is riddled with exfiltration veins 
composed of large crystals of labradorite and hornblende, with a hydrated Biotite (1), menaccanite, 
sphene, and Allanite as accessories. 

In the hyperite of Scuir na Gilleau in the Cuchullins, and of Halival in Rum, a black mica is 
rarely seen, which is most probably Biotite. 

Scales of a dark brown uniaxial mica, which occur in tufa at Kinkell and Kincraig in Fife, I also 
set down as Biotite. Haughtonite probably is the brown mica which, in somewhat small quantity, is 
found in the andalusite layers of the gneiss of Clashnaree, Glendarff, and other hills of the Clova 
district. The associates here being andalusite, quartz, fibrolite, and labradorite. The composition of 
the mineral from this locality does not altogether accord with that of the generality of specimens, 
and its occurrence in gneiss is somewhat exceptional. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. L 



42 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



I have noted, as regards the optical properties of Haughtonite (where its 
extreme opacity permits of observation), that it was found to be biaxial, though 
only to a small extent — 2° to 3°. It is not this fact so much as the habit of its 
plates, which induces the belief that it is orthorhoirtbic in form. 

Distinct, or at least free, crystals I have not met with. In many instancesit 
is found in plates devoid of regular form and definite appearance : this is the 
case at Roneval, Nishibost, Rispond, and Clach-an-Eoin ; but at most of the 
localities in which it occurs in exfiltration veins in granite, the crystals are 
disposed in lengthened, radiating, somewhat fan-shaped arrangements, with 
oblique terminations ; these crystals are frequently three or four inches in 
length, by a fourth of an inch in width : they so occur at Lairg, Rubislaw, 
Cove, the graphic granite and the adjacent granitic vein at Portsoy, at Bliry- 
drine, and at Craig Burn, near Rhynie. 

The accompanying sketch of a Craig specimen, expresses a not unusual 
appearance. 




The peculiarity of the association with the muscovite of Cove has already 
been noted. 

Before the blowpipe, the three species function differently, though to but a 
slight extent. All give with fluxes the iron reaction,— Biotite to the smallest, 
Haughtonite to markedly the largest extent. All fuse to a black magnetic 
bead, — Biotite with ease, Haughtonite with considerable difficulty, — lepidome- 
lane, again, standing intermediate. The Biotite bead is but feebly magnetic ; 
that of lepidomelane distinctly so ; that of Haughtonite powerfully so. 

Under the breath of the blowpipe flame the plate of Biotite, even if brown, 
whitens ; that of lepidomelane pales ; that of Haughtonite, if of a pale tint, or 
however black, becomes still blacker from increased opacity. 

Under the action of acids, thin scales of the three substances are affected 
in the same order. When treated in the cold with hydrochloric and sulphuric 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 43 

acids, it is found that the former acid decomposes all; leaving scales of glistening 
silica in times which bear for the three, as arranged B.L.H., about the propor- 
tions of 1, 2, and 4. Sulphuric acid splits up the larger flakes into fungoid 
masses, accomplishing the same decomposition in times about 3, 5, and 9. 
When gently heated, however, the action of the sulphuric acid overtakes the 
more immediate action of the hydrochloric, the thorough decomposition being 
accomplished by the former in a considerably shorter time. 

As might be expected from the large quantity of ferrous oxide in its com- 
position, Haughtonite is subject to change on exposure. 

At the one locality of Nishibost, the edges of the folise are covered with a 
bright red rust ; elsewhere there is the development of first a dark green, and 
ultimately of a light green colour ; the folise at the same time becoming friable 
and talcose ; — the incipient change is well seen at Lairg, in Sutherland, the 
completed one at Blirydrine, Kincardineshire. 

When it occurs as the cryptocrystalline constituent of granites and 
granitites, there can be little doubt that the peroxidation of the mineral is a 
chief cause of the rotting and disintegration of these rocks. 

Granites, with feeble cohesion of their parts to a considerable depth, and 
which crumble rapidly into fine gravels, are to be seen at the south-east foot of 
Morven, and along Culbleen in Aberdeenshire. At Strontian in Argyle, whole 
banks of such gravel have to be dug through before anything like rock is 
reached. The springs of these districts are highly chalybeate : the changed 
mica has become bronzy or ochre-coloured, and talcose to the sense of touch. 
Peroxidation is in such cases the agent of waste. 

One other question remains to be considered : seeing that the marked 
distinction between Haughtonite and lepidomelane lies in the state of oxidation 
of the iron, may the latter mica not be merely weathered or peroxidised 
Haughtonite ? 

As regards the Achadhaphriz and Ben Bhreck specimen, the answer is a 
distinct negative ; from both localities the specimens were perfectly unaltered. 
The Achadhaphriz block had been broken up but a few days before the plates 
were removed from it ; the Tongue boulder was split up by dynamite immedi- 
ately before the collecting of what was analysed ; and the associated minerals 
were all unchanged. 



Altered (?) Black Mica. 
From Exfiltration Veins in Syenite. 
The exact nature of the specimens now to be described it is not easy to 
assign, as they may have undergone more or less change. 

They occur in the rocky bank of a road-cutting, which had been made only 



44 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



about a year before the writer obtained the specimens ; this rock cutting was 
about 20 feet in depth, and it was nearly at this greatest depth that the 
specimens were gathered. The locality is near the farm of Baclnagauch, on 
the Deskery, in Aberdeenshire. The rock is the syenite of Morven, here 
much decomposed — being almost gravelly. Through this rock numerous anasti- 
mosing exfiltration veins occur ; there is also an intrusive porphyry vein. The 
exfiltration veins had not suffered nearly so great an amount of change as the 
rock mass ; indeed, except as regards the mica, there was little or no change 
in them. They contained large crystals of dark-green hornblende ; large and 
finely- shaped crystals of labraclorite, a few, apparently, of muscovite ; granules, 
the size of peas, of menaccanite ; folise of the mineral in question of about an 
inch in size ; sphene and Allanite rarely. None of these minerals,, with perhaps 
the exception of the mica, showed any appearance of change. It was in dark- 
brown, rather dull crystals, which in parts were somewhat softened and 
bronzy; the amount of change did not, however, appear to be great. The 
crystalline foliae were somewhat loose. The specific gravity, taken on the 
mineral in its ordinary state, was 2 • 63 to 2 • 645 ; after being boiled to expel 
air it was 2 * 845. 

1 • 302 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . 

From Alumina, 



•42 
01 



■43 = 



33 


•026 


13 


•167 


26 


075 


2 


•009 




153 


1 


634 


4 


•831 


4 


02 


1 


161 


13 


882 


99 


•95 



Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



"Was apparently pure. It contained no fluorine. The portions which appeared 
to have suffered some change were, as far as possible, cut away. 

It lost in bath 5 • 731 of this water ; the greater amount of this was lost 
in half an hour — the whole in half a day. 

This composition is unquestionably nearer to that of lepidomelane than to 
Biotite ; indeed, it is like a hydrated lepidomelane. The writer is disposed, 
however, to regard this as a fortuitous resemblance. It is difficult to believe 
the mineral to be merely a hydrated mica; these are not prone to exces- 
sive alteration, and the duration of the exposure could hardly have been suffi- 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 45 

cient to have effected any marked change. If it be a hydrated mica the amount 
of change is much greater than mere appearance would indicate, and care was 
taken to exclude, as far as possible, the altered portions. It may be an 
altogether different substance, intermediate between Voightite and Jollyite. 



PIHLITE. 

This species, hitherto unrecognised as British, is possibly not uncommon. 
Probably it is the chief material of the very peculiar schistose rock, which, 
plentifully studded with imbedded crystals of andalusite, forms the trough of 
the small sandstone basin of Lumsden and Kildrummy. 

A very similar rock, only carrying crystals of actynolite instead of andalusite, 
occurs stretching from north of Mulben up the valley of the Burn of Achanachy. 
The rock of the first of these localities is largely quarried in the Coreen hills 
and in Glen Mid Clova, being used in the district as a paving, and also to a 
smaller extent as a building stone. 

It is, doubtless, due only to the perfect seclusion of the district that the 
peculiar excellences of this rock are elsewhere unknown, seeing that it 
possesses qualities which fit it for its use as a paving stone, which are superior 
to those of both Caithness and Forfarshire. 

Splendidly bedded, and with a most convenient dip, it can with the greatest 
possible facility be raised in slabs of large dimensions, of any required thick- 
ness, from an inch to a foot or more. 

Quarried on the very summit of a hill, the trouble from water is so small 
that the little that occurs is actually stored for drinking purposes, and the car- 
riage is aided by gravitation through a descent of some 900 feet. 

The stone itself, being in its general mass formed of a material which yields 
to blows, is readily cut and fashioned ; but this material, being acted upon by 
atmospheric agencies with extreme tardiness, " resists exposure ; " while, inas- 
much as its softer mass is everywhere studded with closely-packed crystals of 
one of the hardest mineral bodies known, it long resists the wear and tear of 
friction ; and, as these enduring crystals project above the softer portions of the 
stone, slipping on its surface is noways to be feared. 

The flags are, moreover, full of beauty. The micaceous particles which form 
the layers are arranged not in flat, but in minutely undulating disposition ; 
they reflect a tremulous lustre, something between a nacreous glimmer and a 
silver sheen, while the dark brown of the andalusite crystals stipples this with 
a peculiarity which is quite unique. 

The writer was formerly acquainted with a gentleman whose most suc- 

VOL. XXIX- PART I, M 



4G 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



cessful research in geology consisted in his once having discovered " an unques- 
tionable specimen of petrified maggots " in a pigstye, and whose faith therein 
was only slightly shaken after a dire amount of argumentation. Had he cast 
eye on one of these slabs, he would, in all probability, have believed in petrified 
maggots to the end of his days. 

The specimens of this mineral which were analysed were got in North Glen 
Clova, where it is somewhat rare. They were specially selected on account of 
their being much lighter in colour, and hence apparently purer than those 
ordinarily procurable. This lightness of colour might, however, be due to 
incipient weathering. In appearance they were very similar to the paragonite of 
Monte Campione ; indeed, they were supposed to be that mineral. They were 
scaly in structure and cream-coloured ; soft and somewhat unctuous when 
rubbed along the lamination of the scales, but rough when rubbed across it. 

They contained throughout their mass minute almost invisible crystals of 
magnetite ; these were separated, it is believed absolutely, by crushing, repeated 
edulcoration, and sifting with a magnet. 

The mineral absorbed ■ 579 per cent, of moisture. When slightly heated in 
powder before the blowpipe, there was a slight decrease in bulk and the assump- 
tion of a brown colour ; when highly heated the contraction is very marked, 
and the powder agglutinates and shows traces of vitrification, the original colour 
being restored. 

The two specimens analysed differed very slightly in appearance. 





On 1 - 3135 grammes. 


Oi 


l 1"584 grammes. 


Silica, 


. 58 • 323 




61 '1 


Alumina, . 


. 26-455 




26-516 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 2-29 




2-556 


Lime, 


•467 




•669 


Magnesia, . 


•568 




•694 


Potash, 


. 5-973 




n. det. 


Soda, 


. 1 • 688 




n. det. 


Water, 


. 4; 847 




4-23 




100-611 




a of first, 1 


• 842 per cent. ; 


of 


second, 1 • 584 per cent 



Possible impurity, magnetite or quartz. 



( 47 ) 



II. — General Theorems on Determinants. By Thomas Mum, M.A. 

(Received 6th March 1879.) 

§ 1. The rows of a determinant of the n th order having been separated into 
two sets, one containing the firsts rows and the other the rest, if each minor of 
thep th degree formed from the first set be multiplied by a minor, called its com- 
plementary, formed from the second set, and the result have its sign chosen in 
accordance with a certain law, it is well known as an elementary theorem that 
the aggregate of the products thus obtained is equal to the original deter- 
minant. 

This suggests the inquiry as to the possible existence of a corresponding 
theorem in the case where the two sets of rows, instead of being contiguous, 
overlap each other. On a review of the properties of determinants it is found 
that what may be considered one case of such a theorem is already known, viz., 
the case in which the first set includes all the rows except the last, and the 
second set all the rows except the first. Taking a determinant of the fifth 
order — 



a n a 12 #13 #14 #15 

#21 a 22 a 2B Cl U a 25 

^31 a S2 a S3 a M ^35 

#41 #42 #43 a U a 45 

Ct f>\ a 52 a 53 a 54 (, h<o 



or D(ff 15 ) 



this special theorem is 

(#11 #22 #33 Ct W ( a 22 ^33 a U a ti) ( tt 12 Ct 23 tt 34 a W \ Ci 21 #32 a 43 a 5i) = 

or, in its usual form, 

A A ^22 ^23 ^24 



#22 ^23 ^24 
^32 ^33 a Si 

#42 #43 #44 



D («l 5 )> 



All ^-15 




^22 ^23 ^24 


^-51 ^55 




#32 ^33 ^34 
C(, 42 ^43 a U 



(a) 



where it has to be observed that in the right-hand member the original deter- 
minant is now accompanied by a factor, and that this factor is the minor 
common to all the determinants on the left. 

The general theorem which has been found to include this is as follows : — 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. N 



48 



THOMAS MUIR ON GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS. 



In a determinant of the n th degree, if the rows from the 1 st to the q th inclusive 
and the rows from the p <A to the n ih inclusive be taken ; and if a minor of the 
(q — p + l) th degree be chosen from the rotvs common to these two sets ; and if from 
the first set each minor of the q th degree containing the chosen minor be multiplied 
by the minor which contains both the complementary of the former and the chosen 
minor ; and if the sign ( — l) s be prefixed to the product, s being the sum of the 
numbers indicating the rows and columns from which the first factor is formed 
increased by q— p + 1 for every such number greater than q : then the stem of the 
products thus obtained is equal to the product of the chosen minor and the 
original determinant. 



Let 



a n # 12 ct 13 

#21 ^22 ^23 
# 31 # 32 #33 



a^Y #p2 ("p3 



# sl # 52 a q § 



•■'ip 



<t. 



•2p 



l 3P 



-pp 



iqp 



Q>n\ @n2 @n£ 

be the given determinant, and 



a 



np 



a 



3? 



'H 



<-qq • 



v nq 



a 
a 



2n 



"Sn 



' in: 



a, 



qn 



a„ 



"1XP 



v m 



<-qp 



a. 



M 



or 8 



the chosen minor. 

From the elements of D(# ln ) we form a determinant 



or D(a ln ) 



a U a \2 a lZ 
a i\ a i1 ^23 
# 31 #32 #33 



a p i a P 2 a p % 



&q\ MqZ ^q2 

a pi a P 2 #p3 



a q i a Q 2 # 5 3 



Ct n i Ct n 2 Ct> n 3 



J \P 



a 



2p 



l 2P 



<-pp 



a, 



<n> 



a lq 
# 2? 
a M 



a pq u 



dqq 

a 



'pp 



U Clqp . 



a, 



np 









a, 



pq 



«, 



qq • 



a 



"'I 



#2n 
^3n 



l pn 



a, 



qn 



a 



pn 



a. 



qn 



(( „ 



or A 



which is of the (n + q — p + l) th degree, its rows from the 1 st to the # th inclusive 



THOMAS MUTE- ON" GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS. 



49 



being the same as those from the l $t to the q th in the given determinant, except 
that q—p + 1 zeros are inserted after the q th element in each, and those from 
the (^+l) th to the last inclusive being the same as those from the p th to 
the last in the original determinant, except that q— p + 1 zeros are inserted 
before the p th element in each. Of this determinant the selected minor 8 
occurs twice as a minor, having zero elements below it in the one case and zero 
elements above it in the other. Hence, if we take the first q rows and form 
every minor of the q th degree preparatory to finding the expansion of A as a 
sum of products of complementary minors, we see that, although the full list 
of minors would be exactly the same as if we had been dealing with T>(a ln ) 
instead of A, still we need only take those which include the selected minor 8, 
because all the others have here complementaries which vanish ; also we see 
that the complementaries of those thus taken are not of the degree n— q as 
in D(a ln ), but of the degree n—p + 1, each one including, in fact, the correspond- 
ing complementary in D(a ln ) and the selected minor besides. Now it is evident 
that the sum of products thus found as the equivalent of A is exactly the sum 
of products referred to in the theorem, the addition of q— p + 1 in the deter- 
mination of the sign of a product being due to the q—p + 1 zeros which are 
inserted in A, and which for certain elements make the number of their column 
greater by q— p+ 1. It thus remains to show that 

A=D(a ln )xS. 

Adding each element of the (q + l) th column to the corresponding element of 
the p th column, each element of the (q -f 2) th column to the corresponding ele- 
ment of the (p + l) th , and so on, as far as the zeros continue, we have 



A = 



a n 


a 12 


a ld 






■ (%lp • • 


a lq . . 


. . . 


• a ln 


«21 


tt 22 


^23 






• &2P . . 


. a 2q . . 


. . . 


• <%2n 


a 31 


a 32 


a 33 






a ZP • • 


a 3q . . 


. . . 


• ®3n 


Up\ 


Cl p 2 


a pS 






(App . . 


ct pq . . 


. . . 


tA/p n 


a ql 


a q2 


a g3 






Ctqp • . 


a qq . . 


. . 


Cvqn 


dpi 


a P 2 


a p3 






■ U'pp • 


• i&p q Wipp . . 


• "pq • • 


• wpn 


a ii 


a q2 


a q3 






• ("qp . . 


■ dqq U'qp ' ' 


' ttqq • • 


' &qn 


<x nl 


(%n2 


^n3 ■ 






tl n p • • 


Q"nq ™np • • 


Oj n q . . 


t^nn 



Now, in this determinant, subtracting each element of the p th row from the 



50 



THOMAS MUIR ON GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS. 



corresponding element of the (^ + l) th row, each element of the (p + l) tb row 
from the corresponding element of the (q + 2) th row, and so on until the elements 
of the q th row have been reached and subtracted, we have 



A = 



a u a 12 a ls . . . a lp . 

(, 2\ ^22 ^23 " • • fl/ 2p • 

a zi CL Z2 c hz • ■ ■ (( Sp • 






a lq ... . . . «] 
</ 2q ... . . . a. t 
a M ... . . . a. 


dpi (tp2 Cj,o ■ . . Upp 






« pq ... ... Oj 


(Igl Cl q 2 (l q § . . . (i (]p 

... 






a„ . . . • . . . a, 

■ Q-pp • • • ttp q . . . 


... 






a qp . . . a qq . . . 


wjil (l n 2 wife ■ ■ ■ ttnp 






• ''nq "np • • • Ll, nq . . . (/, 



But here there is a set of q —p + 1 rows having only one non-zero minor of 
the (q— p + l) th degree, and this minor being 8 and its complementary D(« lB ) 

we have 

A = SD«), 

the sign of the product SD(a ln ) being positive, because the numbers of the 
rows in which the elements of 8 occur are the same as the numbers of the 
columns, and the sum of the two sets of numbers therefore even. This identity 
is what remained to be proved, hence the theorem is established. 

In the introductory example all the rows but two were overlapped, the chosen 
minor of D(# 15 ) being thus of the third order. The other possible cases for the 
same determinant are (2) where the chosen minor is of the second order, 
say I <r B3 a u \ , and then we have 

I ( H?," u'^v'irJ = \ a n a 22 a -iZ a m a Z?, a U a m — rn a 23 ffi 3/%lr32 tt 43^54l + ri2 ff 23%4 a 45F 31*43^54 I 

(3) where the chosen minor is of the first order, « 33 say, in which case we 
have two identities, viz., 

' / .;:;L ) (' 7 lo) = I ^11^22^33 II C h% a U a to l — I < %<%*' / 34 II rt 32 ffl 43 ft 55 1 + I ^11^23^25 II ^32^43^54 I 
+ I a \l a 22, a U II n 2,\"\'l":x l — I ^12^23^35 II ^31^43*54 1 + 1 ^13^24^35 II ^31^42*53 I > 

and 

"^K.O = I «21«33 II "32«43«54«15 l~ I «22«33 II %«43«54«15 l + l ^23«34 II " 3 1«42«53«15 f 
— I ^23^35 II ^31^42^53^14 I • 



THOMAS MUIR ON GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS. 



51 



If the excess of the number indicating the order of the original determinant 
over that indicating the order of a minor of it be E, it is readily seen that the 
number of possible expansions thus obtainable for the product of the determi- 
nant and its minor is the highest integer in ^ E. 



2. Eeduction of the order of a determinant. — Taking the determinant 



<hi 


a i2 


«13 • ' 


• <hn 


H\ 


#22 


#23 . . 


■ #2n 


«ai 


#32 


#33 • • 


■ #3» 


#nl 


Q"i& 


#»3 • • 


■ "an 



or D(ff lB ), 



and multiplying each element of the first column by — # 12 and adding to the 
result a n times the corresponding element of the second column, we have 



— « 12 D(a ln ) = 







^'11 #22 I #22 #23 
#11 a Z1 I #32 #33 



^12 #13 • • • #l» 



• #2)1 

• #3» 



#11 #«2 I #w2 #n3 • • • #)WJ 



Similar operations lead finally to 












#Xn 


a n # 22 | 


1 #12 #23 1 • 


• | #ln-l #'2u 


#2ra 


#11 a 32 1 


1 #12 #33 1 • 


• 1 #ln-l #3n 


#3n 



(- i r~ v 'i2«i3 • • • cii n T)(a ln ) = 

#11 #«2 | | #12 #n3 | • • • | #ln-l #n» | #n 

Hence, dividing by (-l)" -1 ^ a n • • • «m,we have 



l#ll #22l I#12 #231 * * • |#ln-l #2«| 
l#ll #32l |#12 ^33l * * * |#ln-l #3n| 



«H#12#i3 • 


• <hn 


#21 #22 #23 ' 


• #2w 


#31 #32 #33 • 


• #3)1 


#»il #n2 #«3 • • 


• ''wra 



« 12 # 13 



1 111-1 



|#11 #n2 I [#12 #«3| 



#lra-l #nra 



(A!) 



the second determinant being of the (n— l) th order. 

This identity has been long known : it is proved in Brioschi by means of 
vol. xxix. part 1. 



>r± 



THOMAS MUIIl ON GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS. 



the multiplication theorem. But now applying to the determinant of reduced 
order the theorem by which it itself was obtained, and putting 



1*11 *22l 1*12 *23l 



1*11 *3 2 l 1*12 *3sl 



1*12 *23l 1*13 *24l 



1*12 *33! 1*13 *34l 



— *12 I *11 *22 *23 I ' 



I — *13 I *12 *23 *34 i > 



as the identity in the opening paragraph entitles us to do, we find 

*12i*ll*22*33l *13l*12*23*34i 
1 1 

D("i») : 



*12*13 • • • *ln-l 1*12*231 1*13*241 ' * ' |*1»— 2*8n-l 

and therefore 



^12/^11^22^431 *13i*12*23*44l 



D(«i«) 



1*12 *23! 1*13 *24 * " * |*lm-2 *2»-l 



*12l*ll*22*rc3| ^13|^12*23*»* 



1*11 *22 *3sl 1*12 *23 *34l • • • l"i«-2 w 2»--i "'Sh 
1*11 *22 *43i 1*12 *23 *44! ' * ' |*l»-2 *2»-l ^4?i.| 



1*11 *22 *«3| 1*12 *23 *"i| " • ' |*1»-S *2n-l*n» 

In exactly similar fashion we can next show that 

1*11 *22 *33 *44l • ' * |*1m-S *2»i-2 ^3»— 1 ^4n| 

1*11 *22 *33 *54l * * * |*ln-3 *2n-2 *3n-l @5n\ 



,(A 2 ) 



D («!») = 



*12 *23 *34; ' ' ' I* 1 ' 1 — a *?«— '* #a 



f ln-3 m '2m-2 "3n-l 



1*11 *22 *33 *"4| * * " |*l»-3 *2n-2 *3?i-l *7 



■(A 8 ) 



and so on, the extreme case being, as it is curious to note, the extreme case 
also of the theorem of § 1., viz., that exemplified by (a). 

(A x ) is practically useful in evaluating a determinant whose elements are 
given in figures. It suggests, however, another identity closely resembling it 
and established in the same way, viz., 



*11 *22 *13 
*21 *22 *23 



*31 *32 "■■;■■ 



^ril {/ „2 *//:>. 



d'2n 



1*11 *22l 1*11 *23l 



I^U *2n| 



1*11 *32l 1*11 *33l • • • 1*11 «3»l 
K'll ttn2\ |*11 *"3| • • • |*11 *nn| 



+ \a n r> ■ ■ ■ (B,) 



which is still better adapted for this purpose, more especially if a n = l or a low 



THOMAS MTJIR ON GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS. 



53 



integer. By the continued application of (B x ) there results a series of identities 
corresponding to (A 2 ), (A 3 ) . . . viz., 



T>(a ln ) 



\Clll ^22 ^331 r'll ^22 ^34 



1^11 ^22 ^'43l 1^11 ^22 ^44, 



^11 ^22 ^8»| 

^11 ^22 ^ to l 



^11 ^22 ^n3\ ^11 ^22 ^"* 



1^11 ^22 ^nn\ 



-5-|a n « 22 



n-3 



(B 2 ) 



D(«i«) 



and so on. 



1*11 ^22 ^33 ^441 ^11 ^22 ^33 ^4" I 

^11 rt 22 ^33 ^54i ^11 fi 22 ^33 *5«l 

| ^'11 ^22 ^33 a »ii rll *22 ^33 (f, nn\ 



'■ ^11^22*331 • • • (-^3/ 



§ 3. Product of a determinant and a polynomial. — The product of a 
determinant of the rv th order by an expression ofn terms is equal to the sum ofn 
determinants, the first of which is got from the given determinant by multiply lug 
each element of the first roiv by the corresponding term of the given expression , 
the second by multiplying similarly each element of the second row, the third by 
multiplying similarly each element of the third row, and so on. 

Let the given determinant be 

and the given expression 

&+&+&+ • • • + £»» 
then the n determinants referred to are 



=1^11 =2^12 • • * Svfihn 



( 21 



a 99 



a. 



■2a 



Q"n\ (, ,rl • 



^11 ^12 • • • ^1» 

61^21 €2^22 • • ■ bn^2n 

Q"n\ &-2n • • • tf nn 



Now the coefficient of ^ in the first of them is evidently a n A n , in the second 
c/. il A. 21 , and the third « 31 A 31 , and so on : therefore in the sum of the n deter- 
minants the coefficient of ^ is 



or 



DK) 



a n A n + a 21 A 21 + a 31 A 31 + ... + a nl A Bl 
Similarly the coefficient of £ 2 is seen to be 

«12 A 12 + «22 A 22 + %2 A 32 + . . . + d n2 A n2 01' D(o lu ) 



54 THOMAS MUIR ON GENERAL THEOREMS ON DETERMINANTS, 

and so on. Hence the sum of the n determinants is 

(6+6+6+ • • • +6) D (0 

as was to be shown. 

From this simple theorem there follows at once Mr Malet's theorem* 
regarding the multiplication of 



1111 

a m p m yn gm 
a » p yi g* 

a p (3» f S p 



or F( 



to, n, p) 



by a + /3 + y + S , the product in question evidently being 

F(l jw, n, p) + F(o, m + I, n,p) + F(o, m, n + l,p) + F(o, to, m, p + l) ; 

and the theorem is seen to be capable of extension not merely as regards the 
order of the determinant (as Mr Malet indicated), but as regards also the 
degree of the multiplier, which, instead of being 2a , might as easily be 2a r . 



" Educational Times" Eeprint, vol. xxviii. p. 51. 



( 55) 



III. — Chapters on the Mineralogy of Scotland. Chapter Sixth. — 
" Chloritic Minerals!' By Professor Heddle. 

(Read 3d March 1879.) 

" CHLORITIC MINERALS." 

There is no department of natural science which is so defective in its general 
scheme of arrangement as mineralogy ; and its sectional grouping is, if possible, 
still more defective. 

Such correlations as are expressed by the terms, " the Micas," — " the 
Felspars," — "the Garnets," &c, are only admissible if the substances united 
in such groups are included under one general formula, and function in a more 
or less similar manner as rock-formers. 

Under such methods of arrangement as are in vogue, many substances are 
left to stand isolated as intermediates, — substances which frequently form im- 
portant integers of a regular sequence. A.nd when such groups are constituted 
upon the possession of merely some one general feature, it almost invariably 
results that there are linked together substances which have nothing else in 
common. 

Mineralogy presents numberless examples of the misleading effect of being 
guided by mere externals ; and the more the geognostic relations of minerals are 
sought out, the more clearly do we see the false conclusions into which we are 
drawn when we are guided by externals alone. 

To no group does this perhaps apply more emphatically than to that of the 
" Chlorites." Of the twelve minerals which in our systems find a place therein, 
some are the products of mere solution, some of direct chemical change, some of 
metamorphic transmutation. Of these, some are found in sedimentary rocks, 
some in volcanics; — in limestone, in serpentine, in schists, in granite, and in 
traps. 

The extreme injudiciousness of founding a natural history group upon so 
trivial a character as colour alone, is shown by the laxity which has gradually 
crept in — by the expanding as it were of the name into " the chloritic group," 
or " chloritic minerals." 

From the difficulty of discriminating between several substances which fall 
under such a term, there can be no doubt that the term has not unfrequently 
been adopted as a convenient cover for ignorance. 

" I always say chloritic mineral when any of my students ask me what they 
are ; it covers a vast amount of ignorance." This was the remark made to 
me by a teacher of geology when we were discussing the green substances 
VOL. XXIX. part i. p 



56 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

which plug the steam-holes of amygdaloids : — the deductions to be drawn 
from the present investigation will show that the term employed, instead 
of covering, exposed that which it was intended to conceal. 

From the very frequent occurrence of difficultly-recognisable green minerals 
in volcanic rocks, it is to them that this term of " chloritic " is now specially 
applied ; it is so applied in the belief and hope that the mineral is a chlorite of 
some kind, and this is conceived to be quite a sufficient amount of knowledge. 

In proof that the case has, in the above, neither been misstated nor over- 
stated, I beg to refer to a paper, entitled " Notes on the Occurrence of Chlorite 
among the Lower Silurian Volcanic Eocks of the English Lake District," which 
was lately published in the " Mineralogical Magazine," by Mr J. Clifton 
Ward, of Her Majesty's Geological Survey. 

In this paper, which is a record of much careful observation, Mr Ward very 
seldom uses the term chloritic mineral, and commits himself to the substance 
being chlorite itself. In this belief he is so confident that he states that the 
chlorite can be seen to pass into magnesian mica, and even into potash mica; 
he discusses the nature, or rather the stages of the metamorphism which 
accomplishes this change ; and yet the paper not only does not state that any 
steps were taken to determine the actual nature of the substance treated of in 
this important speculation, but it bears internal evidence that neither analysis 
or any satisfactory test had been adopted for the determination. 

In this memoir the mineral in question is directly referred to upwards of 
thirty times, and indirectly several times more ; and yet, if the evidence of 
Scotch rocks is not in absolute discordance with those of the English rocks, I 
am able to say that, while at three of the localities mentioned,* it is possible 
that the mineral may be chlorite, in all the rest it is certainly a substance 
which has no connection therewith. 

It is not meant to be insisted on that true metamorphism may not take 
place in volcanic rocks ; but a study of Mr Ward's admirably precise descrip- 
tions goes to show that degradation, or at least not metamorphism pure and 
simple, had altered the rocks he treats of — had filled their vesicles, and lined 
their nests. And, while decomposition and recomposition through degradation 
is not insisted on as the sole possible change, it lias to be said that it is the 
only one which has as yet been clearly shown to alter such rocks. 

But Mr Ward's position, as he himself shows, is precisely that of the first 
petrologists of the clay. He writes : — " Under the head of Diabase, Zirkel 

* Great Gable, Eskdale, and Harter Fell. The fan-shaped crystalline groups of Harter Fell are 
very probably chlorite. The nests from the same locality, ranging up to 1 inch in diameter, composed 
of a " fibrous crystalline " mineral, can hardly be so. As these large nests, a single one of which 
would suffice for an analysis, can, with " a little careful hammering, be taken out whole from the rock," 
it is much to be regretted that they were not examined ; as a fibrous crystalline green mineral would 
in all probability prove to be either Kirwanite, or new. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 57 

remarks (' Microskopische Beschaft'enheit,' p. 407), that the diffused greenish 
mineral seems to be chlorite, and probably a decomposition product of augite, 
and the same is very likely the case among the Cumberland rocks, for the larger 
augite crystals, which occur in considerable abundance among some of the lava- 
flows, are often replaced by," &c. Now, here surely is evidence of a sufficiency 
being obtainable for analysis. The eye can be educated to such a use of the 
microscope as to be able to trace a gradual process of decomposition, but never 
to determine the composition of an unknown mineral. 

Cotta also is in much the same position. In defining diabase, and enumerat- 
ing its components, he says, "and some chlorite." "The green colour of the 
rock is chiefly owing to its chlorite." " The most marked feature of its differ- 
ence from dolerite is its chlorite, and its consequent green colour. If this 
chlorite be a product of transmutation, then all the original difference between 
diabase and dolerite probably consists in the level or depth of solidification." 

It is significant that Cotta does not enumerate chlorite among the minerals 
accessory to diabase in its clefts and veins ; while he says, " The vesicular 

cavities are filled with chlorite, glauconite, and the like." It is 

well known that the veins of a rock contain the materials of its general structure 
in giant-development of crystals, while its amygdules and druses contain the 
products of the transmutation thereof, through aqueous change and transfer. 

Lately, however, clearer light is beginning to be thrown on the matter, for 
we have Dana supporting Rosenbusch when he says that chlorite is not an 
essential characteristic of diabase ; and those who look in Scotland for chlorite 
in rocks in all other respects entitled to the name of diabase will certainly find 
none. 

If we are to accept and found upon the above admissions — namely, that the 
amygdules of these so-called chloritiferous-volcanics contain the material which, 
diffused in minute granular or flaky condition throughout their mass, imparts 
the occasional green tint, then my analyses have determined that material to 
be in no way connected with chlorite except in colour. 

The results of the following investigation go to show that the minerals 
usually thrown together under the term which I somewhat unwillingly adopted 
as the heading of this chapter, are to be grouped under two absolutely distinct 
heads. For the first the old term of the chlorites may be retained ; to the 
second the term the saponites may be applied, from the unctuous feeling which 
is a marked characteristic of them all. 

So far as the evidence of over fifty analyses and much contingent observation 
entitles me to speak, the members of the first of these groups are found only 
in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, never occurring in volcanics ; the 
second are confined invariably to the latter, never being seen in the former 
class of rocks. 



58 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

The members of first are not decomposed by chlorhydric acid, and there is 
no peculiarity in the manner in which their constituent water functions. 

The members of second are (with one exception) readily decomposed by 
chlorhydric acid, and the mode in which a portion of their constituent water is 
held in combination is anomalous. 

The first are to be regarded as constituents of the rock mass which 
contains them, — paragenetic in time with the minerals associated with them. 

The second are products of the degradation of the primal constituents of the 
rock, and are compounds of a more stable nature than the originals which yielded 
them through a destructive change. 

It has to be admitted that the minute granular or crypto-crystalline nature 
of certain of these minerals renders them extremely difficult of discrimination, 
but the above may safely be used as leading-lines for the separation of the two 
classes, and the distinctions which will enable us in future to identify the 
individual members will be noticed after the consideration of the whole. 

So far as I have yet ascertained, the following members of each of these groups 
occur in this country : — 

Chlorites. 

Glauconite. 

Talc-chlorite. 

Penninite. 

Ripidolite. 

Chlorite. 

Chloritoid. 



Saponites. 

Delessite. 

Chlorophseite. 

Hullite. 

Saponite. 

Celadonite. 



THE CHLORITES. 

Many of the denser " chloritic minerals " are so crypto-crystalline in their 
structure that we can call in the aid of neither the goniometer nor the polari- 
scope in their determination ; we are thus confined for the most part to physical 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



59 



and chemical characters. Sooth to say, the first of these lend hardly any aid, 
if they do not even somewhat tend to confuse. 

As thus : Taking Dana as usual as our English guide, we find the following 
ranges of specific gravities 





from 




to 


Of Penninite 


2-6 . 


. 


2-85 


Leuchtenbergite, 


2-61 


.2-71 




Ripidolite, 


. 2-65 . 


. 2-78 




Chlorite, 




. 2-78 . 


2-96 


Pyrosclerite, . 




. 2-74 




Epichlorite, 




2-76 




Delessite, 






. 2-89 


Strigovite, 




. 


. 3-144 


Thuringite, 






. 3-151 
to 
3-197 



From out of these, no one of which in their fine-grained or ill-defined forms 
can easily be distinguished from the others, only the two last can be selected 
as standing in any measure apart. 

But even as regards the three commoner species, I cannot say that the 
evidence of such specimens, as analysis indicates to me should be placed under 
each of these species, bears out the ranges of specific gravity as limited by 
Dana. 

In allocating them by constitution alone we have little difficulty as regards 
true chlorite. Its low content of silica, and to a certain extent its lower 
magnesia and water, and its high alumina and ferrous oxide, enable us clearly 
to draw the line between it and the others. 

But the larger amount of alumina in ripidolite is the sole feature of distinc- 
tion between that mineral and penninite. 

Allocating the varieties I have analysed in accordance with these lines, I 
find the specific gravities to have the following ranges : — 



Of Penninite, 
Ripidolite, 
Chlorite, 



from 
2-59 



to 



2-823 



2-697 



3-099 
2-959 
3-038 



Supposing my allocation to be correct, this shows that the three species do 
not differ in gravity. 

Searching for aid from geognostic relationships we find little or none, and 
are again brought painfully in face of one of the shortcomings of mineralogical 
works, a shortcoming which I have already alluded to in speaking of the 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. Q 



60 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

micas, — namely, the dearth of information accorded to us by them, relating to 
the special rocks in which minerals are found, and also as to the other mineral 
species which are associated with them. 

Even the ponderous and classical work of Dana tells us no more than the 
following : — 

Penninite, " with serpentine ;" 

Ripidolite, " in connection with chlorite and talcose rocks in schists and serpentine ;" 

Chlorite, " same as for ripidolite." 

There is certainly no geognostic distinction in this, and the evidence of the 
specimens analysed by me, so far from importing more precision, has an opposite 
effect; for, while it widens the geognostic scope of the occurrence of these 
minerals, it does so at the cost of opening up the habitats very much to each 
and all. 

I speak only from evidence drawn from specimens actually analysed, and 
the record runs thus : — 

Penninite, — serpentinous belt in hornblendic gneiss ; ditto in mica slate ; in 
serpentine ; pseudophite in uralitic diorite. 

Ripidolite, in actynolitic belt in hornblendic gneiss ; in steatitic belts in 
chlorite slate ; in granular limestone in mica slate. 

Chlorite, in serpentinous belt in mica slate ; in intrusive granite ; in quartzose 
belts in mica slate ; in granular limestone ; in mica slate and gneiss. 

Were we to lay weight upon numerical evidence, or frequency of occur- 
rence in each rock, we should have to make the record more confusing still, by 
saying that chlorite most frequently affects granular limestones and quartzose 
belts ; while penninite and ripidolite affect " chloritic rocks." 

Premising then in these general remarks that the fine-grained varieties are 
arranged in virtue of their chemical features, I now give the analyses of each, 
considering the three more important species first. i 

Arranged in the order of their content of silica, they stand as on page 58. 



PENNINITE. 

From Serpentine in Hornblendic Gneiss. 

1. From the island of Scalpa or Glass, near Harris. 

A small promontory and a short stretch of the adjoining eastern coast of 
this island consists of a bed of serpentine ; this is regularly interstratified with 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



61 



the gneiss, which dips to the south-east. The serpentine along the coast is very 
inaccessible, on account of its extending but little inland from a line of precipi- 
tous cliffs. The small protruding point was many years ago chosen as the site 
of a lighthouse. The works connected with the cutting a foundation platform, 
and the building of a pier exposed the stratum, and showed its relations to 
the gneiss. This spot acquired some interest shortly after the building of the 
lighthouse, on account of the mineral zircon having been first here found in the 
British Islands by Patrick Neill in 1811. The crystals of zircon, which are 
very minute, lie imbedded in the mineral analysed. This constitutes a bed of 
about a couple of feet in thickness; its colour is a very dark green; the larger 
bed is divided into smaller, differing somewhat in structure. The general mass 
which contains the zircon crystals is hard, somewhat coarse and slaty ; it carries 
veins of steatite, Dolomite, and thinner portions of chlorite itself, of a structure 
which is softer, minute-granular, or even scaly. The scales, however, are so 
minute that they are hardly recognisable, and this closeness of structure has led 
to its having been called potstone ; at least potstone has been said here to 
occur, and this is the only substance which I found at the locality likely to 
have been mistaken for it. 

The specific gravity of this finer-grained and purer variety is 3 ■ 099. 

1 • 628 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -465 




From Alumina, . ■ 036 




•501 = 


30 • 405 


Alumina, . 


11 • 58 


Ferric Oxide, 


2 • 343 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


10-71 


Manganous Oxide, 


1-19 


Lime, 


trace 


Magnesia, . 


30 • 634 


Potash, 


•01 


Soda, 


1-306 


Water, 


11 • 743 



99-921 



1 • 3 per cent, of the silica were insoluble. It possibly contained a very 
minute quantity of magnetite, as crystals of this were seen in other specimens. 



2. From half a mile south of the farm of Corrycharmaig in Glen Lochy, 
Perthshire. 

The rock of the district is a mica-schist, with veins of a peculiar claret- 
coloured hyaline quartz carrying chlorite and rutiie. 

At the locality whence the mineral was taken, chromite had been wrought. 



62 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



It occurred in a highly tortuous vein, which, with its veinstone, was about six 
feet wide. This vein runs in a general sense along the strike. 

A considerable quantity of penninite lay about the old workings, but pure 
pieces were rare ; it was also associated with picrolite and "baltimorite." 

The first specimen I saw I obtained from the dealer Doran, who sold it as 
Leuchtenbergite : this differed from any specimen I have seen either on the 
spot or elsewhere in Scotland. It consisted of a band or layer of foliated 
crystals of half an inch or more in thickness, said crystals lying transverse to 
the sides of the layer. Its colour was leek green. The specimens I obtained 
on the spot were of a dark-green colour : they all consisted of masses of 
foliaceous crystals of half an inch in size, but these all lay in parallel arrange- 
ment with the rock matrix. Their lustre was high, and not pearly. Specific 
gravity, 2 ■ 895. 

1 • 542 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -505 




From Alumina, . "024 




•529 = 


34 • 306 


Alumina, 


13-64 


Chromium Sesquioxide, 


trace 


Ferric Oxide, . 


•364 


Ferrous Oxide, 


10-305 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•227 


Lime, 


8-97 


Magnesia, 


18 • 041 


Potash, . 


1-36 


Soda, 


13 


Water, . 


12 • 407 



99-75 



Insoluble silica, 6 ■ 79. Was apparently quite pure. 



3. Kammererite. — This chromiferous variety I first found in Britain in the 
year 1848. It occurred in a granular massive form in considerable quantity in 
the great quarry of chromite at Hagdale in Unst, Shetland. Its colour is 
purple to bluish purple. It ordinarily contains nodules of the size of shot, 
which are quite granular, and probably differ in composition. These were 
removed. Rarely it is foliaceous, and still more rarely regular imbedded 
hexagonal crystals are to be seen ; these are less than a quarter of an inch in 
size. They are pale violet in colour, and sometimes light green. They are 
readily cleavable into thin folias. 

Of the massive variety, which was analysed, the specific gravity is 3 ■ 099. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



63 



The analysis on 25 grains yielded — 



Silica, 




. 29 • 894 


Alumina, . 


12-931 


Chromium Sesquioxide, 


5-967 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


1-955 


Nickel Oxide, 




trace 


Lime, 




3-54 


Magnesia, 




29-933 


Potash, 


, 


1-156 


Soda, 

Water, 




•974 
13-266 


Carbonic Acid, 


• 


trace . 



99-616 

4. Five and twenty years after the first discovery of this very rare mineral 
in Unst, it was again obtained by Mr Dudgeon and myself among the vein- 
stones of a new chromite quarry which lay to the north-west of the House of 
Buness, some two miles from the original locality. It was here occasionally in 
fairly well-formed crystals, which are elongated rhombohedra. 

The cleavage folise of these crystals are optically uniaxial, or with a very 
slight axial divergence. Their colour is a bright purple. They are over a 
quarter of an inch in length and breadth. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -401 




From Alumina, . -019 




•42 = 


32-307 


Alumina, 


7 • 497 


Chromium Sesquioxide, 


7-888 


Ferrous Oxide, 


2-076 


Lime, 


3 • 833 


Magnesia, 


32-153 


Water, . 


14 • 246 



99-90 

Insoluble silica, 5 " 233. Was apparently pure. 

At both of the above localities of Kammererite it was associated with a 
pulverulent substance of a light-yellow colour. Analysis showed this sub- 
stance to be new. I have elsewhere described it under the name of Hibbertite. 



5. Pseudophite. — This allomorph, which I now introduce as new to Britain, 
was obtained by Professor Nicol and myself from the east side of Beauty Hill, 
in Aberdeenshire. 

VOL. XXIX. part i. R 



64 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

It occurred in thin veins in a gabbro, which was composed of apparently a 
dark granular augite or uralite, the crystals of which, of the size of large shot, 
were singly imbedded in a waxy-looking massive labradorite, — " Saussurite " (?) 

The veins were sharply defined, but the labradorite was seen within an 
inch or so of the veins to become greenish in colour and actually to pass by 
insensible gradation into the mineral described. 

The colour of this substance in the veins was pale sap-green : it was trans- 
lucent, tough, and like slate-pencil, and had a specific gravity of 2 ■ 59. There 
were no associated minerals. 

1 • 264 grammes yielded — 

Silica, , . "431 
From Alumina, . •008 



•439 


34-731 


Alumina, . 


. 12-444 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 2 • 684 


Manganous Oxide, 


. 1-17 


Lime, 


. 1-595 


Magnesia, 


. 34 • 098 


Water, 


. 13-1 



99-822 

Insoluble silica, 6 ■ 834 per cent. The specimen analysed was perfectly pure. 

Since the above analysis was made, my attention has been particularly 
directed to pyrosclerite by Professor King of Galway, with a view to the cor- 
relation of the gneissic limestones of the west of Scotland with those of Conne- 
marra in Ireland. 

The Beauty Hill mineral differs from a specimen of pyrosclerite sent to me 
by Professor King as from Elba, in the single respect of being somewhat 
harder, perhaps also in being a little paler in colour. But it is a question if 
the Elba mineral is truly pyrosclerite. 

Dana makes pyrosclerite a micaceous mineral, with eminent cleavages ; 
pseudophite he refers to as compact-massive, and without cleavages ; in other 
physical characters, as well as in chemical composition, they are almost 
identical ; and if, as is held, pyrosclerite occurs in a colloidal state, it is not 
easy to see how any line can be drawn between the two. 

As regards the present mineral, considered in the light of the slight differ- 
ences which do exist between them in their typical forms, it more agrees with 
pyrosclerite in hardness, — with pseudophite in gravity and in structure, — while 
its being apparently an alteration product of a felspar, is a feature which has 
as yet been assigned to neither. As certain of the " colloidal pyrosclerites " 
sent me by Professor King, both from St Phillipe in the Vosges, and from 
Ireland, very much resemble pseudomorphs (set down as serpentine after 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



65 



sahlite), which occurs in the Glenelg limestone, and also thin veins which cut 
the serpentine of Portsoy (set down as being precious serpentine), I shall, after 
analysing these, take this question up in treating of the serpentines. 



EIPIDOLITE. 



From Limestone in Mica Slate. 



1. It is probably the continuation of the great bed of limestone which 
courses down Glen Tilt which crosses the Garry to the south of the village of 
Blair Athol, and which then curves westward by the Allt Bhaic. 

A small quarry of this limestone has been wrought on the south side of the 
stream, under the slopes of the Hill of Tulloch. 

The highly plicated beds of the lime contain scaly masses and rosette 
crystallisations of ripidolite associated with Biotite and quartz. The ripidolite 
is pale olive green in colour, and has a pearly lustre. 

The rosettes have a hexagonal arrangement, but the structure is not suffi- 
ciently simple and evident to allow of the form being determined. 

1 • 34 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 


. 


•383 


From 


Alumina, . 
Alumina, . 


• 023 
•406 




Ferrous Oxide, . 




Manganous 


Oxide, 




Magnesia, 


. 




Water, 





30 


298 


19 


397 


8 


232 




373 


29 


104 


13 


07 


100 


474 



Insoluble silica, 6 • 182 per cent. 
A perfectly similar mineral occurs in a limestone quarry north-east of 
Edintian ; this lime is probably the continuation of the Lude bed. The asso- 
ciates here are pyrrhotine, Biotite, sphene, and ilmenite. 



From Chlorite Slate. 

2. The southern half of the promontory of Hillswickness in the mainland of 
Shetland is composed of rocks which may be grouped under the above name. 



66 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



At a point on the south-west shore of that ness, near the prominent Gardie 
Stack, there is a crevice called Sandy Geo. Stakes of wood are driven into the 
turf, from which the islanders suspend themselves by ropes while gathering 
sea-weed from the foot of the cliffs. By the exercise of extreme care, how- 
ever, ropes may for a certain part of the descent be dispensed with, and a bed 
of steatite which protrudes from the slippery bank be reached. This bed has 
— as has another such in Shetland — been apjDlied by the Shetlanders to the 
singular purpose of serving as a record of pledged vows — the names of the 
engaging parties being carved, with date attached, into the steatite. Numerous 
single individuals have, however, by the exercise of their graphic powers, pro- 
faned this sanctuary. 

The locality is called the Klebber-names, — Klebber being the Norwegian 
name for steatite. 

The greater mass of the steatite here, if it be steatite, is of a purplish-red 
colour. Disposed throughout it, and perhaps chiefly in those portions which 
are somewhat green in colour, are numerous isolated rosette crystallisations, 
nearly spherical in form, and the centre of each sphere is occupied by an octo- 
hedral crystal of magnetite. 

As the crystals of the magnetite are of sharply and regularly developed 
form, of a fine blue colour and a high lustre, they contrast well with the 
ripidolite, the diverging plates of which are smooth, of high transparency, and 
a beautiful emerald green. There are thus formed specimens of so singular an 
appearance that the small size of their parts alone prevents their being regarded 
as among the most striking of Scottish minerals. 

The form of the individual crystals of the fan-shaped radiations cannot, 
from their small size, be determined. Their minuteness also alone prevented 
investigation of their optical properties, for they were perfectly transparent. 

1-275 grammes yielded— 

Silica, . . -41 
From Alumina, . ' 005 



Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, . 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, . 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



32 


•549 


13 


•95 




•972 


5 


•275 




•150 




•79 


32 


785 




•48 




062 


13 


173 


100 


192 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 67 

Insoluble silica, 4 ■ 819 per cent. ; loses 1 ■ 961 per cent, of water in the 
bath. 

From Hornblendic Gneiss. 

3. At the grandly picturesque headland of Cape Wrath, — or more correctly 
Rath, — the hornblendic gneiss of the west coast differs in its features very con- 
siderably from those which it possesses elsewhere, and which may be said to 
be almost unvarying. The dip here is low, and to the east or east-south-east. 
It is highly corrugated and folded, and it is rent and shifted and reagglutinated 
by an anastimosing and mutually intersecting series of granitic veins. Its own 
granitic belts, instead of assuming as elsewhere much of the character of a set 
of parallel dykes, with abrupt and sharply-marked surfaces, blend by insensible 
gradation into the ordinary material of the rock, which is here even somewhat 
of the nature of granite itself. 

It is this greater consistency of the rock as a whole, this more intimate 
interpenetration and consequent firmer cohesion of its parts, coupled with the 
altogether unique manner in which its every layer is bound together by granitic 
cords of unusual toughness — interlaced in such a manner as to defy unravelling 
— that has enabled it to form so fitting a termination to a kingdom, — so 
enduring a rampart against even Atlantic billows. 

Such are the features of the rock for about a mile to east and south of the 
lighthouse. Another feature has, however, to be noticed ; it is, within the space 
so included, much less characterised by the presence of particles of hornblende 
than is usual, being of a pinkish instead of a green cast of colour. This local 
deficiency of hornblende is, however, more than compensated for at a point 
about one and a half miles south of the lighthouse, where the strata have 
gradually increased their dip, and assumed a line of outcrop which is that 
normal to the rock in the south. Here the beds suddenly become almost alter- 
natingiy hornblendic and felspathic ; and as the intermediate felspathic bands 
have frequently yielded to the weather, those which are hornblendic stand 
erect in repeated sequence, simulating dykes of a dark igneous rock. 

Just about the same spot also, in cove-like recesses of the older rock, the 
horizontal strata of that many-coloured conglomerate which has been assigned to 
the Cambrian epoch, make their appearance in outlying portions of very circum- 
scribed dimensions. 

In the second (in progressing southward) of these coves of the Cambrian 
Sea, — one which is now sentinelled on the north by a grand development of 
the black bands of the older rock, and on the south by an equally grand illustra- 
tion of intrusively anastomosing granite, — my companion, Professor Geikie, and 
I hit upon an interesting mineral locality. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. S 



68 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



This is situated on the grassy bank, only some few feet below where the 
conglomerate reposes in horizontal and peacefully rectilinear beds upon the 
denuded gneiss, which dips from the under surface of these beds almost at right 
angles thereto. 

The first of these erected beds to which interest attaches, carries hydrous 
anthophyllite, amianthus, and a jasper-like chert ; the second, which is some 
twenty yards to the south, contains a layer of ripidolite in close association 
with lavender-grey steatite and actynolitic hornblende. 

A year after our discovery of this mineral locality, the present writer found 
two other localities which lie in similar recesses among the rocks some little 
distance to the south. These contain the ripidolite in much larger quantity, 
but here its only associate is hornblende. 

This ripidolite forms belts in the rock, which consist of a mass of nearly 
parallel scales, of about the size of peas. They have a greasy lustre, and a 
blackish-green colour. Specific gravity, 2 ■ 823. 

1 • 1 02 grammes yielded — ■ 



Silica, . . -331 
From Alumina, . "Oil 

342 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, . 
Water, 



31- 


034 


14 


845 


5 


73 


17 


417 




998 




•355 


17 


•422 


12 


481 


100 


•292 



• 802 per cent, of the water were given off in the bath. Was apparently 
pure ; possible impurity, hornblende. 



4. Aphrosiderite. — I retain for the specimens now to be noticed the name 
assigned to them by Greg, as their high content of iron entitles them thereto. 

They occur in the chlorite-slate of the south-west of Scotland. An analysis 
probably of this variety from Bute by Varrentrapp is to be found in Greg 
and Lettsom's " Manual of Mineralogy." It occurs in large masses along with 
quartz in the scars on the east side of the Bishop's Hill above Dunoon. Here 
the structure is coarse and loose scaly, and the colour light green. Imbedded 
in quartz boulders which lie in the mouth of the stream (the Dirty Burn) which 
descends from these scars, the mineral is found in a brilliant dark-green minute 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



69 



scaly form. It is here associated with wad and pyrite. Its specific gravity is 
2 ■ 959. 

1 • 381 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 

From Alumina, 



475 
014 



•489 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, 
Soda, 
Water, 



35 


409 


18 


081 




484 


26 


466 




608 


1 


013 


8 


767 




977 




522 


8 


028 


100 


355 



The silica here is large in amount. In other respects the analysis is similar 
to that of the aphrosiderite from Bonschener analysed by Erlenmeyer. It is 
possible that in several of these minutely foliated chlorites there may be inter- 
stitial quartz, but it is not probable that it would have escaped notice in the 
grinding in the smooth agate mortar. 



CHLORITE. 



From Micaceous Gneiss. 



1. The first occurrence I notice was in a serpentinous series of beds, which 
are interstratified with the gneiss of the north point of the Mainland of Shet- 
land ; this point is called Fethaland. 

At a small bight termed Pundy Geo there is a bed of massive chlorite of a 
fine colour, which carries large crystals of magnetite. In association with this 
there is a picrolitic bed. The gneiss here being almost destitute of felspar, has 
much of the character of mica slate. 



70 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



The chlorite here is of a very pure appearance : it has a minutely granular 
structure composed of foliated crystals confusedly matted together. Its colour 
is bright green. It is so pervaded with crystals of magnetite that a portion suffi- 
ciently free therefrom could not be got for the determination of the specific 
gravity. 

1 • gramme yielded— 

Silica, -239 

From Alumina, . ■ 004 



•243 = 


24 


3 


Alumina, . 


20 


858 


Ferric Oxide, 


3 


•567 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


16 


'718 


Manganous Oxide, 




-55 


Lime, 




•504 


Magnesia, 


22 


•2 


Water, 


11 


547 




100 


244 



From Mica Slate. 



2. The great band of this rock which passes from north-east to south-west 
through the lower Highlands of Scotland is everywhere characterised by thin 
rifts and layers of quartz, which presents features which are markedly different 
in the different districts where the rock occurs ; and there are three very 
characteristic bands of quartz which follow its strike, though not without 
frequent interruptions in the continuity of their course. 

The rock itself is not possessed of well-marked features until in traversing 
westward we reach the neighbourhood of Ben Bhrackie. Here the quartz 
presents itself in nodules and laminae ; these are much flawed, and they 
are characterised by having every here and there a disposition to a yellow 
coloration, which is sometimes very brilliant. The yellow appears sometimes 
only disposed in spots, in either a milk-white or in a colourless variety. It 
has much the appearance of staining ; but from the coloration appearing fre- 
quently in the interior of the stone and not on its surface, it can be no staining 
from without, even if we admitted that an outside stain could do more than 
lodge in cracks. 

After having collected specimens of this bright yellow quartz from many 
localities, I have discovered it to be due to the decomposition of crystals of 
pyrite ; these, now converted in greater part into limonite, lie in the centre of 
the coloured portions. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 71 

I have said that this yellow quartz is first seen on the hill of Ben Bhrackie ; 
it re-appears with even a red hue on the ridge to the east of the Hill of Tulloch, 
and it may be found here and again — notably on Ben Derag in Glen Lyon, Meall 
Luaidhe, and Meall Ghaordie (Girdy), along the whole ridge as far as the north 
slopes of Fiarach near Crianlarich, and the col between Ben Yoss and Ben 
Laoigh (Loy). 

Parallel to but north of the belt of yellow quartz, there occurs a more 
strongly developed snow-white saccharoid variety; but this is also found 
in quartzose gneiss, as on the east slopes of Cam Aoscla and Cam 
Chrionaidh in Glen Clunie, and the south-east slopes of Ben Uran ; it is 
not in that rock, however, by any means so strongly developed as in the 
mica slate. 

Of its localities in the latter rock, in none is it so strongly developed as 
in a knoll to the north-east of the summit of Meall Ghaordie ; on the south- 
west side of this knoll it forms layers of nearly a foot in thickness, and 
of a purity of colour which was quite equal to the snow out of which I once 
quarried it. 

In a nearly parallel arrangement to the above yellow and white belts, but 
to the south of both, lies the third, which is quite as marked in its peculiar 
features. 

In the most characteristic specimens, such as are found in the gorge of 
the Loch of Chat, between Meall Garabh and Ben Lawers, at the foot of 
the cliffs of Craig Cailleach, and in greatest abundance in the Creag 
Mohr of Glen Lochy, it may be said to present itself as a hyaline colloidal 
cairngorm. 

I purposely use the italicised word to give force to the peculiarity of its 
appearance, which is that of a large mass of gum, being never crystallised, 
and having a more than ordinary vitreous lustre. 

The colour here, in the finest specimens, is somewhat like that of 
the finer varieties of cairngorm, but it is very much more delicate, being 
of a pale brown, markedly dashed with an amethystine tint, — it might be 
almost called a watery claret. 

When cut, it forms stones much to be preferred to any of the brown 
varieties of the cairngorm. 

Now, this variety of quartz, in its finest specimens, carries filaments of 
rutile— Venus' hair — and chlorite. When degraded somewhat in colour it still 
carries chlorite ; and when still further degraded almost to a muddy white, 
when it is still somewhat hyaline, it carries ilmenite. 

The range of this variety may be said to commence on the western slopes 
of Meall Gruaidh (Croy) ; to be chloritic and rutiliferous to near Crianlarich; to 
carry ilmenite from Craig Cailleach, Ben More, and the group around the pic- 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. • T 



72 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



turesque Cruach Ardran, as far south at least as the slopes of Ben Ima ; and 
to be chloritic from Ben Derag of Glen Lyon, probably nearly to Macrahanish 
Bay in Kantyre. 

From this stretch I obtained specimens fitted for analysis and also for 
forming cabinet specimens from the following places : — The west slopes of Ben 
Derag ; Craig-an-Lochan ; south-west of Meall Ptarmichan ; Cruach Ardran ; 
and Ben Laoigh. 

I do not, however, know of rich specimens beyond the south-eastern slopes 
of the Ben Laoigh.* 

Of specimens from the above localities I analysed the following : — 

2. From the west slopes of Ben Derag of Glen Lyon. — Associated with 
quartz : colour, grass-green ; structure, matted fine crystals, very dense. 
Specific gravity, 3 ■ 002. 

On 1 



491 grammes — 










Silica, . . -3645 








From Alumina, . ■ 004 








•3685 


= 24 


715 






Alumina, 


21- 


566 


21- 


657 


Ferric Oxide, . 




615 






Ferrous Oxide, 


26 


•164 


27 


025 


Manganous Oxide, . 




•47 






Lime, 




45 






Magnesia, 


12 


•86 


12 


8 


Potash, . 


1 


•726 






Soda, 




054 






Water, . 


10-886 







99 • 506 



This is an aphrosiderite. 

3. From beneath the cliffs of Craig-an-Lochan, Perthshire. — Occurs in quartz 
of a brown colour, as a confused mass of brilliant dark green minute crystals, 
rarely slightly brown from weathering ; associated very rarely with ilmenite and 
large flat transparent folise of chlorite (?) of a lighter green, which are imbedded 
in quartz in single plates. Specific gravity 2 *697. 



* The Old Red Conglomerate at Callendar contains rarely quartz nodules, with chlorite, very 
similar in appearance to that of Cruach Ardran. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 
On 1 • 519 grammes — 

Silica, . . -363 

From Alumina, . • 006 

•369 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, . 
Soda, 
Water, . 



73 



24 


292 


21 


147 




101 


18 


739 




8 


1 


659 


21 


033 


1 


286 




564 


10 


083 


99 


704 



8*13 per cent, of the silica insoluble. 



From Granular Limestone in Mica Slate. 

4. The bed of limestone which appears near the house of Lude, running 
parallel to that of Glen Tilt, contains small imbedded masses of a pale olive- 
green colour, sometimes slightly browned. The structure is minute scaly, and 
the scales are so soft that the mineral has been thought to be "potstone." 
Specific gravity 2 ■ 852. 

1 • 4635 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -332 




From Alumina, . -019 




•351 


= 23 • 922 


Alumina, 


22-976 


Ferric Oxide, . 


1-106 


Ferrous Oxide, 


19 • 54 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•28 


Lime, 


2 • 453 


Magnesia, 


17-259 


Water, . 


11 • 784 



99-39 



5 • 67 per cent, of the silica was insoluble : possible impurity, lime. 

5. In the same quarry, translucent quartz in layers rarely cuts the lime; and 
this quartz contains chlorite, which differs from the above only in being of a 



74 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



bright-green colour. It was examined to see if the difference of the matrix 
affected the composition of the mineral to any marked extent. Its specific 
gravity also is 2 ' 852. 

1 ' 396 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Water, . 



24 


66 


23 


19 




636 


20 


579 




29 




•4 


17 


79 


12 


119 


99 


664 



5 * 56 per cent, of the silica were insoluble. 

The same quarry contains bands of a dark, dense, granular rock rather than 
mineral ; this is perhaps entitled to the name of potstone. 

6. A bed of limestone is seen on the highway about a mile east of Loch 
Laggan in Inverness-shire. This contains much very fine granular chlorite, of 
a grass-green colour. It is here very soft, and has a specific gravity of 2* 834. 

It contains, imbedded in its mass, large plates of brown Biotite. 

1 • 586 grammes gave — 

Silica, . 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Magnesia, 
Water, . 



Insoluble silica, 2 per cent.; possible impurity, Biotite. 



26 


25 


19 


22 


1 


67 


16 


44 


1 


02 


24 


35 


11 


67 


100 


62 



From Chlorite Slate. 

7. The stone of which the houses of Portsoy in Banffshire are built is 
obtained from a quarry of a very calcareous clay slate, situated on the sea-shore 
a little to the west of the town. Immediately to the east of this, the first rock 
seen is a chlorite-slate, or rock ; this occurs as a high-tilted bed, dipping south- 
east. It contains fragmentary and angular masses of dense hornblende rock, 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



75 



26 


71 


20 


424 


3 


472 


13 


■993 




•726 


23 


■896 


11 


•17 


100 


•391 



imbedded in a most peculiar manner, and occasional nodules and layers of 
plicated foliae of chlorite. These are much intermixed with grains of quartz. 

The colour of this chlorite is bright green, mixed with plates of a golden 
yellow ; the lustre is high. It is soft and unctuous. The specific gravity of a 
portion, apparently nearly free from quartz, was 2 ■ 792. 
25 grains yielded — 

Silica, .... 

Alumina, 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Water, . 

The golden colour may be the result of peroxidation 

From intrusive (?) Granite. 
8. The gneiss of the Girdleness, in Kincardineshire, is riddled on both sides 
of the point with tortuous intrusive veins of granite. One of these, cut across 
in sinking for the foundations of the new breakwater for the Aberdeen harbour, 
yielded, in small quantities, small crystals of orthoclase, with epidote and small 
scaly chlorite. 

This chlorite is of a dark-green colour and a high lustre ; it sheathes the 
crystals of orthoclase, which are pale red in colour. Decomposed crystals of 
pyrite are imbedded both in the chlorite and in the orthoclase. The specific 
gravity of the chlorite is 3 ■ 038. 
1 • 304 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . . . -315 
From Alumina, . ■ 008 



•323 - 


24 


•769 


Alumina, . 


. 20 


164 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 1 


381 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 27 


368 


Manganous Oxide, . 




613 


Lime, 




901 


Magnesia, 


. 13 


343 


Water, 


. 12 


051 



100-59 
Loses 1 • 453 per cent, of water in the bath. 

Chlorite occurs extremely rarely in Scotland in granite. One specimen of a 
substance which I take to be it was got at Eubislaw. 

That the goniometer and polariscope can effect the discrimination of well- 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. U 



76 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

crystallised or large-foliated varieties of these three minerals must be admitted; 
but of the specimens in the succeeding table (p. 80) the following would, 
after mere ocular inspection, be set aside as one and the same. 

Scalpay, Bishop's Hill, Fethaland, Ben Derag, Lude, Loch Laggan, and 
Girdleness; these — which include the three species — would be generally regarded 
as fine-grained massive chlorite. 

Craig-an-Lochan, Portsoy, and specimens from Vanlup, Hillswick, and Ben 
Laoigh, Argyll, would be regarded as large-grained foliated chlorite. 

Corrycharmaig, Cape Wrath, and Blair Athol — which include two species — 
would be considered to be all ripidolite. 

Again, Bishop's Hill, Ben Derag, and Girdleness, may, as regards the amount 
of iron, be all regarded as aphrosiderites. 

As regards the amount of silica, alumina, and water, those ranked as 
chlorites seem to stand apart ; but, in the other ingredients, the three seem so 
to run into one another, that the question arises whether one and the same 
substance be not trimorphic. 

The finest rosette crystallisations of chlorite I have found in Scotland 
occurred at Glen Effoch in Tarffside, in mica schist ; on the south-west slopes 
of Aonach Beg, Inverness-shire ; and, along with sphene and fluor in limestone, 
at " the three burns " south of Gaulrig in Glen Avon. Jameson mentions its 
occurrence in fine crystals upon the road from Ardsin to the harbour of the 
Small Isles in Jura. 



CHLORITOID. 

1. This mineral is inserted here on account of its name expressing some rela- 
tion to those first considered, and also from its geognostic relationships being 
similar. I have also found passages in geological works in which " chloritoidal 
schists " and " chloritoidal rocks " were referred to, and I quite believe that the 
name was there employed under the supposition that the word was synonymous 
with chloritic. It is very probable that the mineral itself was quite unknown to 
the writers, the present notice being the first occasion on which it has been 
introduced as a British species. 

I obtained it some twenty years ago at Vanlup, Hillswickness, Shetland, 
imbedded in quartz veins, in close association with kyanite and margarodite. 
The including rock is a margarodite-schist, generally considered a talc-schist. 

The colour of the first specimen found was misleading as regards its nature, 
being clove or chocolate brown, from a partial peroxidation of its iron. 

Its lustre was shining, slightly pearly. Streak greyish. Cleavage basal 
perfect, but interrupted; parallel to two lateral planes, imperfect and rough. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



77 



Structure foliated. Was in rough lozenge-shaped crystals, which were appa- 
rently monoclinic. Brittle. 

Hardness, 5*5 on the cleavage plane, 6 ■ on the lateral. Specific 
gravity, 3 ■ 356. 

On 1 • 305 grammes — 

Silica, . . .. -302 
From Alumina, . -029 



•331 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, . 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, . 
Water, 



25 

41 

3 

13 



100 



363 

736 

895 

932 

919 

901 

82 

571 



137 



Insoluble silica 4 ' 58 per cent. 



2. The above analysis having disclosed the nature of the substances which I 
had regarded as that which had been by some considered Babingtonite, I 
found upon breaking up masses of the rock that deeper-seated crystals were of 
a fine dark-green colour ; and during a late visit to Shetland, in company with 
Mr Dudgeon, I refound the mineral, and was thus enabled to examine perfectly 
unaltered specimens. 

These we obtained at the same spot, imbedded in reddish vitreous massive 
quartz- veins of mica slate, associated with margarodite and pale yellow sphene. 

The colour was dark green, the lustre shining and pearly, the streak pale 
greenish-grey. The specific gravity from 3 ■ 313 to 3 ■ 462. 

24 • 3 grains yielded — 



Silica, . .5-746 




From Alumina, ' 2 




5-946 = 


24-47 


Alumina, 


. 41 • 336 


Ferric Oxide, . 


•383 


Ferrous Oxide, 


18 • 522 


Manganous Oxide, 


•913 


Lime, 


•302 


Magnesia, 


6-8 


Water, . 


6-98 



Insoluble silica, 3 ■ 66 per cent. 



99 • 706 



78 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



TALC-CHLORITE. 

The composition of this mineral is expressed, as shown by Dana, by the 
same general formula as that of pyrosclerite ; but a considerable quantity of 
ferrous oxide here replaces magnesia. 

Its specific individuality cannot be said to have been hitherto absolutely 
determined ; it rests upon three closely accordant analyses by Marignac, and 
an optical determination by Descloizeaux. 

Dana, referring to the excess of its silica above that contained in ripidolite, 
remarks that " it is possibly ripidolite impure from mixture with talc ; " but it is 
extremely improbable that Descloizeaux would not have detected such an 
admixture either while preparing plates for the polariscope, or during the 
employment of the instrument. 

The mineral, I now notice, goes a certain length in aiding in establishing the 
species. 

It was found forming a vein, which occurred on the foreshore, to the south 
of the Banks of the Nudister, at Hillswick, in Shetland. This vein was asso- 
ciated with a similar one of Biotite. The substance, being damp from recent 
marine submergence, could be raised in spadefuls. It formed a pulpy and 
slimy mass of minute glistening scales. These were floated in water to remove 
adhering salt, and being frequently examined during successive decantations, 
were seen to be absolutely free from talc, or any impurity. 

Their colour was grass-green, with a peculiar bronzy or golden lustre in 
certain directions. Their lustre was more pearly than that of chlorite or 
ripidolite. They were exceedingly smooth to the touch. 

1 ' 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 


. 39-81 


Alumina, . 


. 11-432 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 7 • 974 


Manganous Oxide, 


•259 


Lime, 


. 2 • 804 


Magnesia, 


. 25 • 648 


Potash, 


. 1-203 


Soda, 


. 3 • 152 


Water, 


, 7 • 913 




100-194 



Marignac. 

39-87 
11-91 
11-34 



28-76 



7-98 



The air-dried mineral lost at 212°, 10 • 945 of water in addition to the 
above ; a feature sufficing to distinguish it from either ripidolite or talc. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



79 



A "chloritic mineral," differing from this merely in a greater brightness of 
colour and lustre, occurs a little west of Portsoy. 

The average of Marignac's three analyses is appended for comparison. 



GLATTCONITE. 



1. In company with Dr Gordon of Birnie, Professor Nicol, and Mr Dudgeon, 
I found this mineral — new to Scotland. — in a kind of cornstone quarry at Ash- 
grove, near Elgin. 

It occurs, along with a manganesian calcite and well-crystallised pyrite, 
acting as an occasional cement of the nodular masses of lime. It is a very soft 
and friable, somewhat dull-green powder ; rarely a bright light-green. 

1 • 32 grammes afforded — 

Silica, . . -644 
From Alumina, ■ 004 

•648 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide . 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia. 
Potash, 
Soda, 
Water, 



49 


•09 


15 


206 


10 


565 


3 


056 




551 


2 


•651 


6 


•052 


1 


•205 


11 


641 



100-017 



Loses 6 • 03 of the above water at 212°. It was readily decomposed by acids. 
Glauconite possibly occurs in some of the silurian limestones of Ayrshire. 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



80 



FROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 





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PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



81 



THE SAPONITES. 



DELESSITE. 



From Igneous Rocks of Old Red Sandstone Age. 

1. At St Cyrus, north of Montrose, there is a great cliff (a raised beach 
being between it and the sea) composed of thick beds of conglomerate, with 
occasional interstrata of amygdaloid. This amygdaloid is studded with agates 
filling long pipe-shaped steam-holes. These agates are for the most part coated 
with light-green, translucent, vitreous-lustered celadonite ; but the steam-holes 
themselves are also frequently entirely filled with Delessite. 

The structure of the Delessite is scaly, — perfectly recognisable here from 
the large size of the scales ; the colour is sap-green, sometimes passing into 
red. It is translucent, and scratches easily with the nail. 

The specific gravity is 2 ■ 652. 

The red variety is much of the colour of brick, and seems sometimes pseudo 
after natrolite ; this may be bole (plynthite). 

Some specimens of the green variety on being pounded become brownish- 
red during the progress ; this seemed to be partly due to the presence of minute 
quantities of the red mineral. 

Of the pure green 1 ■ 3 gramme yielded — 



Silica, . . -419 




From Alumina, ■ 006 




•425 


32 • 692 


Alumina, 


. 13-435 


Ferric Oxide . 


4-397 


Ferrous Oxide, 


6 • 624 


Lime, . 


•861 


Magnesia 


.. 28-769 


Water, , 


. 13 • 245 




100 • 023 



Of the above water, 2 * 774 was lost at the temperature of 212°. 

2. In the dense igneous rock above Bowling Quarry, on the Clyde, and 
between it and Glen Arbuck, this mineral occurs of a close, minutely-foliated 
structure, and a very dark-green, almost black colour. It is softer than the 
nail and has a specific gravity of 2 ■ 573. Its streak is pale green. 



82 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -401 




From Alumina, "015 




•416 


= 32- 


Alumina, 


. 17 ' 328 


Ferric Oxide, . 


1-187 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 12 • 446 


Lime, 


1-569 


Magnesia, 


. 20 • 423 


Water, 


. 15-45 



100 • 403 
Loses 5 • 7 per cent of water at 212° ; insoluble silica, 5 ■ 79 per cent. 

3. From Dumbuck, on the Clyde. — Occurs in imbedded patches up to the 
size of beans, in a somewhat decomposing porphyritic trap, a little north of 
Dumbuck hill. These small masses are frequently irregular in shape, and do 
not seem as if they had filled cavities which had been pre-existent. The rock 
contains in association decomposing augite (Ferrite, of Wallace Young), 
olivine, and calcite. 

The Delessite is of a very dark-green colour, but is markedly lighter in hue 
when first exposed ; it is very soft, has a minutely-foliated structure, and a 
specific gravity of 2 ■ 598. 

1 • 3028 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -398 




From Alumina, -019 




•417 = 


32 • 014 


Alumina, 


. 18 • 874 


Ferric Oxide, . 


1-181 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 12 • 087 


Manganous Oxide, . 


trace 


Lime, . . • . 


. " 1-389 


Magnesia, 


. 19 • 643 


Water, 


. 15-456 



100 • 644 
Lost 6 • 3 of water at 212°; insoluble silica, 8 ■ 893 per cent. 

4. Occurs in a porphyritic amygdaloid, along with zeolites, at the Long 
Craig, Dumbartonshire. Colour very dark green, structure massive-granular, 
rarely glistening. Specific gravity, 2 ■ 656. 

The first specimen I have from this locality was given to me by the late 
Alexander Bryson. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 
On 1 • 303 grammes — 



83 



Silica, . . -399 




From Alumina, ■ 004 




•403 


30-928 


Alumina, 


. 15-323 


Ferric Oxide, . 


3 • 162 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 15 • 309 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•383 


Lime, 


1 • 375 


Magnesia, 


. 18 • 649 


Water, 


. 14-692 



99 • 821 
Loses 4 • 678 of water at 212° ; insoluble silica, 2 ■ 727 per cent. 



From Igneous Rocks intruded among the Coal Measures. 

5. About a mile east of the town of Elie, in Fifeshire, two vertical basalt 
dykes cut tufa. 

Small cavities in these dykes are filled with this mineral, which is associated 
with massive iserine, rarely olivine, and still more rarely fragments of pyrope. 
Its colour is dark green, it is very minutely scaly, and it is very soft. Its specific 
gravity is 2 ■ 672. 

On 1 • 3 grammes — 

Silica, . . -391 
From Alumina, ' 008 

•399 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, . 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, . 
Soda, 
Water, . 



Loses 3 • 389 of water at 212°. 

There is every probability that this is the substance mentioned by Mac- 
culloch, under the name of chlorophaeite, as occurring in Fife. 

It is to be observed of all these Delessites that they darken in colour after 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. Y 



30 


692 


12 


83 


1 


•627 


18 


315 


1 




1 


593 


18 


6 




567 


1 


112 


13 


773 


100 


109 



84 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



their first exposure. The water which is given out when heated to 212° is 
recovered upon mere exposure to an atmosphere in a normal condition as 
regards its dampness. 

There is so much of this mineral exposed upon the surface of the rock about 
Dumbuck that it cannot, in virtue of the manner in which it functions as regards 
the nature of the grasp with which it holds part of its water, but affect to a 
certain extent the state of the atmosphere in the neighbourhood,— moistening it 
while the sun heats up the rock, and clessicating it in cold weather. 

6. There is an alkali- charged variety of this mineral which is found filling small 
nests in this tufa of Elie Ness near the old Summer-House. This is similar in 
all external characters to the others, but contains — 

Silica, 

Alumina, 

Ferric Oxide, . 

Ferrous Oxide, 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, . 

Soda, 

Water, 

Loses 5 • 556 of water at 212°. 

Substances similar in general appearance to Delessite occur in thin veins in 
granitiform-diorite in a quarry west of New Leslie, in Aberdeenshire, and at 
the Mull of Oe in Isla. 



33 


863 


6 


589 


1 


232 


14 


84 




246 


1 


385 


18 


988 


3 


048 


5 


274 


15 


07 


inn 


K1K 



CHLOROPH^EITE. 

1. This species, established by Dr Macculloch on specimens obtained by 
him from beneath the Scuir More ridge of the hill of Creag-na-Stiarnin in 
Rum, has never been analysed. 

From a general similitude in appearance, Macculloch himself supposed that 
the saponite from Fife (? Elie) was the same, and he states that a specimen 
brought from Iceland by Major Peterson was " similar in all characters." 
Others have conjectured that certain substances more or less similar and 
similarly circumstanced were the same ; but that all these conjectures were 
likely to prove correct was more than doubtful, seeing that they were based 
upon the substances having been said to be " chlorite-like minerals," while the 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 85 

chlorophaeite of Macculloch's description, and of the Scuir Molir of Rum, is 
as little " chlorite-like " as it is possible for anything to be. 

Dana, in classifying a mineral from Faroe, which was analysed by 
Forchammer, under the head of "Chlorophaeite," cautiously adds — "The 
chemical identity of the original chlorophaeite of Macculloch from Scuir 
More, with that of Faroe and the other localities has not yet been ascertained." 

Forchammer himself should have doubted their identity, seeing that he 
gives the mineral from Faroe a gravity of 1 ■ 809, while Macculloch's mineral 
had a gravity of 2 ■ 02. 

Forchammer's mineral yielded — silica 32 ■ 85, protoxide of iron 21 ■ 56, 
magnesia 3 ■ 44, water 42 • 1 5 ; and is a totally different substance. 

That Macculloch's mineral, obtained at so near-home a locality as Rum, 
should, during the sixty years which have elapsed since its discovery, never 
have been analysed, was an enigma to the writer, until he noted the discoverer's 
statement, that the small quantities he himself obtained were got from fragments 
lying at the foot of the slope, for he " believed the Scuir-More to be everywhere 
inaccessible." A personal inspection of the locality, and some experience of 
the impossibility of landing at the spot except during the very calmest weather, 
also aided in the explanation. 

At the Scuir-Mohr of Rum igneous rocks of an acidic, felspathic type (syenite, 
Macculloch) have burst through and tilted strata of red "Cambrian" sandstone, 
while mixed beds of amygdaloid and basalt have overflowed these strata merely 
as far as the ruptured edges of the sandstone, and hang over their upturned 
slopes as a capping and encircling cliff. 

At the northern end of the upturn, the angle of the tilt may be 45°; at the 
southern, near the point of Bridianoch, it is about 78°; — vast and unbroken 
sheets of sandstone rising here aloft to a height of about 800 feet. 

Toppled pillars and lumps of amygdaloid from the impending cliff could find 
no resting-place on such a slope as this ; and it was only when the waves had 
eaten out a shore terrace, and the gradually accumulating heap of debris crept 
up the gentler-angled portions of the slope, that the loose material assumed its 
own angle of rest. When the rich " trap-grass " clad it, however, the still 
falling materials were arrested before they reached the sea, to be grown over in 
turn, and serve to impede the fall of others ; so that there has come to be a 
gradual sheathing and enveloping of the original rock-slope by a mass of 
loose material which is devoid of all attachment to its immediately sustaining 
base. Hence there are constantly recurring stone-avalanches, — the slope being 
over 1100 feet in height, — these leave gashes in its substance, the crossing of 
which broken ground may, through a slight disturbance, set much of the over- 
hanging slope in motion. 

Where grass-clad, the slope is, to well-tacketed boots, nothing beyond an 



86 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

unusually tough hand-and-foot scramble ; but when the difficulties special to 
carrying heavy overbalancing hammers, — breaking rocks where there is little 
foothold, — and when that which is grasped is readily set upon the move, — be 
considered, it will not be wondered at that Macculloch's mineral has never yet 
been analysed. 

It moreover occurs in very small amount; it would take many days' work 
to obtain a sufficiency of the perfectly unaltered green mineral. The writer in 
three days' hard work obtained a sufficiency of what was either perfectly or 
moderately fresh. 

To the excellent description of Macculloch I can add nothing, except to 
emphasize some of his statements regarding that which is the most singular 
property of this mineral, — namely, the extreme rapidity with which it changes 
in colour when first exposed. From " the transparent yellow-green of the finest 
olivine " sometimes in the space of ten minutes it passes to a dark green-black ; 
and in other specimens from the fine brown-orange of cinnamonstone to the 
rich brown and brilliant jetty-lustre of asphalt. By instantly after fracture 
wrapping up the one-half of an olive specimen tightly in repeated folds of paper, 
and keeping it as far as possible from exposure to air, heat, and light, I managed 
to retain the colour for about three weeks, only to see it lose it in half an hour 
when finally exposed. The other half became perfectly black after less than 
an hour's exposure. 

Dr Macculloch has noticed it scaling off in concentric crusts ; the finest 
piece I obtained showed, when first broken, layers of successive depositions, 
some very light, some dark green; this specimen could not at first have been 
distinguished from the celadonite which will be noticed as occurring at Tayport, 
in Fife. During ten minutes' exposure to sunlight this specimen, which at first 
was rather dull, had assumed a lustre like that of obsidian; it had become in 
some of the layers dark green, in others black, and it had rent through the 
whole thickness of its layers into rude hexagonal pr isms. 

Specimens securely bottled up immediately upon extraction from the rock 
gave on analysis very little more of ferrous oxide than those which had been 
freely exposed ; the change of colour therefore is not due to peroxidation of 
the ferrous oxide, but must be due to molecular change ; and Brewster * has 
stated that he has optically determined that it is due to the mineral splitting up 
into a multitude of minute hexagonal prisms. 

The material which I analysed was broken out of rude basaltic pillars ; some 
of it, perhaps one-fifth, was green when placed in the bottles ; none had changed 
further than to be rich asphalt brown, and this was still vitreous in lustre. It 
finally withers into a rusty brown or yellow friable lustreless powder. 

The specimen was analysed ten days only after having been collected. 

* Reference lost. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



87 



On 1 • gramme — 




Silica, . . . '356 




From Alumina, . . 004 




•360 


36- 


Ferric Oxide, 


. 22-8 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 2 • 462 


Manganous Oxide, 


•5 


Lime, 


2-52 


Magnesia, . 


. 9-5 


Alkalies, . 


trace 


Water, 


. 26-463 




100-254 



Loses 19*227 of the above water at 212°. 
dissolved in chlorhydric acid. 



It was rapidly and perfectly 



2. The decomposed mineral.— Dr Macculloch was unable to ascertain the 
nature of the circlet of cliff which, like an Elizabethan collar, girdles the top of 
the Scuir. He supposed it to be inaccessible. It can, however, be easily 
turned at its north-west corner by approaching it from the landward side, and 
is then found to consist from top to bottom of repeatedly alternating bands of 
basalt and of amygdaloid. 

The basalt is in rudely columnar forms, and contains very sparsely distributed 
amygdules of the chlorophasite, of about half the size of an almond. Its beds are 
six to eight feet in thickness. 

The amygdaloidal beds are little over a foot in depth. This is a more 
vesicular rock than I ever saw even in Faroe. There has been very much more 
of steam-hole cavity than of solid material; the amygdules are of about the 
size of swan-shot, and they almost coalesce with each other on all sides. They 
are for the most part plugged with decomposed chlorophseite and chalcedony ; 
those on the surface being empty, from the nodules having dropped from their 
casts, — which nodules may be gathered almost in handfuls at the foot of the 
cliff. 

I worked into this amygdaloidal bed as far as seemed safe under the over- 
hanging and by no means firmly attached columns, but did not reach to a part 
of the rock where the chlorophseite was fresh, and had therefore to content 
myself with analysing the altered mineral. 

Its colour is rich chocolate brown, it is friable and very soft, having all the 
appearance of being altered ; and as the chlorophseite of the dense basalt may, 
when exposed or within an inch of the surface of the rock, be seen to pass into 
the ochreous variety, there can be little doubt that the mineral is the same. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. Z 



88 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

Of this altered chlorophaeite, 1 ' 003 grammes yielded — 



ilica, . . . * 171 
rom Alumina, . '007 






•178 = 


17 


746 


Alumina, . 




535 


Ferric Oxide, 


49 


672 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


2 


147 


Manganous Oxide, 


1 


■196 


Lime, .... 


3 


07 


Magnesia, . 


3 


988 


Water, 


21 


818 



100-172 



Loses 10 • 454 of the above water at 212°. 

3. Greg and Lettsom, in their " Manual of Mineralogy," mention the Giant's 
Causeway as one of the localities where chlorophaeite is to be found. I am 
happy to be able, by an analysis of the mineral found there, to show that this, 
which must have been of the nature of a conjecture from similarity of appear- 
ance, was a correct inference. 

That which I analysed was obtained by Duegeon and myself at the basaltic 
point immediately east of the Causeway ; it filled small druses, and also 
coated chalcedony. 

It was much softer than the nail, deep rich brown in colour, unctuous to 
the touch ; its streak was shining, and its structure very minutely granular. 
Its specific gravity is 2 ' 278. 

I'll grammes yielded — 



Silica, 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, . 
Magnesia, 
Potash, 
Soda, . 
Water, 



35 


995 


10 


485 


11 


89 


1 


626 




077 


5 


15 


10 


517 




338 




761 


23 


203 


99 


997 



It lost at 212° 14 • 156 of the above water. It was readily soluble in acids. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



89 



This is an aluminous chlorophseite. The specimen had been kept for several 
years, and may have lost some water. 



HULLITE. 

In the " Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy," Mr Hardman has given a 
description and analysis of a mineral from Carnmoney Hill, Antrim, which he 
names after Professor Hull, but which possibly is merely a dessicated chloro- 
phseite. 

Mr Hardman states that " in physical characters it somewhat resembles the 
chlorophseite of Macculloch, but is entirely different in composition." Seeing 
that no analysis of the chlorophseite of Macculloch has ever been published, it 
is not easy to account for this statement ; probably the analysis by Forchammer 
of the mineral from Faroe was founded upon by Mr Hardman. 

The description of the Carnmoney mineral in all respects agrees with the 
chlorophseite of the Giant's Causeway. 

The analysis given is as in number 1. 



Silica, . 


. 39 • 437 


35 


061 


Alumina, 


. 10-35 


9 


211 


Ferric Oxide, . 


20-72 


18 


421 


Ferrous Oxide, 


3-699 


3 


254 


Manganous Oxide, 


trace 






Lime, 


4-484 


3 


987 


Magnesia, 


7-474 


6 


645 


Water, . 


. 13-618 


23 


'203 



99 • 782 99 ■ 782 



Now, supposing this to be a chlorophseite partially dehydrated, either 
from exposure to a warm atmosphere, or from having been carried in the waist- 
coat pocket, or dried in the bath previous to analysis, — and suppose there is 
given to it the same quantity of water which the Causeway mineral contains, 
then the analysis would stand as in No. 2. This would clearly make it chloro- 
phseite. The resemblance to this last mineral is altogether so close as to make 
it worth Mr Hardman's time to pick from the freshly broken rock, and secure in 
a bottle with greased stopper, a quantity of chips sufficient for a redetermination 
of the total water, and of the amount of loss at 212°. 



90 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



1. The analysis of the following specimen, however, goes a long way to 
establish the specific individuality of Mr Hardman's mineral. 

In the basaltic pillars embedded in the tufa of the Spindle at Kinkell, in 
Fifeshire, there very rarely occurs, filling small druses, a dark-green almost 
black mineral, which has in certain lights a slight brownish tint. It has a very 
minute granular structure, is dull, but the impression of the nail leaves a 
polished streak. It is very soft. 

It is occasionally pseudo after analcime, and its associates are analcime, 
augite, and black lustrous titaniferous iron in angular fragments. 

It was conceived to be possibly one of the substances called " chlorophseite 
from Fife " by Dr Macculloch, and was considered to be Delessite. 

• 653 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . . -239 




From Alumina, . "013 




•252 = 


38-591 


Alumina, . 


17-337 


Ferric Oxide, 


15-97 


Ferrous Oxide,. . 


n. d. 


Manganous Oxide, 


1-562 


Lime, .... 


3-944 


Magnesia, . 


8-646 


Potash, 


•67 


Water, 


13-476 



100-196 



It lost 8-039 of the above water at 212°. It was readily decomposed by 
acids. 

It was found to contain ferrous oxide, but there was not enough material 
for the determination of its amount. While this non-determination of the 
ferrous oxide leaves its composition in doubt, the claim of Hullite to rank as 
a species is considerably fortified by the circumstance of the analysis of this 
specimen having been performed so speedily after its extraction from the rock 
that there was no reason to believe that any more than a merely trifling 
loss of water had occurred. 

It at the same time was so uniform in structure that it could not be 
regarded as a mixture, and its composition does not permit of its being ranked 
with either Delessite or chlorophseite. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



SI 



SAPONITE. 

From Igneous Rocks of Old Red Sandstone Age. 

1. A little westward of the Tod Head, in Kincardineshire, there is a small 
boat-harbour called Gapol. Here the conglomerate rocks are broken through 
by, and interstratified with, igneous rocks ; these are frequently amygdaloidal, 
especially on their upper surfaces. On the south-west side of the little harbour 
the rock is markedly serpentinous ; and it contains between its beds veins of 
saponite of a fourth of an inch in thickness. The mineral has here a pale leek- 
green to a blackish-green colour, sometimes with bright red spots. It is 
unctuous and very soft. It frequently shows slickenside markings, which impart 
a false appearance of a fibrous structure, but it is devoid of any structure visible 
to a lens. Its specific gravity is 2 • 179. 

The purest green was analysed ; 1 * 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 

Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, . 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, . 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



42 


127 


7 


245 


6 


57 




189 




129 




798 


19 


333 




585 


2 


094 


21 


069 


100 


139 



Loses 15 '746 of the above water at 212°; insoluble silica, 061 per cent. 
Was perfectly pure, but might have derived some of the soda from sea water. 

Some specimens during the pounding became brown, and were rejected in 
the fear that they might contain some chlorophseite, the most marked feature 
of which, as above noted, is that it changes from green to brown with extreme 
rapidity upon exposure. This darkening or browning during the pounding is 
a feature of the saponite obtained from several localities. 

The above, and all the specimens which were examined, were readily 
decomposed by acids. 

In the cliffs immediately to the south of the Tod Head this mineral occurs 
filling amygdaloidal cavities of small size ; here it has a minute and ill-defined 
scaly structure, and is so frequently pervaded with red or brown portions that 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2A 



92 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



it was not considered pure enough, or uniform enough, for being analysed 
further than by ascertaining the amount of the water ; the determination of 
which showed that it was the same mineral. 

2. From the parish of Kinneff, in Kincardineshire. — The road from Bervie 
to Stonehaven is, at a point a little north of where a side road branches to 
the church of Kinneff, cut on its west side into a small cliff of porphyritic 
amygdaloid, — the porphyritically disposed crystals being large twins of grey 
labradorite. 

This porphyry has occasionally druses of considerable size, which are filled 
with large sheafy almost vermilion- coloured crystals of stilbite, smaller ones of 
Heulandite, and small radiating quartz crystals which sheath the two 
zeolites. 

The quartz is sometimes also capped by spheres of saponite of about the 
size of shot. These spheres have a fibrous structure, a pale olive-green colour, 
and they are extremely soft. 

Thrown into water they fall to pieces, expanding greatly ; thus the specific 
gravity could not be ascertained. They were freed from quartz with extreme 
difficulty. 

1 • 25 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 

Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, . 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, . 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



42 


•1 


5 


•948 


4 


•963 




•18 




•088 


2 


■15 


20 


•977 




•276 




•464 


22 


•932 


100 


•078 



Lost at 212°, 14 092 of the above water; insoluble silica, 1*117 per 



cent. 



3. At the same locality there was also found the same mineral in a massive 
form. It occurred beneath the investing layer of quartz crystals ; it was very 
soft and friable, and was unctuous to the touch. It had a grey colour mottled 
with purple, being in appearance similar to Naples' soap. Its specific gravity 
is 2 * 28. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 
9 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 

Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, . 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



93 



42 


5 


5 


88 


4 


91 




12 




122 


2 


13 


20 


742 




188 




456 


22 


752 


99 


798 



Loses 14 ' 52 of the water at 212°. 

4. From Glen Farg, in Perthshire. — This specimen was given to me by the 
late Andrew Murray, Esq. of Conland, as from the amygdaloid of that glen, 
where I have seen smaller pieces of it. The specimen was about two inches in 
length, and had been carved into the shape of a tiger. It was devoid of 
structure, much fissured, very soft, unctuous to the touch, semitransparent, 
and of an oily sap-green colour. Its specific gravity is 2 ■ 235. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . . -472 




From Alumina, . ■ 003 




•475 


: 36-538 


Alumina, . 


. 9-396 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 2 • 852 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 5 • 246 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•153 


Lime, 


. 2-498 


Magnesia, . 


. 21-615 


Water, 


. 21-681 



99-979 



Loses at 212° 12 ■ 961 of the water ; insoluble silica, 2 ■ 947 per cent. Was 
quite pure. 



5. In making the curved cutting on the North British Railway, in Fifeshire, 
immediately landward of the Tay Bridge, beds some three or four inches in 
thickness of this substance of an impure description were come upon. 



94 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

These beds were regularly interstratified with the igneous rock, here very 
friable and rotten. Apparently they consisted of a granular mixture of saponite 
with celadonite, and they carried softened and rounded granules of the rock 
matrix ; their whole appearance conveyed the impression that they resulted 
from the decomposition of the rock. 

A little eastward of this cutting a denser mass of the rock was laid open to 
afford a stance for the works connected with the building of the girders of the 
bridge. During the necessary blasting operations fine specimens of red chal- 
cedony were obtained, and the rock here rarely afforded in its rents, veins and 
lumps of a pure saponite much resembling a soft steatite. 

The colour is grass green, the structure dense and without any appearance 
of foliation ; it is opaque, unctuous to the touch, and cuts like soft slate-pencil. 

1 • 207 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 


. 42-839 


Alumina, . 


. 4-828 


Ferric Oxide, 


6-496 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


2-358 


Manganous Oxide, 


•2 


Lime, 


2-162 


Magnesia, . 


. 21-812 


Potash, . 


trace 


Water, 


20-698 




101-393 



Was apparently quite pure ; lost 13 * 868 of the water at 212°. 

6. In clearing rock for the foundations of, and obtaining material wherewith 
to build a pier and patent slip at the harbour of Tayport, in Fife, some four 
miles from the last locality, the upper bed of the igneous rock was found to 
contain an abundance of agates, occasionally diversified by large nodules, which 
had more the appearance of celadonite than saponite, but which probably con- 
tained both. 

The lower bed was rendered strikingly beautiful in appearance by the 
quantity of lustrous white calcite which it contained ; this calcite was sheathed 
with a thin skin of brilliant red carnelian. 

A cutting, opened up some 400 yards west of this, in laying out the railway 
between Tayport and Newport, afforded the following substances : — Fibrous silky 
pilolite, highly lustrous and beautifully white ; yellow jasper, with a dendritic 
structure resembling corn-stooks ; druses, lined with an opaque mammillated 
and banded celadonite, and having a central core of translucent waxy saponite, 
and long pipe-shaped amygdules totally filled with the last-named mineral. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



95 



In order to be enabled to contrast the composition of the saponite 
from this locality with that of the celadonite, the former was picked 
from the centre of those cavities in which it was invested by the opaque 
celadonite. 

The mineral here is very translucent, devoid of structure, much flawed, 
resembles a green wax, has a somewhat brownish-green tint, and is easily 
bruised by the nail. 

Its specific gravity is 2 • 283. 

25 grains yielded — 



Silica, 


40-111 


Alumina, . . . . 


6-49 


Ferric Oxide, 


5-612 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


2-369 


Manganous Oxide, 


trace 


Lime, 


2-008 


Magnesia, . 


21-666 


Potash, 


•321 


Soda, 


•21 


Water, 


. 21-6 



100-387 

Loses in bath 13 • 96 of the above water. I have lately found the mineral 
at this locality in thin veins, with a pseudo-fibrous structure due to interstitial 
fibrous calcite : in this form it is indistinguishable from the " Bowlingite " of 
Bowling Quarry. 

In the foundation rock of Broughty Castle, on the north side of the Tay, 
saponite occurs both filling druses as a matted mass of fine scales, and also 
merely lining the druses in " rosettes " of minute crystals. These are of a 
brilliant dark-green colour, and in hexagonal combinations, apparently grouped 
like ripidolite. Their extreme softness is the only physical property by which 
they can be distinguished from that mineral. Their content of water at once 
determines their nature. In Roy Quarry, in Broughty Ferry, saponite occurs 
in quantity both in veins and filling small druses. 



7. " From the Catkin Hills," in Lanarkshire. — This was given to me by the 
late Thomas Brown, Esq. of Lanfine. ' It occurred filling small druses in a dense 
igneous rock ; its structure was minute scaly ; its colour a bright green ; 
when bruised or scratched the streak is nearly white ; its specific gravity is 
2 • 279. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 B 



96 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 

Alumina, . 

Ferric Oxide, 

Ferrous Oxide, . 

Manganous Oxide, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, . 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Water, 



41 


•341 


10 


■532 


1 


•859 


3 


836 




087 


1 


215 


21 


073 




•05 




37 


19 


•481 


99 


481 



Lost 15 • 61 of the water at 212° ; insoluble silica, 3 . 98 per cent. 

8. From the Catkin Hills. — This specimen was sent to me by Mr John 
Young, curator of the University Museum, Glasgow, as being a portion of the 
very specimen, an analysis of which was published by the late Wallace Young 
in the " Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow," as " a new fibrous 
green mineral." 

The portion analysed was minutely fibrous in structure, but was also coarsely 
pseudo-fibrous, from interstitial fibrous calcite. 

Its colour was dark leek-green ; it was softer than the nail, giving almost a 
white streak, and it was in no way physically different from some of the speci- 
mens above described. 

It yielded to acid (which was weakened so as to dissolve the interstitial cal- 
cite, with hardly any visible effervescence) 10 • 714 per cent, of calcite. With 
this amount of calcite its specific gravity was 2 ■ 288. 

1 • 3 grammes freed from calcite yielded — 



Silica, 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 

Magnesia . 
Water, 



42 • 223 


Hannay. 

35-82 


8-515 


16-14 


2-992 


4-85 


4-876 


6-99 


•073 




•919 


4-87 calcite 


21 • 231 


11-73 


19 • 484 


19-63 



100-313 100-03 



Loses 14 76 of the water in the bath ; insoluble silica, 4 ■ 238. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



97 



Mr John Young also sent a portion of the same specimen to Mr J. B. 
Hannay, who has published an analysis of it (quoted) differing very markedly 
from the above ; and he unites it with specimens of the same mineral (saponite) 
from Bowling Quarry — next to be noted — and has introduced it in the " Miner- 
alogical Magazine " as a new mineral, under the name of Boivlingite. 

Among the discrepancies which exist between Mr Hannay's analysis and the 
above, the most marked is the amount of magnesia, which, instead of the 21 ■ 231 
per cent, obtained by me, amounts in his analysis to only 11 • 73. The late Mr 
Wallace Young, however, in his original analysis gives the quantity, according 
to one statement, at 20 • 95, according to another at 21 ■ 9. 

9. From Bowling Quarry, on the Clyde. — The specimens were sent me by Mr 
Hannay as his " bowlingite " upon my writing him of the discrepancy in our 
analysis of the above mineral, and of my doubts as to " bowlingite " being 
anything else than saponite. 

The specimens were not to be distinguished from the vein-saponite of Tay- 
port, in Fife. They were in the form of portions of a vein of nearly one inch in 
width. Colour, dark grass-green ; structure, fine foliated, but with pseudo- 
fibrous markings like slickenside. Scratches easily with the nail ; streak very 
pale green, almost white. Contained imbedded crystals of calcite. Specific 
gravity, 2 ■ 308, being the average of four pieces chosen as being those most free 
of calcite. 

Was scraped down with the back of a knife, all gritty particles (calcite) 
being so removed. 

On 1 • 3 grammes — 



Silica, . . -487 
From Alumina, . '008 








Hannay. 


•495 


= 38 • 076 


34-32 


Alumina, 


. 6 • 263 


18-07 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 4-362 


3-65 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 4 • 975 


6-81 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•23 




Lime, 


. 2 • 972 


5 • 14 calcite 


Magnesia, 


. 21 • 461 


9-57 


Potash 


946 




Soda, . 


106 




Water . 


. 20 • 477 


22-70 




99 • 968 


100-26 



Loses at 212°, 12 ■ 315 per cent, of the water. 



98 



PROFESSOR, HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



Mr Hannay's analysis, which I have appended for comparison, shows (as in 
the case of the Catkin mineral) very marked discordance with mine in the mag- 
nesia and alumina. 

Upon pointing this out to Mr Hannay, and asking him to re-examine the 
substance, as I suspected some error had crept into his process, he furnished 
me with the following numbers as the average results of a new inquiry — * 



Silica, 


about 38 


Alumina, . 


„ 20 


Ferric Oxide, 


4 


Ferrous Oxide . 


„ 7 


Lime, 


3 


Magnesia, . 


„ 10 


Water, 


„ 18 



Which numbers are more accordant with those obtained by me, with still the 
marked exceptions of the magnesia and alumina. 

The question of this being a new mineral depending upon the quantity of 
these two ingredients, I put a second portion of what Mr Hannay had for- 
warded to me into the hands of Mr John Dalziel, who has worked in my 
laboratory for several years. 

10. The specimen was hardly so pure as that previously examined, nor was 
it perhaps so absolutely free from calcite, though no effervescence could be 
detected when its powder was placed in acid. 

1 • 301 grammes yielded — 



Silica, . . -474 




From Alumina, . ■ 004 




•478 = 


36 • 741 


Alumina 


. 5-35 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 5-938 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 6-962 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•076 


Lime, 


. 3 • 056 


Magnesia, 


. 20-215 


Potash, . 


•494 


Soda, 


•206 


Water, . 


. 21 • 276 




100-314 



Lost at 212°, 12 ■ 965 of the above water. 

* Undertaken I however understand by two of his students. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 99 

These numbers show that Mr Hannay's process must throw down his mag- 
nesia too early in the analysis, so that it is set clown as alumina ; and as the 
analysis by myself and Mr Dalziel of both the Catkin and the Bowling mineral 
agree with the others of saponite ; and as the mineral is absolutely identical 
therewith in appearance, in gravity, in hardness, in the peculiar manner in 
which the water is combined, and in all its physical and chemical properties, 
we are forced to conclude that " bowlingite " can be nothing but saponite. 

Saponite also occurs in very interesting specimens, which, according to in- 
formation derived from Patrick Doran, from whom I purchased them, were 
obtained at Berry Glen, in Ayrshire. 

Here the mineral is evidently crystallised, but the forms are minute, lustre- 
less, and apparently somewhat rounded at the edges of the crystals. Small 
groups of minute crystals are disposed upon the summits of acicular crystals of 
"galactite " (natrolite). 

The substances and order of deposition of these substances in the cavities 
which I have seen are : — " Cluthalite " (albite), cream-coloured galactite, red 
natrolite, saponite. The colour of the saponite is pale sap-green. 

The same mineral (apparently) was found by Dr Lauder Lindsay in 
Corsiehill Quarry, on Kinnoul Hill, near Perth, disposed on the summits of 
radiating quartz crystals ; here it is grass-green in colour, and of a minutely 
foliated structure ; it also colours the quartz throughout, so as to form a 
prase. 

Of the above localities affording saponite the following are all which afford 
any information as to the order of its deposition in the druses or rock-rents in 
which it is found : — 

Kinneff — Heulandite, stilbite, quartz, saponite. 

Tayport — Celadonite, saponite : — and Calcite, saponite. 

Berry Glen — Cluthalite, galactite, natrolite, saponite. 

Corsiehill Quarry — Quartz, saponite. 

In the decomposition of the igneous rocks of the Old Red Sandstone age, 
therefore, the mineral (augite 1) whose decomposition yielded the saponite 
would appear to have been the last to be disintegrated, the felspars giving way 
first, to yield zeolites. 

From Igneous Hocks of Secondary Age. 

11. From the Storr, in Skye. — It here forms the outer — the first deposited 
— layer, sometimes half an inch in thickness, of some of the druses which occur 
in the rock at the east foot of the " Old Man of Storr." Occasionally it alone 
fills the druse. When other minerals are present they are superimposed upon it. 

It is seldom that any other than chabasite is here present, but as this is the 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2C 



100 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



earliest formed of all the zeolites, all must be posterior in formation to the 
saponite. 

This saponite is of a dark olive-green colour, passing into colourless. It is 
about the hardness of slate pencil — being here harder than at any other Scotch 
locality : it resembles a hard steatite. Its specific gravity is 2 • 296. 

25 grains yielded — 



Silica, 


. 41-411 


Alumina, . 


. 9 • 075 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 2 • 054 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•107 


Lime, 


. 1-86 


Magnesia, 


. 22-8 


Water, 


. 23 • 433 



It lost 13 • 652 of the water at 212 c 
pieces in water. 



100 • 722 
Some specimens crackled and fell to 



12. From the Quiraing, Skye. — The pathway which leads from the Uig 
Road to the Quiraing looks down upon a little grass-clad valley, at a distance 
about half a mile from that road. Large masses of fallen rock lie in this 
valley, out of which there are, or rather were, to be obtained the finest gyrolites 
and the largest crystals of apophyllite to be found in Skye or indeed in Britain- 
Along with these saponite occurs filling druses. The mineral, when these 
are freshly opened, is quite pulpy, but a day's exposure hardens it. 

It is then milk-white and curdy-looking, being of almost a friable structure. 
Sometimes it is quite pure ; sometimes a small amount of microscopic crystals 
of stilbite (?) are impacted in the mass. It is dull in lustre, but polishes with 
the nail. 

It falls to pieces in water. 

1 • 499 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 




42 • 504 


Alumina, . 




5-055 


Ferric Oxide, . 




•852 


Manganous Oxide, 




•224 


Lime, 




3-274 


Magnesia, 




23 • 954 


Potash, . 




•171 


Soda, 




•45 


Water, 




23 • 679 




100-136 


water at 21 2°. 


[nsol 


uble silica, 24 • 98 per cent 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 101 

13. The pathway to the Quiraing when followed northward from the last- 
mentioned locality winds round a projecting spur of rock ; in this druses of 
about two inches in diameter occur, which are totally filled with saponite. Here 
its colour is dull wax yellow. It is translucent — weathering white and opaque, 
but it readily reabsorbs water and becomes again translucent. It falls to pieces 
in water, with somewhat of a burst, in a manner similar to bole. It is softer 
than the nail, may be cut out of the druses like cheese, and is altogether 
very similar in appearance to common soap. 

1 • 29 grammes yielded — 



Silica, 


. 40 • 329 


Alumina, . 


. 8 • 717 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 1 • 972 


Manganous Oxide, . 


•131 


Lime, 


. 2-8 


Magnesia, 


. 21-71 


Water, 


. 24 • 338 



99-998 
Loses 15 ' 132 of the above water at 212°. Insoluble silica, 7 ' 83 per cent. 

Among the debris which occurs at the foot of a separate outlying ridge of 
rocks which lies north-east of the Quiraing saponite is found of the following 
colours : — Dark-brown, green, yellow, brown, light-green, and Venetian-red. 
It here is in dense structureless layers, also stalactitic and in minute crystalline 
spheres, but the forms are indistinct. A fine echo may give the name of 
Echoing Craig to this locality. The order of deposition of minerals here is — 
Saponite, chabasite, plynthite, calcite, Thomsonite, chabasite, apophyllite, anal- 
cime, mesolite. 

It has thus to be remarked that while the saponite of the volcanics of Old 
Red Sandstone age has been the substance last deposited in the druses, that of 
the volcanics of the Lias and Oolite has been the Jirst. 

The inferences to be drawn therefrom will be considered in a future chapter 
on the Zeolites. 

There can be little doubt that the "prasilite " of Thomson ("Phil. Mag.," III. 
xvii. 416, 1840) is saponite. He describes it is a leek-green mineral, soft as 
Venetian talc, and with gravity =2-311. It is stated to contain silica, alumina, 
ferric oxide, magnesia, and about 18 per cent, of water. Its locality also was 
the Kilpatrick hills. 

The marked feature of saponite is the extreme ease with which it loses part 
of its water when heated, and the speed with which it regains it upon cooling. 
If a quantity of the mineral half-filling a closely-stoppered bottle be placed in 



102 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



the sun, the upper part of the bottle will speedily be bedewed with drops of 
water ; these will be reabsorbed, and the inside of the bottle be rendered per- 
fectly dry by placing it in a cold situation. If some of the mineral be weighed, 
and then be carried for half an hour in the waistcoat pocket, it will be found to 
have lost from 6 to 7 per cent, of its weight thereby. 



CELADONITE. 



1. Occurs filling druses and coating chalcedony in close association with 
chlorophseite, in the basalt south of the Giant's Causeway. 

Structure earthy, opaque ; colour, brilliant dark apple-green ; very soft, 
polishes with the nail. Specific gravity, 2 • 63. 

Contained a little calcite, and was somewhat cavernous in spots, the cavities 
being slightly brown. The calcite and brown portions were cut away. 

On 1 • 303 grammes — ■ 

Silica, . . -73 
From Alumina, . " 005 

•735 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, . 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, 
Water, 



56- 


408 


2 


138 


14 


073 


5 


095 




23 




601 


5 


909 


8 


832 


6 


■796 


100 


•292 



Loses 1 
acids. 



364 of the above water at 212°. Was almost totally insoluble in 



2. Occurs in bands of an inch or so in thickness in the amygdaloid of Scuir 
Mohr in Rum. These bands seem to be large flat cavities. They have some- 
times an obscure laminated structure, but the substance is impalpable, some- 
what greasy and not granular. The thin layers which coat the surfaces of the 
agates seem to be the same substance ; and it can be distinctly seen in the 
specimens around to be the colouring matter of heliotrope. Its colour is apple- 
green, and its specific gravity, 2 • 574. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



103 



57 


725 




33 


17 


047 


3 


729 




076 




602 


3 


843 


5 


551 




423 


10 


778 


mo 


90A 



1 • 301 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . . -74 
From Alumina, . '011 

•751 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, . 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 
Magnesia, 
Potash, . 
Soda, 
Water, 



Loses 5 • 99 of the above water at 212°. Was very slightly acted upon by acids. 
I believe that the green " skin " of agates will prove to be celadonite, and 
not Delessite, as has been generally supposed. 

3. Found in the railway cutting about 400 yards west of Tayport, Fife. 
It usually fills small druses of about an inch in size, in porphyritic amygda- 
loid. Its colour there is a bright light apple -green ; it is opaque, dull, and its 
structure is granular under the lens. Its specific gravity is 2 ■ 59. 

Occasionally the mineral only coats the druse in mammillated layers. It then 
somewhat resembles malachite, having lighter and darker bands of colour. The 
interior of these druses is filled with the saponite, of which an analysis is given. 
The saponite has a colour and structure markedly different from that of the 
celadonite. Its colour is much duller than that of the celadonite, and slightly 
dashed with brown ; it has a greasy or waxy lustre, and is semitransparent, 
while the celadonite is quite opaque. There is no passage of the one mineral 
into the other, and their line of junction is quite sharp. 

1 • 3 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . . -674 
From Alumina, . '011 



•685 


= 


52 


692 


Alumina, . 


. 5 


786 


Ferric Oxide, . 




9 


752 


Ferrous Oxide, . 




5 


366 


Manganous Oxide, 






•307 


Lime, 




1 


163 


Magnesia, 




8 


538 


Potash, 




6 


212 


Soda, 






388 


Water, 




10 


485 






100 


689 


water at 212°. I 


s ins 


olubl 


e in acids 



VOL. XXIX. PART I, 



2 I) 



104 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



In an upper bed of the igneous rock, close upon the spot where a patent 
slip has been cut, amygdules of the size of the fist occur among others of agate : 
these amygdules are totally filled, not with concentric layers of chalcedony, but 
with celadonite. The concentric structure is evidenced by brownish bands ; 
the structure is granular, and the material of the layers is not so pure as that 
analysed above. 

At Hare-Craig, on the opposite side of the Tay, this mineral rarely occurs in 
thin veins, of a very brilliant colour. 

4. From the same line of railway, but near its western extremity, where it 
joins the Tay Bridge. 

The mineral here is in veins, which frequently consist solely of a granular 
mixture of calcite with celadonite ; the pure mineral was obtained with diffi- 
culty. It was granular, but never in mammillated coatings. Its specific gravity 
was 2 • 598. 

It yielded on 1 ■ 3 grammes — 



Silica, 


•672 




From Alumina, . 


•Oil 






•683 


= 52 • 538 


Alumina, . 


. 


. 5 • 824 


Ferric Oxide, . 


. 9 • 714 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


. 5-4 


Manganous 


Oxide, 


•307 


Lime, 




. 1-292 


Magnesia, 




. 8 • 307 


Potash, 




. 6 • 497 


Soda, 




• 635 


Water, 




. 10 • 413 



100-927 



Loses 3 • 879 per cent, of the water at 212°. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



105 



DELESSITE 



St Cyrus, Kincardine, 
Bowling Quarry, Dumbarton, 
Dumbuck, do. 

Long Craig, do. 

Elie, Fifeshire, . 

Average, 

Formula, 



S. G. 



2-652 
2-573 
2-598 
2-656 
2-672 



Loss at 
212°. 



2-744 

5-7 

6-3 

4-678 

3389 



2-63 4-562 



Si. 



32-69 

32- 

32-01 

30-93 

30-69 



31-26 



31-53 



13-44 
17-33 
18-87 
15-32 
12-83 



15-56 



16-28 



Fe, 



4-4 

119 

118 

316 

1-63 



2-32 



2-8 



Fe. 



6-62 
12-45 
12-09 
15-31 
18-32 



12-96 



1261 



Mn. 



tr. 
•38 
1- 



Ca. 



1-57 
1-39 
1-38 
1-59 



1-38 



28-77 
20-42 
19-64 
18-65 
18-6 



21-22 



21-02 



■57 



111 



13-25 
15-45 
15-46 
14-69 
13-77 



14-52 



15-76 



Total. 



100-02 
100-4 
100-64 
99-82 
100-11 



CHLOKOPHLdEITE. 



Scuir Mohr, Rum, 
Giant's Causeway, Ireland, 
"Hullite" (hydrated), 





19-227 


36- 




22-8 


2-4<5 


•5 


2-52 


9-5 


tr. 


tr. 


26-46 


2-278 


14156 


35-99 


10-49 


11-89 


1-63 


■08 


5-15 


10-52 


•34 


■76 


23-2 






35-06 


9-21 


18-42 


3-25 


tr. 


3-99 


6-65 






23-2 



100-25 
99-99 
99-78 



HULLITE. 



Kinkell, Fifeshire, 
Carnmoney (Hardman), 

Average, 

Formula, 



17< 



8-029 



38-59 
39-44 



39- 



38-77 



17-34 
10-35 



13-84 



12-44 



15-97 
2072 



18-35 



19-38 



n. d. 
37 



1-56 



37 



3-55 



3-94 

4-48 



4-48 



4-04 



8-65 
7-47 



•67 



8-06 1 



872 



13-48 
13-62 



13-5 



131 



100-2 
99-78 



SAPONITE. 



From, " Old Red " Volcanics — 
Gapol, Kincardineshire, 
Kinneff, do. (green), 

Do., do. (purple). 

Glen Farg, Perthshire, 
Wormit Bay, Fifeshire, 
Tayport, do., . 

Catkin Hills (scaly), 

Do., (fibrous) (" Bowlingite "), 
Bowling, Dumbarton ("Bowlingite") 

Do., do. (Mr Dalziel), 

From Secondary Volcanics — 
Storr, Skye (olive), 
Quiraing, Skye (white), 

Do., do. (yellow), 

Average, .... 
Formula, .... 



2179 
split 
2-28 
2-235 

2 : 282 
2-279 
2-288 
2-308 



2-296 
split 
split 



2-272 



15-746 

14-092 

14-52 

12-961 

13-87 

13-96 

15-61 

14-76 

12-315 

12-965 

13-652 
15-536 
15-132 



14-22 



42-13 

42-1 

42-5 

36-54 

42-84 

40-11 

41-34 

42-22 

38-08 

36-74 

41-41 

42-5 

40-33 



40-63 



40-81 



7-25 
5-95 
5-88 
9-39 
4-83 
6-49 
10-53 
8-52 
6-26 
5-35 

9-08 

5-06 
8-72 



718 



7-5 



6-57 

4-96 

4-91 

2-85 

6-5 

5-61 

1-86 

2-99 

4-36 

5-94 

2-05 

•85 
1-97 



3-96 



3-88 



19 

•18 
12 
5-25 
2'36 
2-37 
3-84 
4-88 
4-98 
6-96 



2-38 



2-62 



13 

•09 

12 

15 

•2 

tr. 

•09 

•07 

•23 

•08 

11 
•23 
13 



215 
213 
2-5 
216 
2-01 
1-22 
•92 
2-97 
3-06 

1-86 
3-27 
2-8 



214 



2'04 



19-33 

20-98 
20-74 
21-62 
21-81 
21-67 
21-07 
21-23 
21-46 
20-22 

22-8 

23-95 

21-71 



21-43 



20-61 



■58 
•28 
19 

tr. 
•32 
•05 

'•95 

•49 



17 



2-09 
•46 
•47 



•21 
•37 

11 
•21 



•45 



21-07 

22-93 

22-75 

21-68 

20-7 

21-6 

19-48 

19-49 

20-48 

21-28 

23-43 
23-68 
24-34 



21-76 



22-73 



100-14 
100-08 

99-79 

99-97 
101-39 
100-38 

99-48 
100-31 

99-96 
100-31 

10072 

10014 

99-99 



CELADONITE. 



Scuir Mohr, Rum, 
Tayport, Fifeshire, 
Wormit Bay, 
Giant's Causeway, Ireland, 

Average, 

Formula, 



2-574 


5-99 


57-72 


•33 


17-05 


3-73 


•08 


•6 


3-84 


5-55 


■42 


1078 


2-59 


5-048 


52-69 


579 


9-75 


5-37 


•31 


116 


8-54 


6-21 


■39 


10-48 


2-598 


3-879 


52-54 


5-82 


971 


5-4 


•3 


1-29 


8-31 


6-5 


•64 


10-41 


2-63 


1-364 


56-41 


214 


14-07 


5-09 


' -23 


•6 


5-91 


8-83 




6-79 


2-598 




54-84 


3-52 


12-64 


4-9 




•89 


6-65 


7- 




9-62 






54-05 


3-83 


11-94 


5-4 






6-76 


7-88 




1014 



100-2 
100-68 
100-93 
100-29 



106 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



The above tabulation presents clearly to the eye the distinctive features of 
these five volcanic minerals, which are arranged therein in the order of their 
content of silica; and as no such extended research into the composition of these 
minerals has before been published, it is necessary, in the first place, to consider 
the formula of each. 

This in the following tables is done by giving in the first column the 
average composition. This is followed by the calculation of atoms — the last 
column giving the percentages calculated from the formulas which stand 
below : — 



Belessite. 







Atoms. 






Silica, 


31-26 


1-041 


3-15 


3 


Alumina, . 


. 15-56 


•302) 


1 


1 


Ferric Oxide, 


2-32 


• 029 | 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 12-96 


•36 } 
1-061) 


4-3 


4 


Magnesia, . 


21-22 


Water, 


14-52 


1-614 


4-9 


5 



31-53 
16-28 
2-8 
12-61 
21 • 02 
15-76 



Formula — 
(Fe*Mg*) 2 Si 2 + (Al 2 *FeA)Si + 3H 2 + 2MgH 2 

Or generally — 
(R 2 R 2 ) 3 Si 3 + 3H 2 + 2MgH 2 . 

Or atoms — 
R 4, R 2 1, Si 3, H 2 5 . 





Chlorophceite. 








Atoms. 




. 


36 


1-2 1-2 


3-5 


Alumina, . 


10-54 


:" 5 } - 


1- 


Ferric Oxide, 


12-04 


Ferrous Oxide, . 


2-04 


•057^ 




Lime, 


3-83 


• 145 I • 7 


2- 


Magnesia, . 


10- 


•5 J 




Water, 


25 • 83 


2-87 2-87 


8- 




Formula not evident. 








Atoms — 






R4,R 2 2, Si 7, H 2 16. 





36-24 
8-87 

13-81 
2-42 
3-8 

10-01 

24-85 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OE SCOTLAND. 



107 



Hullite. 



On the average, taking the ferrous oxide as in Mr Hardman's analysis- 



Atoms. 



Silica, 


. 39- 


1-3 7-89 


8 


38 


77 


39 


67 


Alumina, . 


. 13-84 


•265J 
•23 J 


3 


12 


44 


17 


03 


Ferric Oxide, 


. 18-35 


19 


38 


13 


22 


Ferrous Oxide, 


. 3-7 


•103^ 




3 


55 


3 


63 


Lime, 


. 4-48 


•16 I 4-04 


4 


4 


04 


4 


13 


Magnesia, . 


. 8-06 


•403 3 




8 


72 


8 


92 


Water, 


. 13-5 


1-5 9-09 
Formula — 


9 


13 


•1 


13 


40 




(Fe Ca M, 


Or generally — 


+ 


9H 2 . 










R4 


, R 2 3 , Si 8 , H 2 9 


. 











The Kinkell specimen gives the formula — 

(Fe Ca Mg) 4 (Al 2 2 Fe 2 ) 3 Si s + 9H 2 

and the numbers in last column. These agree better with the results of 
that analysis than do those of the first formula with the average of both 
analyses. 



Saponite. 



Atoms. 



Silica, 


40-63 


1 


354 1 


•354 


7 


•1 


7 


40-81 


Alumina, . 


7-18 




■14 | 


•19 


1 




1 


7-51 


Ferric Oxide, 


3-96 




•05 j 




3-88 


Ferrous Oxide, 


2-38 




•066^ 










2-62 


Lime, 


2-14 




■076 ll 


33 


6- 


5 


6-5 


2-04 


Magnesia, . 


21-43 


1 


•07 3 










20-61 


Water, 


21-76 


2 


•42 2 


42 


12- 


75 


13 


22-73 



Formula — 

(Fe Ca Mg) 6 Si 6 + (Al 2 3 Fe 2 ) Si + 13H 2 . 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



2 E 



108 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

Or generally — 
6ESi + E 2 Si + 13H 2 . 

Or atoms — 
E6,E 2 l,Si7,H 2 13. 



Silica, 


54- 


Alumina, . 


3- 


Ferric Oxide, 


12- 


Ferrous Oxide, 


4- 


Magnesia, . 


6- 


Potash, 


7- 


Water, 


9- 



•84 

•52 

•64 

•9 

•57 

•65 

■84 



Celadonite. 

Atoms. 

1-828 1-828 
■07 ) 
•158 j 
■136 -j 
•332 t 
•148) 



228 



616 



1-07 1-07 4-7 



8 54-05 
3-83 
11-94 
5-4 

3 6-76 
7-88 

5 10-14 



Formula — 
(Fe* Mg* K 2 i) 3 Si 6 + (Alf Fe 2 «) Si 2 + 5H 2 . 
Or generally — 
3(ESi 2 ) + E 2 Si 2 + 5H 2 . 

Or atoms — 
E 3 , E 2 1 , Si 8 , H 2 5. 

In the above investigation every substance, the nature of which was at all 
doubtful, of which I could obtain a sufficiency for analysis was examined. 

In applying the results of the examination to the consideration of the geog- 
nostic relations of these minerals, those of the first or true chlorite type may 
be dismissed in few words. 

With the exception of the occurrences of chlorite at the Girdleness and at 
Eubislaw in granite, the minerals of the first class are to be found only in 
metamorphic rocks. 

Glauconite, occurring generally in rock which is believed to be of recent 
origin, may, by its occurrence, aid somewhat in the assigning the age of certain 
doubtful strata. 

The second group, which I have called the saponites, belong solely to 
igneous rocks; and, from the mode of their occurrence, there is no room for 
doubt that they result from the alteration of certain of the constituents of these 
rocks— augite and olivine in all probability. 

As regards our power of distinguishing them from each other, this is by no 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 109 ; 

means so difficult as their want of form and general similarity of appearance 
would at first sight lead one to suppose. 

Delessite can be distinguished from chlorophaeite by its dull lustre, its 
minutely granular structure, its opacity, and its colour — in the field ; and 
rapidly in the laboratory by its much higher gravity, its much smaller loss at 
212°, and much smaller total content of water. 

From the specimen of Hullite found at Kinkell, I could not by physical 
properties undertake to distinguish it ; — the darker varieties of Delessite 
at least much resembled that specimen. 

From saponite, Delessite can be distinguished by its dark colour and 
granular structure and its opacity ; and in the laboratory by its high gravity 
and its water. 

From celadonite it could not be distinguished either by its structure or 
opacity, or by its gravity, or satisfactorily by its water content ; but its colour, 
and its solubility in acids, at once suffice to separate the two. 

Chlorophaeite is readily recognised ; when fresh it resembles a green jelly, — 
when weathered it equally resembles drops of asphalt. 

The Kinkell Hullite resembles a dark Delessite, and therefore does not 
resemble chlorophseite. 

Saponite, in its usual green form, is easily known ; its extreme softness, 
greasy lustre, great translucency, and soapy structure suffice to define it in the 
field ; the extreme readiness with which it parts with and regains so large a 
quantity of water equally suffices in the laboratory, while its low gravity is of 
itself characteristic. 

The white variety is by no means so readily identified; halloisite, conite, 
the magnesian carbonate of lime, agaric mineral, and a peculiar superhydrated 
vein- serpentine, all closely resemble it. 

Celadonite may at once be known by its insolubility in acids ; its loose 
granular or mammillated structure, its perfect opacity, and brilliant colour, 
are likewise well-marked characters. 

Such are the minerals occurring in Scotland, which are without question to 
be referred directly to one or other of the above species. I now note certain 
which cannot be so unhesitatingly classed. under any of these heads, and two 
which appear to be new. 

1. About one hundred yards above the bridge of Cally, in Perthshire, a 
singular bedded boss of friable trap protrudes out of the north bank of the 
Ardle. This contains amygdules from the size of shot to that of a bean, filled 
with a dark, greenish-brown, soapy substance, which is much impregnated with 
both calcite and chalcedonic quartz. Its structure is minutely granular. 



110 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

1 • 499 grammes gave — 



Silica, . . -785 




From Alumina, ■ 026 




•811 = 


54 • 702 


Alumina, 


•83 


Ferric Oxide, 


2-599 


Ferrous Oxide, 


9-82 


Manganous Oxide, 


•24 


Lime, . 


5-71 


Magnesia, 


16-34 


Water, . 


10-82 



100-467 



Loses 6 * 101 of the water in the bath; insoluble silica, 7 " 66 per cent. 

The above is the analysis of the substance, purified as far as possible from 
its two associates, and it accords fairly well with celadonite ; but I incline to 
regards its apparent similarity therewith as being fortuitous, and probably the 
result of imperfect separation from quartz, and I conceive that the mineral may 
actually be saponite, impure from chalcedonic admixture. 

I take this view from its colour and lustre, from its being partly soluble in 
acids, and from finding that some portions gave a loss in bath of 12 • 447 per 
cent, of water, with about 9 per cent, of residual water ; so if the substance 
analysed be not impure saponite, saponite itself must here occur. 

2. In crystalline granular limestones which do not manifest well-marked 
features of alteration there are no minerals to be found, if we except such a 
common one as pyrite ; but there are frequently also to be seen plates or inter- 
rupted layers of an ill-defined green mineral generally in too intimate a state of 
intermixture with the lime, or with included portions of the matrix, to permit 
of separation for analysis. 

I was so fortunate as lately, in company with Dr Aitken of Inverness, to 
obtain some of this substance from the limestone quarry of Reelig, near the 
Beauly Firth; this was sufficiently pure, and no more than so, for analysis. 

Its colour is a somewhat dark green, its structure is granular, or foliated 
crystalline. It is softer than the nail. Its appearance is intermediate between 
chlorite and saponite. In pounding it became brown. It was associated with 
a slaty steatite, which contained layers of minute crystals of talc. Belts of 
banded and mottled steatite, like Naples' soap in appearance, also occur in 
the lime, carrying rarely crystals of calcite. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



Ill 



1 • 3 grammes of the green mineral yielded, when fused with Fresenins' 



flux- 



Silica, . . " 596 
From Alumina, • 005 

•601 
Alumina, 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, . 
Magnesia, 
Water, 



46 


•23 


13 


159 


1 


882 


3 


073 




384 


7 


753 


14 


153 


13 


•308 


100 


142 



Loses in bath 7 ' 657 of the above water. 

This looks very like a new mineral, but upon treating some of it with 
chlorhydric acid the greater part dissolved, leaving a small quantity of white 
silvery scales. 

As saponite is soluble in chlorhydric acid, while talc is not, and as an 
admixture of a little talc with saponite would give a composition similar to the 
above, there can be little doubt that this is some such mixture. 



The two substances which appear to be new are the following. I name 
them from their localities : — 

BHRECKITE 

Occurred in very small quantity in a large granitic boulder, which lay upon the 
west slope of Ben Bhreck, Tongue, Sutherland, and which I have already 
referred to as containing amazonstone and many other minerals. 

Is a bright apple-green, minutely granular or scaly powder, nearly as bril- 
liant in colour as celadonite. Is soft and friable. 

Was disposed upon the surface of quartz crystals, and therefore was one of 
the last substances to solidify; its immediate associates were specular iron and 
strontianite. 

The small quantity analysed was to all appearance pure. 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



2f 



112 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



On • 484 grammes — 



Silica, 


. 


166 


From Alumina, . 


003 






169 




Alumina, . 


. 




Ferric Oxide, 






Ferrous Oxide 






Manganous 


xide, 




Lime, 






Magnesia, . 






Water, 





34 


917 


7 


158 


12 


713 


2 


105 




414 


16 


082 


8 


264 


17 


768 


99 


655 



Of the above water 1 ■ 033 was lost at 212°. There were traces of alkalies, 
but there was not enough material to determine them upon. 
The mineral was freely soluble in chlorhydric acid. 



Silica, . 


34-917 


Atoms. 

1-164 


8 


Alumina, 


7-158 


'14 } 


2 


Ferric Oxide, 


12-713 


•16 1 3 


Lime, . 


16-082 


. :SH 


7 


Magnesia, . 


8-264 


Water, . 


17-768 


1-974 


13 



36-28 

7-78 
12-1 
17-69 

8-46 
17 • 69 



Formula — 
(CaAMgA) 7 Si 6 + 2(AL, Fe 2 ) Si + 13H 2 . 

Or Atoms — 
R7, R 2 2, Si8H 2 13. 



RUBISLITE. 

> 
This substance I found along with Professor Nicol in a deep part of the 
quarry of Kubislaw, near Aberdeen. 

It was imbedded along with crystals of muscovite in an exfiltration vein. 
It occurred in a solid lump, and also forming a " corded structure," pervad- 
ing felspar, identical in appearance with that noted by me in felspar : it thus 
occupied the position of the oligoclase or albite which usually forms that 
structure. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



113 



Its colour was dark green, its lustre dull, its structure was minutely foliated 
to granular, its particles could be separated from each other by the nail, which 
left a streak paler than the original colour. 

It was readily and totally decomposed by chlorhydric acid, silica alone 
being left. 

Its specific gravity was 2 . 442. 

1 ' 3 grammes yielded — 

Silica, . . . -488 
From Alumina, . -004 

•492 
Alumina, . 
Ferric Oxide, 
Ferrous Oxide, . 
Manganous Oxide, 
Lime, 

Magnesia, . 
Potash, 
Water, 



37 


846 


10 


924 


9 


84 


9 


005 




461 


4 


221 


8 




3 


334 


16 


132 


99 


763 



Loses in the bath 8*571 of the above water, 
fused into a vesicular brown slag. 
This gives in atoms — 



Atoms. 



Silica, . 


37 


846 


1 


2615 


Alumina, 


10 


924 




212 | 


Ferric Oxide, 


9 


84 




123 J 


Ferrous Oxide, 


9 


005 




25 \ 


Lime, . 


4 


221 




151 ' 


Magnesia, 


8 






4 1 


Potash, 


3 


334 




071/ 


Water, 


16 


132 


1 


792 



}• 



325 



885 



Before the blowpipe semi- 



22 


22 


37-42 


6 


4 
2 


11-68 
9-06 




5 


10-19 


16 


3 

7 


4-75 
7-93 




1 


2-67 



32 32 



16-31 



General Formula — 
8 (Fe , Ca , Mg , K 2 ) Si + 3 (Al 2 Fe 2 ) Si + 16 H 2 . 



Or Atoms-- 
R8, K 2 3, Sill , H 2 16. 

Possibly there might have been some slight admixture of felspar. The 
replacement in the protoxides is confused. 



114 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

This is very like a Hullite in which much of the iron is in the ferrous con- 
dition. 

These two substances are noticed in the hope of more of them being found ; 
the quantity obtained of both of them was very small. 



SUPPLEMENT TO SAPONITE. 

In a letter from Professor King, received since the foregoing analyses of 
saponite were executed, he writes : — 

" According to Haughton, saponite occurs with serpentine in Cornwall. 
Some specimens I collected there I take to be the same mineral ; but it is not 
' soft like butter or cheese ' — it is hard, something like serpentine, and may be 
actually a white or cream-coloured serpentine. The specimen laid by for you 
will settle the point. I should like to see your saponite." 

This sentence led me to compare the specimens which I have of what I 
have called the " super-hydrated vein-serpentine " (page 109) with the descrip- 
tions of saponite given by Dana, — and my analyses of these specimens with 
the column of analyses to be found at page 472 of his work. 

While the physical properties assigned to saponite by Dana agree perfectly 
with those of the specimens which I have analysed, and therefore warrant my 
assigning the name to the Scotch specimens, it cannot be said that the claim 
of certain of Dana's specimens to the name is altogether beyond a doubt, and 
this on account of the most characteristic of the features of the Scotch 
mineral — namely, the low temperature at which it parts with some of its water 
— not having been observed in the specimens hitherto ranked as saponite. 
When, however, the analyses given by Dana are considered, there is no room 
for doubt that some of the substances analysed should not have found a place 
there, and there is even room for doubt if any but the thalite of Owen should. 

Nothing, but their having suffered such a loss of water as I have pointed out 
as likely to occur through exposure to heat during carriage, could entitle us to 
associate under one name substances varying in their content of water to such 
an extent as from 10 • 5 to 20 ' 66 per cent. — a variation which so far explains, 
though it hardly justifies, Dana's remark, that "analyses give naturally no 
uniform results for such an amorphous material." Had it been said that the 
name had been apjtlied to substances which, filling the steam-holes of volcanic 
rocks, were unquestionably the products of change or degradation, — possibly 
not always of the same nature, or of the same material, — such a remark might 
legitimately be made. It is, however, a fairer inference that the analyses give 
no uniform results, because (liferent substances have been included under one 
name. 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 



115 



And this inference is borne out in a marked manner by a consideration of* 
the peculiar substance which fills the rents in serpentine rocks ; and this con- 
sideration leaves little or no doubt that the so-called steatite or seifenstein from 
Cornwall and from all serpentine rocks must be withdrawn from the species, 
and that the name must, as I have shown above, be in future confined to 
one of the materials which plug the amygdules or rarely the rents of igneous 
rocks. 

The suggestion of Dana's that as, if we suppose the alumina to be present 
as kaolinite, the rest is a silicate allied to aphrodite, — as if the mineral were a 
mixture of the two, — I cannot regard as sound, for the two reasons that, accord- 
ing to Dana himself, neither kaolinite nor aphrodite occur in volcanic rocks 
(nothing of the kind is to be seen in the Scotch ones), and because, as he him- 
self states, kaolinite is not decomposed by acid, while saponite is. 

Any admixture " as kaolinite," with a mineral soluble in acid, would after 
treatment therewith disclose itself by remaining as an insoluble residue. 

The features, so far as I have yet attained to the recognition of them, 
whereby this super-hydrated vein-serpentine can be discriminated from saponite, 
are the very much smaller amount of its loss of water when heated, — its smaller 
content of water, — and a peculiar opalescence and girasol appearance, which 
it presents, when transparent varieties are looked through. 

In five analyses of these " vein-serpentines " from Scotland which I have 
executed, I have found the quantity of total water to lie between 15 * 16 and 
16 • 58 per cent.; and of this the loss at 212° ranged from 1 ■ 63, which was that 
of the lowest total, to 3 • 53, which was that of the highest. 

The deduction of these losses, it will be observed, brings the residual water 
to about the amount normal to serpentine. 

Such were the conclusions I had arrived at when the receipt of a box of 
Irish serpentines from Professor King, containing specimens of the " saponite 
veins " of Cornwall collected by himself, enabled me by analyses to speak with 
more precision on the matter. 

The specimens of the Cornish " saponite " were at once seen to be physically 
very similar to the paler-coloured vein-serpentines of Portsoy. Being apparently 
somewhat weathered they were opaque, and the girasol appearance could not 
be seen. 

A weathered vein from the serpentine of Polmally, in Glen Urquhart, which 
was very similar, was analysed along with this Cornish saponite. 

It is not necessary here to quote more than the content of water, and loss 
thereof at 212° : this was — 





Total water. 


Loss at 212" 


Mineral from Cornwall, 


14-133 


1-166 


„ „ Polmally, 


15-162 


1-626 


VOL. XXIX. PART I. 







2g 



110 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

This, taken in conjunction with a general accordance with their other com- 
ponents, shows that these specimens are similar to other vein-serpentines, and 
are quite distinct from the mineral which occurs in volcanic rocks. 

As the specimen sent by Professor King is quite similar to other smaller 
ones which I have seen in the Lizard serpentine, there is every probability that 
the mineral analysed by Klaproth, Svanberg, and Haughton was the same ; 
and that of the substances classed under the head of saponite by Dana, only 
those narrated as filling geodes in volcanic rocks properly fall under the title. 



SUPPLEMENT TO CHLOEITE. 

I have lately observed what I believe to be a chloritic mud occurring in a 
form in which it bears a great resemblance to glauconite. 

The circumstances of its occurrence are of much interest, and the explana- 
tion of these circumstances is attended with no small amount of difficulty. 

Immediately to the north of the village of Callander there is a cliff of 
conglomerate of the Old Red Sandstone ; this is here formed of nodules, from 
the size of a walnut to that of the fist, of gneiss, mica slate, and quartz, — rocks 
of the immediate neighbourhood. 

Rarely thin interstrata of a finer almost of a sandy grain, — more fitted for 
building purposes, — occur to the north-eastward of the village. 

In several small quarries, opened with a view to work these gritty beds, the 
characters of the conglomerate may be studied. It has somewhat of a vitrified 
aspect, and is more broken up by " backs " and " cutters " than is usual to that 
rock. The dip is to the north-east ; the backs run along the strike at distances 
of about six feet from each other ; while the cutters, lying generally at right 
angles thereto, are much more closely adjacent to each other. 

The backs, in those cases in which they have stood open, are invariably 
filled with one of the varieties of the substance to which the names of reddle, 
or keely or keels has been attached : the cutters are as invariably lined, and 
usually no more than lined, on each side with sheets of cockscomb barytes, 
which sometimes carry vitreous copper, malachite, and calcite. 

The dull red of the vertical sheets of reddle is everywhere besprinkled with 
spots and blotches of a vivid green, of the colour of glauconite, — these spots 
are circular in form, or consist of a number of confluent circles, each circle being 
of about the size of a large bean. 

The contrast of these colours is so striking as to arrest the attention of the 
passer-by ; it is found upon examination to be due to the occurrence in the 



PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 117 

pseudo-vein of reddle, of " concretions " of granular pale purple carbonate of 
lime, of a discoid form ; and to these concretions being invested by the 
glauconite-like material, disposed in a laminated manner. 

Portions of the calcareous concretions, — of their green coating, — and of 
the reddle, were examined in the laboratory, after isolation each from the 
others. 

The concretions did not appear to have any structural arrangement of 
particles, being similar to a very fine-grained saccharine marble ; they dissolved 
readily and totally in acid, without leaving any save a glauconitic residue ; and 
neither they nor their associates contained any trace of barytes. 

The glauconite-like matter was found to be insoluble in all acids ; but after 
treatment therewith and agitation in much water, it separated into minute 
colourless pearly scales (like mica), and a green powder, which was also 
minutely scaly. 

The reddle had a laminated arrangement of its particles parallel to the sides 
of the vein ; it resembled a red sandy clay, and glistened with minute scales of 
mica. Treated with chlorhydric acid it yielded readily a ferruginous solution, 
but left behind the greater part of its bulk as a green powder, similar in 
appearance, and also in its insolubility similar to that which presented itself 
originally with a green hue. 

From the evident admixture of scales of mica, it may be doubted if an 
analysis of these green powders — probably identical — would definitely disclose 
their nature ; but the above chemical features sufficiently show that they cannot 
be any one of the saponites, unless it be celadonite, and their being the latter 
is contradicted by their scaly structure. 

Their insolubility in acids equally proves that they cannot be glauconite ; 
and, having regard to the occurrence in the conglomerate of quartz nodules 
with a chlorite which is very similar to that of Cruach Ardran and the hills 
surrounding it, there is every probability that the green portion consists of 
chlorite alone. 

While the impurity of this substance prevents a more accurate determina- 
tion, enough has probably been attained to, in the direction of indicating several 
points of marked interest connected therewith. 

The following questions present themselves for being answered : — 

By what process were these veins filled? The ready reply, — neither by 
infiltration nor injection, but by exfiltration, — goes but a little way. Con- 
glomerated rocks are more pervaded by a system of inosculating holes than by 
fissures, — but I broke many pieces of the rock without being able to detect in 
its cavities any green matter in the course of being transported to its resting 
place in the vertical rents ; but an exfiltration of reddle-like matter may be 
observed, and this may obscure a concomitant chloritic transfusion. 



1 1 9 PROFESSOR HEDDLE ON THE MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND. 

Then, What is the action whereby the segregating calcareous matter repels 
the hematitic,- — thus operating as a pseudo-bleacher f 

And lastly, How comes it that the one set of rents are lined with baryte, with 
cantons interspaces ; while that which lies at right angles thereto contains no trace 
of baryte, but is totally filled with a clay -like material? 

An explanation which may be said to lie upon the surface — namely, that the 
first mentioned set had been of earlier formation, and had been the seat of a 
process which had reached its termination before the formation and filling up 
of the latter, — does not meet the facts of the case, because the rock-rents which 
form the " backs " seem to have been antecedent to those existing as " cutters " ; 
for the former pass numbers of the latter, while these but very seldom cut 
across the former. 

The rock seems to be still purveying hematitic and chloritic matter to the 
cracks which form its " faces " ; — is there a polarity in the guidance of its 
decomposition, acting so as to fill its minor and secondary rents with barytes 
and with copper, — enabling them at the same time to reject the slimy plug 
which chokes the backs, that they may at least aspire to the dignity of being 
true mineral veins ? 

Some questions of weighty mining import might possibly be answered 
through a study of this narrow field ; — the points of chief mineralogical interest 
are the occurrence of a chloritic mud in a form simulating glauconite, — and the 
singular manner in which a large quantity of chlorite may be entirely masked 
by a comparatively small quantity of peroxide of iron. 



( 119 ) 



IV. — On some Physiological Results of Temperature Variations. By John 
Berry Haycraft, M.B., CM., B.Sc., Assistant to the Professor of 
Physiology (Edin. Univ.). Communicated by Professor Turner, 
one of the Secretaries to the Society. (Plate I.) 

(Read 17th February 1879.) 

While trying to verify by actual statistics some of the " Laws of Population" 
first enunciated by Malthus, a curious fact was observed, viz., that some seasons 
of the year are more prolific in the number of births than others. 

This led to the further investigation of the subject, the results of which are 
before the Society. 

In pursuing this inquiry, data were drawn from the monthly returns of births, 
deaths, and marriages (Scotland). I may here express my hearty thanks to 
Dr William Robertson, for much kindness shown in furnishing the necessary 
reports. 

Two courses were open : to take the births of the whole of Scotland, where 
the illegitimate are mixed together with the legitimate, therefore vitiating the 
results when compared with the marriages ; or to take only data from the legi- 
timate births of "The Eight Large Towns of Scotland," where seasonal varia- 
tions in the number of inhabitants are continually taking place, there being 
always more in winter than in summer "in town." 

It was deemed advisable to avoid both fallacies by working with both sets 
of data, the one correcting the other. 

The data quoted in this paper are those, however, of the eight large towns 
alone, those of Scotland generally not being given for sake of brevity. They 
will be, notwithstanding, quoted once or twice to correct the other. 

In all cases large numbers were used, and these numbers taken never from 
the single year's returns alone, but always from an average of at least ten. 

On studying the monthly returns of " births," it is seen that there are some 
months in the year in which more births occur than others. 

Thus in April of every year there are more than in November. 

Averaged Monthly Returns of Births of Years (186(5-1875) inclusive, 
Corrected to equal Months o/" 30*42 Days. 



January, 


= 


3154 births (legitimate) 


February, 


= 


3057 „ 


March, 


= 


3227 


April, 


= 


3387 „ „ 


. XXIX. PART I. 







2 H 



120 JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON 



May, 




= 


3290 births 


(legitimate). 


June, 




= 


3289 


>> 




>J 


July, 




= 


3107 


,, 




>) 


August, 




= 


2915 


,, 




■>•> 


September, 




= 


2979 


„ 




J> 


October, 




= 


3072 


>> 




J) 


November, 




= 


3001 


;> 




» 


December, 




= 


3050 


>> 




i> 




A' 


rerage, 


— 


3127. 





If the births are diagramatically represented, the orclinates being the number 
of births, and the abscissas the time of the year in months, a curve is produced. 

Now every year this curve may be seen recurring with striking regularity, 
there being always some months in the year which are fertile in births, and 
others which are comparatively barren. There must be a cause, or causes, 
working with equal regularity to produce it. 

It is our task to investigate these, and, if possible, to ascertain their value. 

On thinking over the factors which might exert an influence upon the 
number of births, it is natural that the number of "marriages" (which likewise 
varies in the different months) should be first thought of. On reference (see Chart 
I.) the marriage curve is seen to be of quite a different character from that of 
the birth curve. It may here be remarked that all the charts are prepared from 
the averaged returns in the same way : the abscissas are taken as months and 
orclinates as numbers of births, &c. The "birth curve" rises to a maximum 
and then falls once in every year. The " marriage curve " exhibits two striking 
and sharp maxima recurring every year. Obviously at any rate the marriage 
curve is not the only factor. It is, as we shall afterwards see, by no means the 
main one. 

On seeking further to elucidate the problem, it becomes apparent that in all 
probability it is not the births themselves which could have this seasonal or 
other influence brought to bear upon them, but rather the conceptions from 
which the births result. If the birth curve be shifted back nine months (so 
that October numbers are in January), a corresponding curve — in character — 
is produced. This is now not the "birth curve," but the "conception curve." 

And now at the onset we can dismiss the birth curve from the question. 
It is the " conception curve," which we shall afterwards prove is subject to 
seasonal and other influences ; whose effects, however, only become apparent 
by the increased number of births. 

" The Conception Curve" (Chart I.) 
From January to February the curve falls, there being not so many concep- 



SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESULTS OE TEMPER ATTJRE VARIATIONS. 121 

tions. It then rises through March and April, falls in May, rising through 
June to its maximum in July. It falls again through August, September, to 
November, rising through December, January, and so on. 

Now, what can cause this ? 

One is struck by the fact that the number of conceptions is greater in the 
hot than in the cold months. The effect of temperature becomes more evident 
Avhen the "Temperature Chart" (Chart I.) is referred to. 

It is then seen that when the temperature rises the number of conceptions 
increases, and that the temperature reaches a maximum in July, in which month 
the number of conceptions is also greatest. The temperature and conception 
curves then sink together to a minimum. 

On referring carefully to this Chart, it will be seen that, although the 
two curves correspond in their principal features, in detail they do not always 
tally. 

In the first place, a unit increase of temperature does not always produce a 
corresponding increase in the number of conceptions ; thus, in the temperature 
curve, from August to September there is a fall of 4°, while the conception 
curve shows hardly any depression. Again, in three instances can be remarked 
a distinct deviation from the similarity. The number of conceptions in 
December and January increases, while the temperature slightly descends ; 
and in May it descends while the temperature rises. It is seen then, that if 
the temperature curve is a factor — and we have not distinctly proved that 
yet — it is not the only one. 

We shall afterwards find that the temperature and marriage curves are the 
great causes of the variations in the number of conceptions (with also other 
smaller factors). 

Influence of Temperature Curve. 

Although to the eye the temperature and conception curves so much agree, 
it is necessary to prove that the latter actually depends for its formation upon 
the former, and is not merely the result of some strange coincidence. 

Having proved that, it will be necessary to formulate, as a law, the tem- 
perature influence, and to state arithmetically the influence of an increase of 
a temperature unit on the number of conceptions. 

By means of " Foukier's Harmonic Analysis " we can analyse a curve into 
its harmonic constituents. The temperature and conception curves may be 
analysed into curves recurring respectively every twelve months, six months, 
four months, and so on. By this method the phase is given, and by compar- 
ing the two curves thus analysed the dependence can be seen (if any). 

Thus, if it be found that there is one primary temperature curve (with 
maximum every twelve months), whose maximum falls exactly in the middle 



122 JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON 

of the year ; and that the conception numbers, when analysed, give just such a 
curve with a maximum at a corresponding phase, then the two correspond. 
They are due to the same cause, or one is the result of the other. In this case 
the conception curve would be the result of the temperature, not the tempera- 
ture the result of the conceptions. 

If, however, the maximum of one falls over the minimum of the other, there 
is certainly no direct relation. 

On making such an analysis * it is seen that the temperature curve gives a 
well-marked primary wave. 

If the time of one year be divided into 360 parts or degrees, then the maxi- 
mum of this primary wave falls, at 185°, a little over the half year. The height 
or value of this curve may be represented by 10 units (see Mathematical Chart). 

The secondary curve — namely, that one whose maximum recurs every six 
months — is well marked, but of not so great a value as the former. It may be 
represented by the number 23 as its value, with the maximum at + 55°. 

There are other curves of temperature which result from this analysis 
(Mathematical Chart) ; they are of shorter wave length, but their nature is not 
known— perhaps they result from errors of observation. Their value is small, 
and they may be discarded from this question. On making a similar analysis 
of the conception data one finds a primary wave with maximum at +183°, and 
with an altitude of 162*23 units. It is seen that the primary waves of the two 
curves correspond; the one — temperature — having its maximum at +185°, and 
the other — conception — at 183°. There is, then, not a difference of 1 per cent, 
between them, and for this we shall account hereafter. The two then 
undoubtedly correspond. The secondary conception curve has an altitude of 
81 "23, and the maximum fall at 53°. 

It will be remembered that the corresponding wave of temperature was at 
;"35°. These two again undoubtedly correspond, and the dependence is made 
yet more apparent when we see that the primary and secondary conception 
waves were just 2° behind (in point of time) the corresponding temperature ones. 

There will also be seen other conception curves of yet shorter wave length 
on reference to Table. 



Tcmptt 
Maximum ;it 


■(dure 


Altitude. 


Conception. 
Maximum at Altitude. 


No. 1 = + 185° 




10 


+ 183° 162-23 


No. 2 = + 55° 




2-3 


+ 55° 81-23 


No. 3 = + 27° 




o-o 


- 52° 9-0 


No. 4 = - 5° 




1-0 


- 37° 33-4 


No. 5 = + 225° 




o-o 


+ 112° 17-0 



Nos. 1-5 are primary, secondary, tertiary, &c, waves of temperature and conception, 
by Fourier's Harmonic Analysis. (See Mathematical Chart for details.) 

b'oi a complete account of this method consult Thomson and Tait's "Natural Philosophy." 



* 



SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESULTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. 123 

Having shown that the conception variations are produced chiefly by changes 
in temperature, it is necessary to determine more definitely the influence, and 
to find out the percentage increase which would follow an elevation of 1° (Fahr.) 
or unit of temperature. 

By calculating from the original numbers in the register books, or still better, 
perhaps, by comparing the altitudes in Fourier's curves, it will be seen that 
an elevation of 1° (Fahr.) causes an increase of about 5 per cent. 

This can readily be done from the Fourier curves. The altitude of the 
primary temperature curve is 10 units above the mean, while the altitude of 
the corresponding conception curve is 162 units. Therefore 1 unit is the cause 
(or corresponds to) 16*2 of conception. 

To arrive at the percentage, find out the average mean number of monthly 
conceptions, which is 3127. Therefore 1° or unit causes an increase of 16 2 
conceptions over the mean of 3127, or 51 per cent. This may be taken roughly 
at "5 per cent., it being absurd to state such a law very exactly where so many 
slight fallacies exist, from false registration and otherwise. 

The influence of temperature on conceptions may be stated as a physiological 
law as follows : — 

" Temperature is the main factor regulating the variations in the number of 
conceptions (and consequently of births) which occur during the year. It 
increases their number with its elevation, and this on an average of # 5 per cent, 
for an elevation of 1° Fahr. (in Scotland)." 

It would be interesting to know what produces the secondary and other 
waves of temperature given by Fourier's analysis. 

May it not be, that the one with a maximum in spring and autumn (the 
secondary curve) is caused by the local winds which then occur, and which no 
doubt greatly influence local temperature, being probably the great cause of its 
local variation (these themselves, of course, being primarily clue to temperature) ? 

Marriage Factor. 
By examining Chart II. or the following figures, it will be seen that in January 
the number of marriages contracted is very high. The numbers fall through 
February to March, rising in April only to fall again in May. From May, the 
month in which fewest marriages occur, the numbers suddenly rise to their 
highest maximum in June ; falling through July, August, September to October, 
rising again in November, and falling slightly in December. 

Average Marriage Curve of Years (1866-1875) inclusive. 
January, = 1245 

February, = 611 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 I 



124 



JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON 



March, 


= 


566 


April, 


= 


634 


May, 


= 


473 


June, 


= 


1430 


July, 


= 


1097 


August, 


:= 


664 


September, 


= 


664 


October, 


= 


649 


November, 


— 


933 


December, 


= 


919 



It is, in short, a curve with two maxima ; one occurring in November, 
December, and January, and the other in June and July. 

We shall now endeavour to investigate its influence upon the conception 
curve. Influence it must have, — the interesting point is the average interval 
between marriage and conception. 

The best plan — having found out that temperature is a factor — is to sub- 
tract from the conception curve the temperature influence, and to study the 
resulting figures or curve which may be formed from them in connection with 
the marriage curve. 

Find out the monthly average temperature, and in relation to this average 
express the other monthly numbers as + or — quantities. For example, the 
average monthly temperature is 47 '1, and in January it is 38 "5 ; therefore 
January will be 38-5 - 47 1 = - 8 6 (see Col. I.). 

Do this for all the periods in the temperature and conception curves (see 
Cols. I. and III); 

Now add up all the minus quantities of both columns, and divide the result- 
ing conception by the temperature numbers, which will give 18. 

Multiply the numbers in the temperature column (Col. I.) by this number 
18, which will give Column II. 

Now that the temperature curve is so multiplied, it can be subtracted from 
the conception curve ; this gives Column IV., which is the resulting conception 
curve from which all temperature has been subtracted. 





Col. T. 


Col. II. 




Col. III. 


Col. III. 


January, 


= - 8-6 x 18 = 


= - 155 


subtracted from 


- 55 = 


= + 100 


February, 


= - 7-4 „ 


- 133 


>> » 


- 126 


+ 7 


March, 


= - 6-3 


- 113 


>> 3) 


- 77 


+ 36 


April, 


= - l'O „ 


- 18 


>> >t 


+ 27 


+ 45 


May, 


= + 21 


+ 238 


>> J> 


- 70 


- 108 


June, 


= + 8-6 


+ 155 


„ ,, 


+ 110 


- 55 


July, 


= + H-9 


+ 214 


J> )» 


+ 260 


+ 46 


August, 


= + 107 


+ 193 


3) >J 


+ 163 


- 30 



SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL KESULTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. 125 

Col. I. Col. II. Col. III. Col. IV. 

September, = + 64 x 18= +115 subtracted from + 162 + 47 

October, = 0"0 „ „ - 20 - 20 

November, = - M „ - 128 „ „ - 212 - 84 

December, = - 87 „ - 156 „ „ - 148 +8 

Col. I. = Temperature numbers treated as + and — quantities. 
Col. II. = The above x by 18. 

Col. III. = Conception curve treated as + and — quantities. 

Col. IV. = Eesultant conception numbers after temperature numbers in Col. II. have been 
subtracted. 

When it is plotted as a curve it can better be studied (Chart III.). 

It is difficult to see the dependence of the resulting conception curve upon 
the above marriage curve, although in some particulars they do agree. 

It was only by taking into account other sets of data and other facts, that 
it was possible to prune from this conception curve parts which depended upon 
yet other factors, the resultant (completed in the above curve by the dotted 
lines) agrees most conclusively with the marriage curve. On examining the 
conception curve in this Chart, a large crest is seen in the months of June, July, 
August, September, and October, — broken, however, in August, another in 
March and April, and a third sharp peak in January. 

After careful comparison with curves produced from other sets of data, it 
was found possible to completely explain all discrepancies between this and the 
marriage curve. 

If the illegitimate births be examined (on which the marriage numbers can 
have no influence), a large maximum is always seen in October, corresponding 
to a maximum of conceptions in January. This results from the license which 
always exists in Scotland at the time of the New Year. That this license is 
great, every medical man will allow ; and it is quite capable of producing a 
sharp rise of the conception curve. 

Now this maximum in January may be discarded, and this leaves us a curve 
with only two maxima, which can be much better compared with the marriage 
curve. 

There is yet a curious discrepancy in the curve, namely, the sudden clip of 
the curve in August, in the very middle, in fact, of a well pronounced crest. 

This really does not exist in the curve of a whole country ; but is probably 
due to a fluctuation — local in character — in the number of inhabitants. 

On looking over the numbers, not of the eight towns of Scotland alone, 
but of all Scotland, August was seen to give not a fall, but a rise (see dotted 
line in Chart III.). 

This dip in August does then not exist in Scotland, only in the towns. In 
all probability it is due to the outflux of inhabitants from the towns into the 
country at that season. 



126 JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON 

A dotted line in Chart represents what would occur were the population 
stationary. It is now seen that when these two disturbing factors are discarded, 
that the two curves present a most striking contrast. There are two maxima 
in each. 

The smaller marriage maximum in December and January is followed by 
the smaller conception maximum in about two months, — this can be seen from 
this Chart, but will be proved from Fourier's curves. 

The larger marriage crest in June and July is followed in the same interval 
by the larger conception crest. 

It will be seen that directly after a marriage rise a conception increase also 
takes place, thus the rise from May to June in the marriages is followed directly 
by a rise in the conceptions. This is as might be expected ; they go on increas- 
ing until a maximum is reached in the second month, when most occur. The 
numbers then diminish, falling to a minimum. 

By Fourier's curves the interval between marriage and time of maximum 
of conceptions is almost exactly two months. 

This point, which is of some interest from both a physiological and statistical 
view, is brought out, namely, that most conceptions do not take place for some 
time after marriage, — not until, in fact, after an interval of two months ; and 
that therefore most children are born eleven months after marriage. 

This has been already variously stated, and the interval quoted varies from 
10*5 (Sadler) to 17 (M. Duncan) months. 

For the results here given it may be claimed that by far the largest data 
ever used were brought to bear upon the subject (not being a mere tabulation 
of cases) ; and that the use of Fourier's analysis gives an exactitude not 
otherwise attainable. 

Yet another point may be mentioned ; by comparing the altitudes of the 
curves, it will be seen that an increase of 100 marriages on the average produces 
an increase of sixty-four conceptions within a period of five months. 

Stated otherwise, sixty-four per cent, of newly-married women have a child 
within a period of fourteen months. 

This latter fact must, however, be received with a certain caution, as the first 
births are mixed up with the second, third, and so on ; and although the first 
births will give the chief character to the curve, and the phase will not be 
vitiated, yet the altitude cannot be taken as quite correct. 

From these curves a very important series of investigations can be made. 
The "duration of pregnancy" can be arrived at, a result thought before impos- 
sible ; and also the interval between "insemination" and "conception." 

The results which are before the Society to-night must not on this point be 
considered final, merely the "method of inquiry" will be indicated, and its 
application to the above curves will be made. 



SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESULTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATION'S. 127 

It is only by most careful working with different sets of data, and with more 
exact ones than those of Scotland, that a final decision can be arrived at upon 
so nice a point, where the difference of a day or two is everything. 

When sufficient data are at hand, this matter will receive further attention. 

Scientifically defined, the "duration of pregnancy" is the length of time 
which elapses between conception (not insemination) and delivery. 

Now one knew nothing before about the time when conception occurs, and 
therefore nothing exact about the "duration of pregnancy." 

Statistics tell us that the time between " insemination " and delivery is, on 
an average, 275 days. Now, however, by the temperature curve, we have an 
indication of when conception occurs. 

All we have to do is to find out exactly how far we must put back the birth 
curve in order to get the primary and secondary curves — Fourier — exactly to 
correspond to the similar curves ; to do, in fact, exactly what we have already 
done roughly when we put the birth curve back nine months. 

This interval is the " duration of pregnancy." 

When analysed it will be remembered that the primary curve maximum was 
at 183° and the secondary at 53°; while the corresponding temperature curves 
give 185° and 55°. 

The difference in both cases is therefore 2°. They show therefore conclu- 
sively that the birth curve has been put back 2°, or ^f^th of a year, or a little 
more than two days too much. 

To make them agree exactly, it should have been put back 175° or 272 days. 
This 272 days elapses between conception as indicated by temperature curve, 
and delivery as given in the Register-General Reports. This 272 days is the 
duration of pregnancy. Now, it is already known that the average interval 
between insemination and delivery is 275 days ; therefore 275 — 272 = 3 days 
is the time which elapses between insemination and conception. 

These facts, important in their physiological bearings, enable us to construct 
a complete table, showing the intervals between all the physiological processes 
concerned in the birth of a child. 

We have the time between 

Last menstruation and delivery = 278 days (Matt. Duncan) ; 
Insemination and delivery =275 days (Matt. Duncan) ; 

Conception and delivery = 272 days. 

Insemination (which is to be followed by conception) then occurs three days 
on the average after last menstruations ; conception follows this in three more 
days ; and delivery in 272 days. 

VOL, XXIX. PART I. 2K 



128 JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON 

It may be asked, What right have we to say that the influence of tempera- 
ture is on conceptions and not on insemination ? 

The answer is not difficult, for the interval between coition and delivery is 
greater (275 days) than our interval (272 days) between conception and delivery. 
The coition would therefore fall behind the temperature curve, therefore not 
affected by it. No doubt there may be some influence on the number of 
coitions, but this influence is not great enough to be shown. 



Law of Capacity of Conceiving. 

The facts that we have gleaned about the influence of temperature upon 
conception, enable us fully to state as a law the capacity of conceiving of women 
during different periods of their life. 

There are three factors which are to be considered as modifying this capacity, 
namely, 

(I.) Time of Life. 
(II.) Temperature. 
(III.) Menstrual Rhythm. 

(I.) Time of Life. (For particulars consult "Fertility, Fecundity, and 
Sterility," by Dr Matthews Duncan.) 

This influence effects woman's capacity in that the sexual organs are only 
gradually developed as age advances ; at a certain period they are developed 
fully, and then undergo a gradual involution. 

At birth the capacity is nothing ; it remains so until puberty, when capacity 
first appears. 

This increases with age until between twenty and twenty-four, when the 
maximum is reached. The capacity then weakens until about the fortieth or 
forty-fifth year, when it becomes, as at birth, nothing. 

This will be seen better on referring to the following curve (Chart IV.). 

This curve is however modified by the other factors ; and the result, given 
when all the factors are considered, gives a curve such as is represented in the 
figure, where one year of the previous curve is depicted with the other ones 
superimposed (Chart V.). 

(II.) The Effect of the Temperature Curve is to give a maximum every summer, 
giving the age curve (Chart V.) a wavy appearance, with a crest and trough 
every year. 

How this temperature influence is exerted will be considered hereafter. 

(III.) The Menstrual Rhythm occurs twelve times in the year, and gives 
twelve maxima to Chart (V). About its influence little is known, whether a 



SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESULTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. 129 

successful coition may always occur, or only at a certain period in connection 
with this rhythm, is uncertain. It appears, however, that about six days after 
menstruation most conceptions occur. 

The capacity of conceiving in a woman is then strongest (I.) between the 
ages of twenty and twenty-four ; (II.) in the hottest season of the year ; and 
(III.) about six days after menstruation. 

In conclusion, a few words may be said as to the mode in which temperature 
effects conceptions. 

Certainly not, as has been suggested, by raising the temperature of the body 
and of the uterine mucous membrane, giving thereby, as was supposed, more 
favourable surroundings to the sperms or ova. 

It is certain that a temperature about that of the body is most favourable to 
the life of ova and sperms ; but the difference of a few degrees would be very 
immaterial, the latter (the spermatozoa) living for many hours in active move- 
ment at the ordinary temperature of the air. 

Then again the difference in warmth of the interior of the human body varies 
little in the year. There is hardly a perceptable difference between the tem- 
perature in depth of winter or height of summer. 

It may be received as a fact, that there are external agencies, such as cold, 
heat, rain, wind, &c, which are, under certain conditions, antagonistic to life, 
and, when in action, they affect all of us. 

On the weak a force which will produce an overpowering result which we 
call death, will on the strongest have its effect, may be, only producing a slight 
depression of the natural energy. So that a district which has a high mortality 
is bad for the strongest, and a season which has a high mortality is also dan- 
gerous to all. 

Now, if the "death curve" be plotted in the same way as the "conception 
curve," it will be seen to be an inverted temperature curve in the main. As 
the temperature rises, the gross number of deaths diminishes. 

From our maxim, then, an increase of temperature is favourable to the 
health of all. The " health curve," could we delineate such a thing, would, with 
the conception curve, correspond mainly with the temperature curve. Indeed, 
the increased capacity of conception is, we imagine, only an indication of an 
increased energy of the whole body, in which this function naturally shares. 

We must here remember that the power of producing offspring is a function 
which perhaps of all others is most taxing to strength, and therefore depends 
much upon physical tonus. 

A very rapid glance at the influence of temperature upon the power of 
reproduction in the lower animals, may not be out of place. With those of 



130 JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON 

very low organisation, Bacteria, Vibriones, and all organic ferments, a certain 
temperature is absolutely necessary to their development. 

As we pass up the invertebrate animal kingdom, we find in every class 
seasons of reproduction. In the vertebrata we have spawning seasons for the 
fishes ; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals have all their breeding seasons. 
We might note here many curious zoological facts connected with the seasonal 
development of sexual organs, if the subject of the paper permitted. In the 
foregoing examples the temperature no doubt mainly operates through the 
vegetable world, varying the amount and quality of food at different times. 
Thus few animals breed in winter, when food is scarce and their bodily powers 
are at a low ebb. 

Amongst civilised men and domestic animals the variations in the amount 
of food are brought to a minimum, and as a consequence conceptions can occur 
all the year round, mostly, however, in summer. 

A dog can have pups in every season of the year ; his food is ensured to 
him, and he is never reduced to extremes of hunger, as are his antecedents the 
wolf and the fox, who almost never have young in winter. 

Here we have an instance of how temperature influence can be ameliorated 
by more favourable circumstances. Amongst savage tribes of men, living in 
rigorous climes, the conception curve probably is more marked than in Scotland. 

"We see therefore that temperature is a great — the greatest — factor modify- 
ing life. It modifies the number of children born ; it is connected, directly or 
indirectly, with almost every disease that is known ; and therefore becomes a 
chief factor in producing the retrogressive change which we call death. 

In conclusion, I wish to express how much I am indebted to Professor Tait, 
not only for having directed my attention to and explained to me the mode of 
applying Fourier's formula to this investigation, but for having checked the 
results. Without his aid I could not have carried out the investigation. 



SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESULTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. 



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VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



2L 



132 SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESULTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. 



EXPLANATION OF CHARTS. 



CHAET I. 

Conception Curve — dark line. The actual numbers are given on left-hand side. The 
Temperature Curve represented by a dotted line. The numbers are omitted. (See pp. 2, 3.) 

CHART II. 

Marriage Curve placed for sake of contrast just underneath the Conception and Tempera- 
ture Curves. The numbers are on left-hand side. (See pp. 2, 5.) 

CHART III. 

Shows Conception Curve after Temperature factor has been subtracted line 

shows the real course of Curve (see p. 7). Below is Marriage Curve. (See pp. 6, 7.) 

CHART IV. 

Shows the capacity for conceiving at different ages of women. The numbers are years 
of age. (See p. 10.) 

CHART V. 

Shows all the factors influencing the conceiving power of a woman, taken for a single year 
(say 20-21). 

(A) Represents Age Curve, and rises in Chart, being that of a single year from 20-21. 

(See pp. 10, 11.) 

(B) Temperature Curve, rising every year in summer. 

(C) Curve representing Menstrual Rhythm, occurring twelve times in the year. 



( 133 ) 



V. — On the Physiological Actions of Drugs on the Secretion of Bile. By 
William Rutherford, M.D., F.R.SS. L. and E., Professor of the Insti- 
tutes of Medicine in the University of Edinburgh. 

From Experiments performed with the assistance of Monsieur W. Vignal and William 

J. Dodds, M.B., D.Sc. 

(Read on 5tli March 1877 and on 17th June 1878. Abstracts in the " Proceedings " of those dates.)* 



INTRODUCTION. 

(For References and Table of Contents, see end of Memoir.) 

Since the liver is an organ whose due activity is indispensable for the main- 
tenance of health ; since it is frequently the subject of disorder, and conse- 
quently receives a large share of attention from the physician, it is obviously 
of great importance that he should possess precise knowledge of the manner in 
which it is affected by medicinal agents. 

The physician has had no difficulty in determining when a substance excites 
the sweat glands, the salivary glands, or the kidneys, but as regards the liver 
he has been so much embarrassed, that although substances supposed to 
increase the discharge of bile (cholagogues, x°^V> Dn<e > v-y^y to drive away) 
have been administered to man for over 2000 years, there has always been 
much uncertainty as to those which are really to be regarded as cholagogues ; 
and even in the case of any agent which increases the discharge of bile, he has 
been quite unable to determine whether this effect is due to a stimulation of the 
bile-secreting or of the bile-expelling mechanism. 

The reasons for these uncertainties are not difficult to find. The bile, when 
it enters the intestinal canal, mingles with other secretions, and with alimentary 
substances, whose quantities are variable. The physician roughly estimates the 
amount of bile discharged, by observing the colour of the dejections — a method 
which is of necessity so inaccurate that it is often difficult, sometimes indeed 
impossible, to say whether or not the discharge of bile is increased, diminished, 

* By the permission of the Council, I have been allowed a year to prepare this research for publi- 
cation in the " Transactions." The experimental work was, however, entirely completed before the last 
abstract was read before the Society. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 M 



134 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

or unchanged. Thus, when rhubarb is administered, it gives a colour to the 
dejections similar to that communicated by the bile, and the physician is there- 
fore puzzled to say whether or not rhubarb affects the liver ; yet, by another 
method of research, it can be shown that rhubarb increases the secretion of 
bile. Where the substance, as in the case of sodium sulphate, stimulates the 
intestinal glands, and thus occasions copious dejections of a watery character, 
whereby their colour is diluted, the physician has found it difficult to say 
whether or not there is a variation in the quantity of bile discharged; yet by 
another method, it can be shown that this substance certainly stimulates the 
liver as well as the intestinal glands. Again, in the case of such substances as 
magnesium sulphate and castor oil, which stimulate the intestinal glands but 
not the liver, the physician, although he certainly did not suppose that they 
increase the flow of bile, nevertheless failed to observe, the fact — which may be 
shown by another method, — that they diminish the 'production of bile. Again, 
when a substance excites the liver to produce more bile, but does not excite 
the intestinal glands to pour forth their watery secretion, and as it were wash 
out the bile discharged into the canal, the clinical observer has in the case of 
benzoic acid and its compounds, sodium salicylate, and others, failed to observe 
that they are cholagogues. But again, the clinical observer is unable to say 
whether or not any cholagogue actually stimulates the hepatic cells to produce 
more bile, or merely excites the muscular fibres of the gall-bladder and bile 
ducts to expel their contents. Yet rational medicine imperatively requires that 
the first of these questions at all events shall receive a definite answer. 

There are two methods — the clinical and the physiological — by which the 
actions of medicinal agents are investigated. On the clinical method, experi- 
ments are made on men and animals in a state of disease, with a view to cure 
the diseased condition ; whereas, on the physiological method, experiments are 
made with drugs on animals and sometimes also on man in a state of health, 
with a view to determine how they affect the bodily system when its action is 
not distorted by the influence of disease. The clinical method is as old as 
medicine itself, but the physiological mode is of comparatively recent date, and 
has grown out of the fact that the clinical method has proved to have very 
seriously failed — and nowhere more signally than in the case of the liver — to 
furnish the physician with that definite knowledge which is required to bring 
therapeutics even within sight of the pale of exact science. 

Of necessity the influence of a drug upon a diseased condition is the ulti- 
matum of pharmacology, and every experiment upon a healthy bodily system, 
whether of man or animal, is merely ancillary to experiments with the drug in 
disease. Therefore, if we discover that a drug stimulates the healthy liver 
of such an animal as a dog, we do not infer that it must also stimulate the 
human liver in health, and still less do we conclude that it must also act thus in 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 135 

disease. The experiments on the healthy liver of the dog, on the normal, and 
on the abnormal human liver, are three sets of experiments closely related, but 
still distinct. The facts derived from any one of the three cannot be substituted 
for those of the other two. Each set of facts has its own proper place, and 
must be carefully kept there. When, therefore, we show by the physiological 
method that such substances as sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, ammonium 
phosphate, and others, powerfully stimulate the liver of a dog, we do not for a 
moment say to the clinical observer, you will find that these things have a 
similar action in man. We merely say it is likely that they also act thus in 
man ; experiment with them in his case, and tell us if you find that they 
have on him a similar action, and tell us also in what diseased states you find 
the employment of this or of that substance most advantageous. 

All are agreed that medical science has much to gain from the attainment 
of a precise knowledge of the physiological actions of medicinal agents. The 
action of ipecacuan in dysentery is an apt illustration of this fact. On asking a 
highly experienced Indian physician how he explained the appearance of a 
large amount of bile in the dejections after the administration of sixty grains of 
ipecacuan in cases of dysentery, he at once replied, " My theory is that it 
relieves a spasm of the bile ducts, and thus allows of the escape of pent-up 
bile." But, when we give sixty grains of ipecacuan to a healthy clog, it never 
fails to cause the liver to secrete a greatly increased quantity of bile. Probably, 
therefore, no one will now be inclined to doubt that in dysentery, ipecacuan 
affects the liver in a similar manner, and that the increased discharge of bile 
is due to its increased secretion, and not to the relief of an imaginary spasm of 
the bile ducts. It must be admitted that the attainment of this precise know- 
ledge regarding the action of ipecacuan does not reveal to us the true pathology 
of dysentery, but it places us one step nearer to a knowledge of it; for once 
we know the action of a drug in a healthy state of the body, and find that 
a diseased state is cured by that action, our knowledge of the nature of the 
diseased state is necessarily advanced. 

While all have admitted the limited and unsatisfactory character of our 
knowledge of the effects of drugs on the liver, several investigators have 
attempted to advance the subject by the physiological method of experi- 
menting with drugs on animals. Nearly all the observations have been made 
on the dog— that being the animal best suited for the purpose. The method 
resorted to by the earlier experimenters was that of continuously collecting the 
bile from a permanent biliary fistula, and observing how its amount and com- 
position were affected by drugs. A permanent biliary fistula is established by 
occluding the common bile duct, and establishing a communication between 
the fundus of the gall-bladder and the exterior of the abdomen. When the 
wound in the abdominal wall has completely healed, and nothing remains but 



136 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

the fistulous opening into the gall-bladder, through which all the bile is neces- 
sarily discharged, a cannula is placed in the fistulous opening, and the bile 
collected either in a bag attached to the cannula, or in a large sponge placed 
in a tin box and secured to the abdomen of the animal. The difficulty of per- 
fectly collecting the bile continuously by day and night, while allowing of such 
freedom of movement on the part of the animal as is necessary for the main- 
tenance of its health, is so serious that few investigators have succeeded in 
accomplishing the task. By this method Nasse (1852, Op. i.) Kolliker and 
MtiLLER (1855, Op, ii.), and Scott (Op. iv.), severally made observa- 
tions on a single dog with reference to the effect of calomel on the biliary 
secretion, and the results of their experiments will be detailed under the action 
of mercury. Being in some measure contradictory, the subject was in 1866 
taken up by a committee, of which the late Professor Hughes Bennett was 
chairman and reporter. Professor Arthur Gamgee and the author were the 
two junior members of the committee upon whom devolved the task of per- 
forming the experiments. The investigation was laborious, and lasted two 
years. Very great difficulty was experienced in making a constant collection 
of the bile extending over a number of days, and it was repeatedly observed, 
that although the animals were kept on a fixed diet, remarkable variations 
took place in the amount of bile secreted daily, when no cause could be 
assigned. 

This circumstance rendered the method of experiment one from which it 
was difficult to arrive at just conclusions ; nevertheless the experiments seemed 
to warrant the statement that " spontaneous diarrhoea, dysentery, and purga- 
tion produced by pilula hydrargyri, calomel, corrosive sublimate, and podo- 
phyllin diminished the solid constituents of bile, and, with one exception, the 
fluid portion of the bile also " (" British Association Reports," 1868, p. 229). 

These are indeed meagre results, considering the great labour which their 
attainment entailed, and it must be admitted that they were to some extent 
misleading; not because of any inaccuracy of observation, but because the method 
of experiment was not adapted to supply, at brief successive periods of time, 
information regarding the state of the secretion of bile. On that account it 
failed to show that in the case of such a substance as podophyllin — which 
certainly increases the biliary secretion, but which also stimulates the intestinal 
glands, — if too large a dose be given, the effect on the liver may be overcome 
by its effect on the intestine, and a diminished secretion of bile result. (See 
Experiment 9 in the sequel.) 

In 1873 Rohrtg (Op. vi.) reopened the investigation of this subject. He 
observed the rate of biliary flow from temporary fistulse in fasting curarised dogs 
before and after the injection of purgative agents into the stomach or intestine. 
He found that large doses of croton oil greatly increased the secretion of bile, 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION'S OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 137 

and that a similar effect, though to a less extent, was produced by colocynth, 
jalap, aloes, rhubarb and senna, and sulphate of magnesia — the potency of 
these agents as stimulants of the liver being in the order mentioned. He found, 
moreover, that castor oil had little effect, and that calomel, while it seldom 
recalled the biliary secretion after it had ceased, nevertheless somewhat aug- 
mented it when it was taking place slowly. 

Rohrig's statement with regard to calomel does not much differ from that 
made by Hughes Bennett's committee, but nevertheless he did find that certain 
purgative agents, when given to fasting animals with temporary biliary fistulas, 
increased the biliary secretion, while the committee found that in non-fasting 
animals with permanent fistulse, purgative action, induced by podophyllin, 
calomel, &c, diminished the amount of bile secreted in the twenty-four hours. 

It appeared to me that this important subject could not be allowed to 
remain in a position so unsatisfactory. I therefore entered on the following 
research, but ere I had proceeded very far I found its labours so excessive, that 
I was glad to avail myself of the very valuable assistance of my pupils, 
Monsieur W. Vignal, and latterly of Dr William Dodds, in performing the 
experiments. 

Method of Experiment. 

All the experiments recorded in the following pages were performed on 
dogs. The dog was selected — 1. Because the size of its common bile duct 
renders it possible to introduce a cannula with an orifice sufficiently large to 
prevent its being blocked up by particles of inspissated mucus from the gall- 
bladder. 2. For the reason that its digestion resembles that of man, inasmuch 
as its stomach becomes empty when the process is completed. It is very 
different in the case of a rabbit, whose stomach is never empty. 3. As Rohrig 
had performed his experiments on dogs, it was necessary that we should com- 
pare our results with his. The selection of the dog has proved fortunate, for 
the results of our experiments are in complete harmony with every perfectly 
ascertained fact regarding the actions of medicinal agents on the human liver, 
and prove that the liver of this animal is affected in the same sense — although 
it may not be to the same degree — by substances that act on the human liver. 
All the experiments having been performed on animals of the same species 
placed as nearly as possible under similar conditions, the results are fairly 
comparable ; although it must be borne in mind that just as no two members 
of the human species can even in their normal condition be regarded as equally 
susceptible to the influence of any medicinal agent, neither can any two mem- 
bers of the canine species be held to possess identical susceptibilities. All the 
animals had a full meal of lean meat at three or four o'clock in the afternoon, 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 N 



138 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

and the experiment was begun between nine and ten o'clock on the following 
morning, so that the digestion and absorption of the food were completed, and 
the animal was therefore in a fasting condition. This was an essential pre- 
liminary ; for, as is well known, the secretion of bile is accelerated during the 
process of digestion, and had we taken the amount of bile secreted per hour 
during digestion, as an index of the activity of the liver, previous to the 
administration of a drug, our experiments would necessarily have been worth- 
less. The disturbing effect of irregular muscular movements upon the biliary 
flow was prevented by injecting into a vein small doses of curara, repeated 
at intervals, when the motor paralysis which it induces became too slight. In 
consequence of the curara palsy, artificial respiration was had recourse to, and 
maintained at regular intervals throughout the whole experiment. Chloroform 
was used during the preliminary operation in two cases, but the stimulation of 
the liver which it induced rendered the experiments worthless.* On the other 
hand, we have abundantly proved that the doses of curara administered in the 
following experiments have no influence on the biliary secretion, and do not 
interfere with the effects of hepatic stimulants. It is, therefore, an exceedingly 
valuable auxiliary in a research of this nature. The method of experiment we 
adopted was always that of a temporary biliary fistula. Through an opening 
in the linea alba a glass cannula was inserted into the common bile duct near 
to its junction with the duodenum, and tied therein. To the end of the 
cannula projecting from the abdomen a short caoutchouc tube was attached, 
and to the free end of this a short glass tube drawn to a narrow aperture so 
that the bile might drop from it, as Rohrig [Op. vi.) had recommended. The 
gall-bladder was then compressed, in order to fill the whole tubing with bile, 
and the cystic duct was clamped to prevent its return to the gall-bladder, and 
so compel all the bile secreted by the liver to flow through the cannula. The 
wound in the abdominal wall was then carefully closed, and in all save the 
earliest experiments the animal was thoroughly covered with cotton wool, in 
order to quickly restore it to its normal temperature; and guided by a ther- 
mometer in the abdominal cavity, great care was taken to keep the temperature 
normal, — a matter of no small importance, — for if the temperature fall several 
degrees, the liver secretes more slowly. 

The respiration requires to be maintained with regularity, otherwise the 

* It may be well to state, however, that in all the ojjerations for the previous experiments on the 
action of cholagogues performed by Dr Rutherford twelve years ago, at a time when there was no 
antiphysiological excitement prevailing, chloroform was fully administered to every animal, because in 
those experiments the biliary fistula was of a permanent nature, and observations were not begun on the 
biliary secretion until some days after the operation — when of course the effect of the chloroform had 
completely passed off. The biliary fistula being of a temporary character in the present research, and 
the whole time taken up by eacli experiment being not more than a few hours, the use of anaesthetics 
was inadmissible. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 139 

biliary flow is rendered somewhat unequal by irregular diaphragmatic com- 
pression of the liver. Moreover, if the respiration be deficient, the secretion 
of bile is always diminished. Some of the slight oscillations observable in the 
charts of the biliary secretion in these experiments are probably owing to varia- 
tions in the respiration ; for in the earlier experiments we were obliged to 
have the respiratory bellows moved by the hand, and this is never so regular 
as a machine. Notwithstanding this, however, the main results of these experi- 
ments are perfectly clear. 

Until it is attempted, one might suppose that this mode of experiment is 
extremely simple, but it is by no means so simple as it appears. It is needful 
to manipulate the abdominal viscera with great care, and to avoid all dragging 
at the bile-duct, otherwise the secretion of bile becomes so irregular that the 
experiment may be useless. The cannula must be very carefully retained in a 
position which will permit of its moving with the diaphragm, but will prevent 
it from twisting the duct, and thus impeding the exit of the bile by forming a 
valve at its orifice. 

Rohrig estimated the velocity of the biliary secretion by counting the 
seconds that elapsed between the fall of the drops from the orifice of the tube. 
A single trial convinced us that this method is extremely laborious, and leads 
to inaccurate results, because it does not permit of continuous observation for 
any length of time. Variations in secretion often occur independently of the 
administration of any substance, and it is impossible to estimate their signifi- 
cance, and make due allowance for them, unless the method of continuous 
collection of the bile be adopted. Moreover, we saw that the degree of 
viscosity of the bile caused a variation in the size of the drops, and, therefore, 
in the intervals between their fall. We therefore abandoned this for the more 
accurate method of allowing the bile to flow into a fine cubic centimetre 
measure, and recording the quantity secreted every quarter of an hour. In 
addition to constant collection of the bile, this method has the great advantage 
of permitting a graphic representation of the results. 

It is evident from the method of experiment that all our observations 
relate exclusively to the effects of substances on the bile-secreting mechanism. 
We have made no observations regarding their effects on the bile-expelling 
mechanism. Nor do we intend to prosecute the latter part of the inquiry, for 
the question, what substances stimulate the liver to secrete more bile, is of 
infinitely greater importance. We shall be able to give to it a precise answer, 
and thus for the first time to furnish the physician with definite knowledge for 
his guidance in the treatment of hepatic disorder. 

In several instances we analysed the bile secreted before and after the 
administration of a drug, but although valuable facts were thus ascertained, 
we found that in consequence of the excessive labour of this research it was 



140 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

impossible to analyse the bile in all cases. We therefore discontinued the 
analyses, after observing that even when a hepatic stimulant renders the bile 
more watery, the increased velocity of secretion always more than compensates 
the diminution of the solids, and thus compels the liver to produce in a given 
time a larger amount of the biliary constituents proper. 

We were also at the pains to make in most cases post-mortem examinations of 
the small and sometimes of the large intestines and stomach, in order to com- 
pare the effect of the drug on the liver with its effect on the intestine. The 
results are valuable, because — 1. They furnish for the first time a systematic 
account of the effects of well-known and also of many new drugs upon the intes- 
tinal mucous membrane ; 2. By separating the secretion of the liver from that 
of the intestinal glands, a more exact knowledge of the effects of substances on 
the latter is obtained, and a very important generalisation regarding the effect 
on the secretion of the bile, produced by stimulating the intestinal glands, has 
been arrived at, as will be shown in the sequel. It ought to be observed that 
some of the substances might perhaps stimulate the pancreas, and as the 
pancreatic duct was never tied, the fluid in the intestinal canal may have been 
a mixture of intestinal and pancreatic juices. But as the liver was the primary 
object of our investigations, it would have been altogether unjustifiable to have 
set up more irritation at the duodenum, by cutting down on the pancreatic duct 
and placing a cannula in it — always a difficult thing to do in the dog, and apt 
to involve a good deal of haemorrhage. Although by such a procedure, definite 
knowledge might have been arrived at with regard to what substances affect the 
pancreas, yet our results as regards the liver — a gland of greater importance — in 
the economy, might have been vitiated. Probably in most cases the fluid found 
in the intestine was chiefly intestinal juice, but for the reason mentioned no 
conclusive statement is permissible with regard to this point. 

The small doses of curara given to the animals were injected into the jugular 
vein, in order that their effect might be speedy ; but nearly all the drugs given 
for the purpose of affecting the liver or intestine were injected into the 
duodenum, because the animals being curarised could not swallow, and the 
penetration of the duodenal wall by the sharp nozzle of a small syringe was a 
much simpler operation than the introduction of a tube down the oesophagus into 
the stomach. Moreover, the stomach in a dog that has fasted for many hours 
usually contains a large quantity of mucus that must have retarded the 
absorption of the substance if given by the mouth. To avoid this delay was a 
matter of great importance, both on the animal's account, and also because of 
the impossibility of continuing the experiment for more than a few hours. 
Moreover, it has been alleged that the action of a cholagogue may be due to 
a reflex excitement of the liver proceeding from the duodenal mucous membrane; 
therefore by always injecting the substances into the duodenum we ensured its 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 141 

action — if any — on this portion of the intestine. It must of course be borne in 
mind, that when a drug is placed in the duodenum directly, and a certain effect 
on the liver ensues, it by no means follows that the same effect will accrue, if 
the drug be placed in the stomach and thus come in contact with the gastric 
juice. But the general harmony of the results of our injecting substances into 
the duodenum, with those observed in man when the drugs are taken by the 
mouth, convinces us that our method is reliable. In only one instance indeed — 
that of calomel — did it seem probable that its having escaped the influence of 
the gastric juice was vitiating the result, for the hydrochloric acid of the juice 
can convert calomel into corrosive sublimate, and we have discovered that while 
calomel does not, corrosive sublimate does stimulate the liver. A discussion of 
that case will be found under the action of mercury, and we think it the only 
one that needs special consideration. 

Secretion of Bile in a Curarised Fasting Dog. 

It was of course necessary — as a preliminary step — to observe the amount 
of bile secreted in the course of a day by a dog that had fasted about eighteen 
hours, and to which nothing but curara was administered. The solution of 
curara employed in all the experiments was a filtered aqueous solution, every 
minim of which contained one milligramme of the poison. The solution was 
always injected into the jugular vein. 

In all the woodcuts the numbers under the abscissa indicate the hours during 
which the secretion of bile was observed, while those to the left of the ordinate 
indicate in cubic centimetres the amount of bile which flowed from the cannula; 
the dots in the curve indicate the quantities of bile collected every quarter of 
an hour. The vertical dotted lines that cross the curves in the illustrations 
indicate that something was given to the animal. In all such experiments the 
amount of bile first collected is usually considerably larger than that at 
subsequent periods. This apparently results from the sudden diminution in 
the resistance to the exit of the bile consequent upon opening the duct. The 
first one or two collections 
are therefore not reliable in- 
dices of secretion, and they 
are consequently omitted 
from some of the charts. 

Experiment 1. Dog that 
had fasted eighteen hours. . i * e 7 8 hours 

XXT • 1,4. >i o 1 'l ^£' *' — Secretion of bile by a fasting dog with nothing but curara ad- 

W eight 7 "6 kilogrammes. ministered. a, 20 mill. ; b, 2 mill. ; c and d, 4 mill.; c, f, g, 3 mill. 

—Twenty milligrammes of curara injeoted int0 jugular yein - 

curara were injected into jugular vein (at a, fig. 1). The abdomen was then 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 O 




142 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



opened, and the cannula placed in the common bile-duct, as above indicated. 
The wound in the abdomen was closed, the animal enveloped in cotton wad- 
ding, and the bile collected. As the experiment proceeded, the effect of the 
curara gradually wore off, owing to its elimination, and it was necessary to 
inject from two to four milligrammes from time to time (b, c, d, e,f, g, fig. 1). 
If the curve be examined, it will be observed that these doses had no apparent 
effect on the biliary secretion, which was in this case tolerably regular. After 
falling until the middle of the third hour, it increased for a time and then fell 
somewhat. At the eighth hour it was slightly below what it had been at the 
close of the first. 

Experiment 2. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 18*7 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 2). 

As it is evident from these 
two experiments that doses 
of curara such as those given 
above do not apparently 
affect the biliary secretion, 
the times at which they were 
given are not indicated in any 
of the subsequent charts, for 
in all cases curara was given 
as above indicated. The 
great value of this substance 
in this connection is, that 
while not obviously affecting biliary secretion, as chloroform does, it paralyses 
voluntary movement, and thus prevents the irregular outflow of the bile that 
ensues when the abdominal muscles contract. 

The analysis of the bile in such a case as the above having been omitted, 
another experiment was performed for the purpose of supplying the want. 
Experiment 3. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. "Weight 15 kilogrammes. 

-Nothing was given but curara 



in doses similar to those above- 
mentioned (fig. 3). 

The biliary flow was not so 
regular in this as in the previous 
cases. The mean has been 
taken, and triangles with dotted 
lines are superadded in fig. 3 
for the purpose of indicating 




Fig. 2. — Section of bile by a fasting dog with nothing but curara ad- 
ministered. 20 mill, given at c ; 4 mill, given at c', c", c'", c 4 , c 5 ; 3 
mill, given at c 6 . 




12 3 4 5 

Fig. 3.— Secretion of bile in a fasting dog with nothing but curara 
administered. 



the probable position of the dots had the secretion been regular. This was 
done on the supposition — entertained until more experience was gained— that 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 143 

these irregularities in the curve were due, not to variation in secretion, but to 
irregularity of outflow, owing to a variation in the facility with which the bile 
could enter the cannula. It was in time ascertained, however, that an 
irregular curve generally ensued when there was much difficulty in inserting 
the cannula into the duct, and the latter had to be a good deal pulled about ; 
in consequence of which the liver probably suffered somewhat from nervous 
irritation. 

Composition of Bile in a Fasting Dog. 

Analyses were made of the bile secreted by the third dog during the first, 
fourth, and last hours of the experiment. 
The following are the results : — 

Table I. — Composition of Bile secreted by a Dog paralysed by Ciirara after 

fasting nineteen hours. 



Experiment 3. 


Bile secreted during 


First Hour. 


Fourth Hour. 


Last Hour. 


Water, .... 
Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, 
Mucus, .... 
Ash, .... 


89-53 
8-73 
0-71 
1-03 


89-58 
8-68 
0-72 
1-02 


89-55 
8-71 
0-72 
1-02 


Total, .... 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



It therefore appears that in the progress of the experiment the composition 
of the bile remained almost precisely the same. It should be mentioned that 
in taking the bile secreted near the beginning of such experiments for analysis, 
we were always careful to eliminate that which had been expressed from the 
gall-bladder into the cannula. 



Secretion of Bile per Kilogramme of Body-iveight in a Fasting Dog. 

The absolute quantity of bile secreted by different individuals varies with the 
size of the animal ; therefore, in order to ascertain the amount of work that is 
really done by the liver in any case, it is necessary to know the quantity of 
bile secreted per kilogramme of body-weight in a unit of time. In all these 
experiments, therefore, the animals were weighed, so that the secretion of bile 
per kilogramme of body-weight might be determined. 



144 



PEOEESSOE EUTHEEFOED ON THE 



Experiment 1. 



Experiment 2. 



Experiment 3. 



Secretion of bile 
per 15". 



CC. 

10 

0-85 

07 

0-75 

0-75 

0-75 

0-75 

0-65 

0-6 

0-45 

0-65 

0-55 

0-75 

0-75 

0-85 

0-8 

0-77 

0-77 

0-75 

0-8 

0-7 

0-65 

0-55 

0-65 

0-6 

0-65 

0-6 

0-7 

0-5 

0-55 

0-47 

0-6 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog: per hour 



CC. 



0-394 



■0309 



■ 0-381 



• 0-393 



1 0-35 



0-355 



0-328 



■ 0-292 



Secretion of bile 
per 15". 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

clog: per hour. 



Secretion of bile 
per 15". 



Mean. 
0-351 cc. 



cc. 

1-5 

1-47 

1-5 

1-4 

1-5 

1-35 

1-5 

1-4 

1-42 

1-4 

1-4 

1-5 

1-47 

1-45 

1-42 

1-4 

1-52 

1-37 

1-42 

1-42 

1-37 

1-45 

1-4 

1-3 

1-27 

1-32 

1-5 

1-3 

1-25 

1-3 

1-15 

1-05 

1-2 



cc. 



0-307 



0-3 



0-312 



0-305 



0-301 



0-288 



■0-267 



Mean. 
0-254 cc. 



cc. 

1-1 

0-85 

0-55 

0-6 

0-75 

0-6 

0-6 

0-45 

1-0 

0-75 

0-65 

0-7 

0-45 

0-65 

0-8 

0-4 

0-45 

0-45 

0-5 

0-45 

055 

0-5 

0-5 

0-62 

0-55 

0-6 

0-75 

0-65 

0-4 

0-15 

0-65 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog: per hour. 



CC 



■0-17 



■ 0-19 



l„: 



0-177 



• 0-12 



■0-133 



•0-168 



•0123 



Mean. 
0-154 cc. 



In the three curara experiments detailed above, the mean secretion per 
kilogramme weight of the animal was 0*351 cc. in Experiment 1, 0254, cc. in 
Experiment 2, and 0-154 cc. in Experiment 3. In the first case, the secretion 
was, from some unknown cause, unusually high : the last two coefficients will 
be found a much nearer indication of what is usual in the fasting animal, and 
in subsequent experiments it will be seen that the secretion is frequently 
below even the small coefficient in Experiment 3. 

Undoubtedly the true test of hepatic work is the amount of bile solids 
secreted per unit of body-weight in a unit of time. Any one may calculate 
this from the analyses; but inasmuch as these were not made in every case, and 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 145 

seeing that we have found that whenever a substance increases the biliary 
secretion, it augments the excretion of bile-solids by the liver, even although 
the bile be rendered more watery, we have thought that a statement of the 
amount of fluid bile secreted per kilogramme of body-weight will be sufficiently 
refined for the purpose of this research. Because the question we set ourselves 
to answer was principally this, What substances have the power of exciting the 
secreting apparatus of the liver \ — a question which cannot be answered by the 
ordinary observations on man, for in his case it is impossible to determine whether 
an increased amount of biliary matter in the dejections be due — (1) To contrac- 
tion of the gall bladder and larger .bile ducts ; (2) To the relief of some possible 
spasm of the larger bile ducts ; or (3) To an increased secretion by the liver. 

A second question before us was the relative powers as hepatic stimulants 
of the various substances employed. Our answer to this can only be approxi- 
mative, for it would require a considerable number of experiments with any one 
substance to ascertain the most effective dose in the dog. This would entail 
an amount of suffering and of labour that seems altogether unwarranted by the 
result to be attained. We therefore believe that we do enough if we give a 
definite answer to the first of our questions, and an approximative answer to 
the second. The latter will be fairly well given by determining the amount of 
bile secreted per kilogramme of body- weight per hour. 

Action of Croton Oil. 

Rohrig has placed croton oil at the head of his list of hepatic stimulants, 
with the statement that in doses from ^ ._ __ ^ — M 
eighteen drops to a " teaspoonful " it 
has an exciting effect on the biliary 
secretion even under the most un- 
favourable circumstances (Op. vi. p. 
250). This substance was therefore 
made the subject of our earliest ex- 
periments. 

Experiment 4. Dog weighing 7*3 
kilogrammes. — Considering the small 
size of this dog, the secretion of bile 0.5) 
was unusually great. This probably 
resulted from digestion being incom- 
plete; for. although the animal was i 2 3 l I ~ 

fed Seventeen hours before the ex- Fig. 4 -Secretion of bUe when digestion was incomplete. 

15 grains croton oil injected into duodenum at c. 

periment, at death a quantity of 

elastic tissue, and a greyish fluid resembling chyme, were found in the stomach. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I, 2 P 




146 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




After the secretion had fallen very low, 15 grains (about 30 drops) of croton 
oil, in 60 minims of almond oil, were injected directly into the duodenum (at c, 
fig. 4). The dose was a large one, but not so large as quantities given by 
Rohrig. After half-an-hour, the fall in the bile-secretion was arrested, and a 
slight rise took place. Towards the close of the experiment, the pulse became 
extremely weak. 

Necropsy."' — The mucous membrane of the upper three-fourths of the small 
intestine was intensely red, especially in the duodenum, the colour of which 
resembled that of claret. There was evidence of impending purgation in the 
small intestine. The weak pulse at the close of this experiment, together with 
the violent intestinal irritation, suggested that the collapse had been occasioned 
by the drug, and that a smaller dose should be given in the next experiment. 
Experiment 5. Dog weighing 5*9 kilogrammes. — This animal had refused 

almost all food for nearly two days. 
Six grains of croton oil in 60 minims 
of almond oil, were injected into the 
duodenum (c, fig. 5). No increase of 
the biliary secretion followed. The 
pulse became so weak that the experi- 
ment was ended two hours and a half 
after the oil was given. 
Necropsy. — The oil had found its way into the stomach. The gastric mucous 
membrane was of a claret colour. There was slight redness of the duodenum, 
but no evidence of purgative action. 

Experiment 6. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 3-1 kilo- 
grammes. — In this experiment only 3 grains 
croton oil in 60 minims almond oil were in- 
jected into the duodenum. A decided increase 
in the biliary secretion began within an hour 
after the injection. The secretion soon reached 
a maximum, and then fell in the course of two 
hours to the same level as before the injection 
(fig. 6). 

Necropsy. — A portion of the oil was found in the stomach, and another 
portion half way down the small intestine. The gastric mucous membrane 
was intensely red. There were patches of slight redness here and there in the 
duodenum. No evidence of purgative action. 

These experiments were undertaken simply to test the accuracy of Rohrig's 
conclusion arrived at by his method of counting the drops of bile. Our method, 

* In all cases, unless otherwise stated, the necropsy was performed immediately at the close of the 
experiment. 



Fig. 5. — Secretion of bile before and after 6 grains of 
croton oil were injected into duodenum at c. 




Fig. 6. — The secretion of bile before and after 
3 grains of croton oil were injected into 
the duodenum at c. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 147 

which, as we have explained, is far more reliable, gives no evidence that croton 
oil is to be regarded as more than a feeble hepatic stimulant; and, seeing that 
it has no reputation as such in practical medicine, we deemed further experi- 
mentation with it uncalled for. But as these experiments convinced us that 
Rohrig had, owing to the faultiness of his method, fallen into serious error, we 
deemed it necessary to subject all the substances he had employed, to our 
method of experimentation. 

That there was no purgation from these doses of croton oil is a singular 
fact, which has been laid hold of by some persons as evidence that medicines 
affect the dog and man very differently, and that therefore the results seen in 
the one cannot be applied to the other. It is well known, however, that a 
difference in action is quite exceptional, and certainly the following experiments 
fully bear out this opinion. The only explanation of the non-purgative action of 
the oil in the above cases that suggests itself is, that possibly too great a dose 
of this violent irritant was introduced into the intestine, and that a paralysis of 
Lieberkiihn's follicles was the result. The large doses were given in imitation 
of Rohrig's experiments. 



Action of Resina Podophylli or " Podophyllin. " 

Resina podophylli, or "podophyllin " as it is commonly termed, is very often 
employed in practical medicine for increasing the discharge of bile, but the 
physician is unable to say whether or not it really does stimulate the liver, for 
the result he observes might be due to an action of the agent on the bile- 
expelling mechanism. The maximum dose of podophyllin for a man is two 
grains. 

Experiment 7. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 1 53 kilogrammes. 
— The secretion of bile fell very gradually (fig. 7). Ten cubic centimetres of 
water were injected into the duo- 
denum at iv. There being no 
apparent effect, 100 cc. were in- 
jected at iv. The slight rise in 
secretion that ensued at the end 
of an hour may have been owing 
to this ; but it is not likely, seeing 
that water is absorbed with rapidity. 
At p, ten grains podophyllin, sus- Figi 7 ._ Secretion of bile before apd aftei . TOte and po do- 

npnrWl in 10 CC \vntf>r wprp in- phyllin. to, 10 cc. water ; to', 100 cc. water; p, 10 grains 

penueu in iu cu vvdiei, vveie m resina lodopliylli in 10 CCi water i n j ec ted into duo- 

jected into the duodenum ; and denum. 

it is probable that the rise in secretion two hours afterwards was due to the 

podophyllin. 




148 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — The mucous membrane of the duodenum, and to a slight ex- 
tent below it, was very vascular, and this part of the intestine contained a con- 
siderable quantity of a slightly brown fluid, thereby affording evidence of a 
purgative effect. 

Experiment 8. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 66 kilo- 
grammes. — Six grains podophyllin in 9 cc. water injected into duodenum (p, 
fig. 8). The subsequent rise in the bile-secretion is very evident. The secretion 
attained its maximum between three and four hours after the administration of 
the podophyllin. As in the previous case, the effect on the liver had very 
greatly diminished by the end of the sixth hour after administration. 

Necropsy. — Distinct, though not abundant, evidence of purgative action in 
small intestine, and decidedly increased vascularity of the mucous membrane 
in its upper two-thirds. Nothing remarkable in stomach or large intestine. 




Fig. 8. — Secretion of bile before and after 6 grains of resina podophylli in 9 ce. water were 
injected into duodenum at 2>- 





Experiment 8. 




Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog : per hour. 


Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


per 15". 


per 15". 
cc. 


per kilogramme of 
dog : per hour. 


cc. 






0-3 




0-57 




o-i 




0-52 




0-07 




0-6 




0-05 




0-75 




o-i 




0-6 




0-15 




075 




0-12 




0-8 




o-i 


) 


0-75 


\ 


0-1 
0-05 


V 0-042 cc. 


0-8 
0-8 


I 0-477 cc. 


0-03 


J 


0-8 


3 


v — 




0-75 




0-32 




0-75 




0-15 




0-62 




0-2 




0-52 




0-27 




0-42 




0-52 




0-35 




0-52 




0-35 





Probably every one will be struck by the slowness and the small extent of 
the purgative action in these experiments, notwithstanding the large doses of 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



149 



podophyllin. That this was owing to the insolubility of podophyllin in water 
is probable from the two following experiments. Zwicke, Hagentorn, and 
Kohler having shown (Fraser's Report in Op. vii., vol. v. p. 393) that convolvulin, 
elaterin, and some other substances have no purgative action unless they come 
in contact with bile— which, therefore, appears to be a solvent for them — it 
occurred to us that the tardy action of the podophyllin might be owing to the 
non-entrance of the bile into the intestine. Accordingly in the next experi- 
ment, the podophyllin was suspended in bile. 

Experiment 9. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 11 kilo- 
grammes. — 122 cc. bile injected into duodenum (b, fig. 9). Unfortunately, there 
is a hiatus in the curve immediately before the injection, owing to a loss of the 
bile ; nevertheless it is evident that increased bile-secretion followed the injec- 
tion when the biliary flow had become fairly constant. Nine grains podo- 
phyllin, triturated in a mortar with 12 cc. bile, were injected into the duodenum 




Fig. 9. — Secretion of bile before and after podophyllin. b. 12 - 2 cc. bile ; 
p, 9 grains resina podophylli in 12 cc. bile injected into duodenum. 



Experiment 9. 



Secretion of bile 
per 15". 



cc. 
3-05 
3 2 
2 6 
lost, 
lost. 

15 
2-4 
2-2 
2 2 
2-4 

2-8 
2-8 
2-4 
2-2 
1-9 
2'6 
1-3 
1-3 
1-5 
1-2 
11 
0-9 
0-4 
0-5 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog : per hour. 



•0-836 cc. 



■0-927 cc. 



■0-645 ce. 



•0-427 cc. 



(p). A rapid increase in the bile-secretion ensued ; but it soon diminished, and 
three hours after the injection it was lower than it had ever been. In this 
remarkable experiment, therefore, the diminution of bile-secretion after podo- 
phyllin was far more remarkable than its increase ; indeed, the increase might 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 Q 



150 • PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

possibly have been owing to the injected bile, and not to the podophyllin. 
Towards the close of the experiment the pulse became weak, but not exces- 
sively so. 

Necropsy. — Mucous membrane of stomach and whole length of small in- 
testine intensely red. The small intestine contained a large quantity of fluid. 
The large intestine contained a considerable quantity of liquid faecal matters. 
There was, therefore, abundant evidence that excessive purgation was immi- 
nent. 

In this experiment, the intestinal irritation and the purgative effect were 
far greater than they were in any of the previous experiments with podophyllin, 
and it is evident that the principal change in the bile-secretion was diminution. 
It therefore appeared that, with a powerful solvent such as the bile, nine grains 
of podophyllin produced a too violent effect upon the alimentary canal. The 
previous experiments having shown that, with a slighter action on the intestine, 
there was a more powerful action on the liver, suggested that with a smaller 
dose of podophyllin given in the biliary solvent, an action on the liver would 
be evident, and that this would follow the injection more speedily than it had 
done in the experiments where the podophyllin was. not given in a state of 
solution. The next experiment realised this anticipation in a very striking 
manner. 

Experiment 10. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 17*1 kilo- 
grammes. — The bile-secretion was about 2 cc. per fifteen minutes before 
injection into the duodenum of 6 cc. bile and 6 cc. of water (b, fig. 10). The 
subsequent increase of secretion was trivial. An hour after this, four grains 
podophyllin, in the same quantity of bile and water, were injected (p). 
About half an hour afterwards a great acceleration of the biliary flow began, 
and lasted about an hour. In one of the periods of fifteen minutes, no 
less than 5 '.8 cc. of bile were secreted ; a quantity never noticed in any 
other experiment, even on larger dogs. When this great hepatic excitement 
had disappeared, ti cc. of bile and 6 cc. of water were again injected (b'), 
as in the first instance. The fall in the secretion was for a time arrested ; 
but within three hours after the administration of the podophyllin, the 
action of the liver had almost entirely ceased. The pulse was weak, but not 
extremely so. 

Necropsy. — The mucous membrane of the duodenum was intensely 
vascular, but that of the remainder of the small intestine did not show an 
increased vascularity nearly so great as in the previous experiment. The 
upper three-fourths of the small intestine contained very decided evi- 
dence of purgative effect. The gastric mucous membrane had a dull red 
appearance. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 151 



Composition of Bile be/ore and after Podophyllin. 

The next question to be answered was evidently this, Is the increase in the 
quantity of bile after podophyllin merely clue to an increase of water, or are the 
bile-solids also increased ? The bile secreted by dog 10, between the second 




Experiment 10. 


Secretion of bile 
per 15". 


Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

'log : per hour. 


C(! 




3 6 




2 6 




2-3 




17 




1-9 




21 




lost. 




2-2 

2 1 




\ 


2-4 
2 2 


V 0-526 cc. 


2-3 


J 


2-1 




2-2 




3-8 


^ 


5-8 
4-1 


y i oi cc 


3 6 


J 


2-2 




b 




1-9 




1-9 




2-6 




«"2 





Fig. 10. — Secretion of bile before and after podophyllin. 6 cc. bile 
and 6 cc. water injected into duodenum at b and 6'. 4 grains 
resina podophylli in the same fluids injected at^. 

hour and a half and the third hour, and that secreted an hour and a quarter 
after the administration of podophyllin, were analysed with the following 
results (Table II). 



152 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Table II. — Podophyllin. 



Experiment 10. 



"Water, 

Bile acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, 

Mucus, 

Ash, 



Before. 



90-83 

7-75 
1-00 
0-42 



After. 



91-07 
7-84 
0-60 
0-49 



Velocity of secretion per half hour, 



100-00 



4-6 cc. 



100-00 



9-6 cc. 



It thus appears that, notwithstanding the great velocity of bile-formation, 
the special bile-solids were not diminished ; the only noteworthy diminution 
being in the amount of mucus. This remarkable result was confirmed by the 
following analysis of the bile in another case (Table III.). 



Table III. — Podophyllin. 



Experiment 10a. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, 

Ash, 


94-26 
4-66 
0-73 
0-35 


94-28 
4-68 
0-70 
0-34 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half-hour, ..... 


1-86 cc. 


2-47 cc. 



Results of the Experiments with Podophyllin. — 1. Podophyllin, when injected 
into the duodenum of a fasting dog, increases the secretion of bile. It is 
inferred that the increased biliary flow in the preceding experiments was clue 
to increased secretion, and not merely to expulsion, because the gall-bladder 
had been emptied by compression, and the cystic duct had been clamped : 
moreover, the increased flow was far too prolonged in some of the experiments 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 153 

to be attributable to spasm of the larger bile ducts ; therefore, an increase in 
secretion must have been the cause. 2. When the bile is prevented from 
entering the intestine, the podophyllin acts less powerfully and less quickly 
than when bile is introduced. 3. Augmentation of the biliary secretion is most 
marked when the purgative effect is not severe ; indeed, if the purgative effect 
be very decided (Experiment 9), diminution and not augmentation of the biliary 
secretion may be the chief result. 4. Podophyllin purgation is apparently due 
to a local action, for the irritation of the intestinal mucous membrane extends 
gradually from above downwards. It is a severe intestinal irritant. 5. The 
bile secreted under the influence of podophyllin, although it may be increased 
in quantity, contains as much of the special biliary matter as bile secreted under 
normal conditions. 

These results are in exact accordance with clinical experience of the action 
of podophyllin in man, but in addition they show that this substance actually 
increases the secretion of biliary matter, and that the liver is stimulated to 
secrete bile of the normal composition. They therefore supply information of 
a precise and important character, which the observations on the human subject 
have failed to give. 

In the experiments with podophyllin, performed by Hughes Bennett's 
committee above referred to, it was found that podophyllin diminishes the 
secretion of bile. How is that statement to be reconciled with the above \ 
The principal explanation is probably this, that in the experiments of the 
committee the closes given were large, and generally produced profuse purgation. 
We see that in Experiment 9 of this series diminished bile-secretion was the 
chief result of a dose that was too large, and it may be repeatedly observed in 
the following experiments : — 1. That when a substance produces purgation, but 
does not stimulate the liver, it diminishes the secretion of bile. 2. That when 
a substance stimulates the liver as well as the intestinal glands, a moderate 
dose increases both the hepatic and the intestinal secretion, the effect on the 
former being most marked in the earlier part of the experiment, and diminishing 
as the purgative effect increases ; but an excessive dose, by producing a violent 
purgative effect early in the experiment, may occasion nothing but diminished 
secretion of bile. 

Speaking broadly — if in a fasting dog the administration of any substance 
cause the bile-secretion per hour, for every kilogramme of body- weight, to rise 
to 0*4 cc, the substance is to be regarded as a powerful hepatic stimulant. It 
will therefore be found of importance to compare the coefficients of secretion ob- 
tained after the administration of different substances. Necessarily, the results 
are only approximative, but are nevertheless of much value as furnishing for 
the first time the exact data necessary for a comparative estimate. Table IV. 
shows that in Experiment 10, the coefficient of secretion rose to the very high 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 R 



154 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



figure of 1*01 cc. per kilogramme per hour. It is to be admitted that the 
dose was excessive ; * nevertheless it is worthy of remark, that we have found 
no other hepatic stimulant have so powerful an effect. 

Table IV. 



Podopliyllin. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per Hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 8, 


6 without bile . 
4 with bile 


0-90 
0-23 


0-04 CC. 
0-52 cc. 


047 CC. 

1-01 cc. 



Action of Aloes. 



Aloes is very commonly employed as a purgative agent, but the physician 
has been unable to determine whether or not it affects the liver. The indefinite 
state of our information regarding it is shown by the following sentence — " By 
some observers the bile is asserted to be increased in quantity " after its 
administration (Garrod, Op. viii. p. 380). Rohrig {Op. vi.) found that in a 
rabbit aloes increases the secretion of bile, but his experiment is not satis- 
factory, for he found that the secretion stopped at the end of three hours. 

Experiment 11. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 8*6 kilo- 
grammes. — Sixty grains of aqueous extract of Socotrine aloes in 12 cc. of 
water were injected into the duodenum {a, fig. 11). A decided increase in 
the biliary secretion was perceptible within half-an-hour thereafter. After 
attaining a maximum about an hour and a half after the administration of 
the drug, secretion gradually fell ; but although the experiment was continued 
for seven hours after the aloes was given, the effect had not disappeared. 

Necropsy. — The aloes had extended along two-thirds of the small intestine, 
which contained about an ounce and a half of viscous fluid as the only evidence 






* This dose was doubtless much larger than need have been given, but when these earlier experi- 
ments were performed, we were under the impression that the dog requires larger doses than man. 
Further experience convinced us that this is exceptional. In many subsequent experiments we found 
that doses of various substances similar to those given to man act on the hepatic and intestinal glands 
of the dog. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



155 



of purgation. There was a decided increase in the vascularity of the mucous 
membrane in this part of the intestine. The stomach contained a little mucus. 
Its mucous membrane was pale. 



Experiment 11. 


Experiment 12. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per ] 


of bile per 
15". 


kilogramme 

of dog: per 

hour. 


of bile per 
15". 


kilogramme j 

of dog: per ' 

hour. 


ce. 




cc. 




0-85 


\ 


0-65 




0-9 

07 


I 0-348 cc. 


0-42 
0-37 


» 


055 
a 


' 


0-3 
0-35 


[ 0-264 cc. ! 


075 




0-3 


) 


1-05 




a 




1-4 




0-35 




1-15 


\ 


0-97 




175 
1-55 


[ 697 cc. 


0-87 
0-85 




1-55 


J 


1-1 




1-4 




1-2 


\ 


1-3 
1-45 




1-05 
1-05 


> 0-93 cc. 


1-45 




1-35 




1-25 




0-8 




1-25 




1-15 




1-4 




1-1 




1-25 




1-15 




1-25 




1-05 




1-2 




1-05 




1-05 




1-15 




1-15 




0-9 




1-1 








1-2 








1-0 








0-65 








0-9 








0-9 








0-85 








0-8 










Fig. 11.— Secretion of bile before and after 60 grains extract "of 
Socotrine aloes in 12 cc. of water were injected into the duo- 
denum at a. 




Fig. 12. — Secretion of bile before and after 60 grains extract of 
Socotrine aloes in 12 cc. water were injected into the duodenum 
at a. 



Experiment 12. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 5 kilo- 
grammes. — Sixty grains"" of extract of Socotrine aloes in 12 cc. of water were 
injected into the duodenum (at a, fig. 12). As in the previous experiment, 
the biliary secretion was increased within half an hour, and it became very 
strongly marked. 

Necropsy. — The aloes had extended half way down the small intestine. 
This portion of the intestine contained about two ounces of viscous fluid ; and 
its mucous membrane, together with that of the stomach, was intensely red. 



* See preceding Note. 



156 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Table V. 



Aloes. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body- weight 
per Hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 11, 

12, . 


60 without bile, 
60 „ „ 


6-9 
12-0 


. 0-34 CC. 
0-26 cc. 


0-69 cc. 
0-93 cc. 



Composition of the Bile hefore and after Aloes. 

It is evident from Tables VI. and VII. that, under the influences of aloes, 
the bile became more watery ; nevertheless, the amount of bile-solids secreted 
per unit of time increased. 



Table VI. — Aloes. 



Experiment 11. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, 

Mucus, .......... 


84-11 

12-45 

1-77 

1-67 


91-44 
7-53 
0-38 
0-65 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half-hour, 


1-5 cc. 


2-65 



Table VII.— Aloes. 



Experiment 12. 



Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, 

Mucus, 

Ash, 



Velocity of secretion per half-hour, 



Before. 



8393 


86-75 


12-30 


10-79 


2-74 


1-49 


1-03 


0-97 


100-00 


100-00 



0-66 cc. 



After. 



2-2 CC. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



157 



Results of Experiments with Aloes. — 1. Sixty grains of the extract of Socotrine 
aloes, when placed in the duodenum, without bile, powerfully stimulated the 
liver, causing the coefficient of secretion to rise in Experiment 11 to 0'69 cc, 
and in Experiment 12 to 0*93 cc. The doses given were, however, so excessive 
— the maximum dose for a man being 6 grains — that it would be misleading to 
infer that the small doses given to man produce a decided effect on his liver. 
Yet we have definitely proved that this substance really does increase the 
secretion of bile. 2. Under its influence the liver excreted a greater 
quantity of biliary matter in a given time, although the bile was rendered more 
watery. 3. Coincident with the marked action on the liver there was only 
slight purgation. 

Action of Rhubarb. 

As rhubarb gives to the dejections an appearance similar to that due to an 
increased discharge of bile, it is not possible from observations on the human 
subject to arrive at a definite conclusion regarding its influence on the liver. 
In consequence of this, in the latest works on Materia Medica, its action on 
the liver is ignored. The following experiments, however, prove that it 
stimulates the liver. The ordinary infusion of the "British Pharmacopoeia" was 
made with Indian rhubarb ; it was then filtered and concentrated until 5 cc. 
contained the active part of seventeen grains of rhubarb. This was the dose 
employed. Thirty grains is the maximum dose for a man. 

Experiment 13. Dog that had fasted fifteen hours. Weight 22-2 kilogrammes. 
— 5 cc. of the above infusion of rhubarb were injected into the duodenum four 



Experiment 13. 




Secretion of 




Secretion of 


Secretion of 
bile per 15". 


bile per kilo- 
gramme of 
dog : per 


Secretion of 
: bile per 15". 


bile per kilo- 
gramme of 
dog : per 


cc. 


hour. 




hour. 




cc. 




1-15 


^ 


r" 




0-95 
0-95 
0-80 


V 0-173 cc. 


1-55 

1-8 

1-45 


[■ 0-279 cc. 


r 




1-4 


0-95 




r'" 




1-3 




2-0 


^ 


1-15 




1-85 




r' 




1-9 


> 0-322 cc. 


1-5 


^ 


1-4 


J 


1-65 
1-45 


V0-27cc. 


1-45 
1-15 




1-4 


J 


1-4 






Fig. 13. — Secretion of bile before and after 5 cc. of 
a concentrated infusion of rhubarb were injected 
into duodenum at r, r', r", ?•'". 



times in succession (r, r', r" , r'", fig. 13). Within half-an-hour after every 
dose there was an increase in the biliary secretion. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2S 



158 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — The rhubarb had extended along about a third of the small 
intestine. There was no unusual redness of the mucous membrane, and there 
was only slight evidence of purgative action. 

Experiment 14. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 1 3 ^kilogrammes. 
— The artificial respiration, which was deficient at the commencement of this 
experiment, was improved at a, fig. 14. This was followed by an increase in 




Experiment 14. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


of bile per 

kilo- 
gramme of 
dog : per 

hour. 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


of bile per 

kilo- 
gramme of 
dog : per 
hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




0-37 




r 




0-37 




0-8 




0-35 




2-0 




0-45 




»•' 




0-65 




1-6 




115 




2-2 


\ 


07 
1-6 




2-05 
1-9 


V0-604cc. 


1-3 




1-95 


i 


12 




15 




1-0 




1-55 




1-05 




1-72 




0-95 


\ 


1-37 




0-75 
0-85 


V0-227cc. 


r" 

11 




0-5 


) 


1-75 
1-97 





Fig. 14. — Secretion of bile before and after rhubarb. Artificial re- 
spiration improved at a. 5 cc. concentrated infusion of rhubarb 
injected into duodenum at r, »•', and r". 



the secretion, of short duration : 5 cc. of the same infusion of rhubarb as that 
used in the previous experiment were injected into the duodenum three times 
in succession (r, r , r" ', fig. 14). The biliary secretion was augmented within 
half-an-hour after each injection. 

Necropsy. — The rhubarb had extended along four-fifths of the small 
intestine. There was no unusual redness of the mucous membrane. The 
portion of intestine through which the rhubarb had extended contained 120 cc. 
of a thick yellowish fluid : there was, therefore, decided evidence of purgative 
action. 

The amount of water given with the rhubarb in these experiments was so 
trivial that it may be entirely disregarded. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILF. 159 



Table VIII. 



Rhubarb. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per 

kilogramme of Body-weight 

per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 13, 
14, 


68 without bile, 
51 „ 


3-06 
3-8 


0-17 cc. 
0-22 cc. 


0-32 cc. 
0-60 cc. 



Composition of the Bile before and after Rhubarb. 
Table IX. —Rhubarb. 



Experiment 13. 


Before. 


After At the Close 
the Second of the 
Dose. Experiment. 


Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, 
fats, ..... 

Mucus, 

Ash, 


88-80 

9-60 
1-00 

0-60 


89-28 

9-60 
0-60 
0-52 


88-98 

9-60 
0-80 
0-62 




10000 


100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half- 
hour ..... 


1-9 cc. 


2-95 cc. 


2*55 cc. 



Table X. — Rhubarb. 



Experiment 14. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, ......... 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, . 

Mucus, 

Ash, . . . . ' 


8547 

11-59 

1-87 

1-07 


86-23 

11-03 

1-72 

1-02 


i 
! 


100-00 


100-00 


: Velocity of secretion per half-hour, 

! 


1-45 cc. 


3-95 cc. ! 



160 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




4 5 6 

Fig 15. — Secretion of bile before and after senna. 4 cr\ bile and 5 cc. water 
injected into duodenum at b. J cc - bile and 5 cc. concentrated in- 
fusion of senna injected into duodenum at s, 



s", and s" 



It therefore appears that rhubarb, like podophyllin, excites the liver to 

secrete bile, having a composition similar to that secreted under normal 

conditions. 

Jiesults of Experiments with Rhubarb. — 1. An infusion of seventeen grains 

of Indian rhubarb, when placed in the duodenum, never failed to increase 

the secretion of bile within 
half- an -hour after it was 
given. Although in Experi- 
ment 14, the coefficient of 
secretion was raised to 06 cc, 
thereby indicating a very ac- 
tive secretion of bile, it must 
be observed that in this case 
the action of the liver was 
irregular. Experiment 13 is, 
therefore, a better index of 
the activity of the drug, and 
as in that case sixty-eight 
grains of the substance did 
not raise the secretion of 
bile higher than 0*32 cc, we 
may conclude that, although 
rhubarb is a hepatic stimu- 
lant, it is not a powerful one 
— a conclusion completely in 
harmony with the results of 
observations on man. 2. The 
bile, although secreted in 
increased quantity, had the 
composition of normal bile 
as regards the biliary con- 
stituents proper. 3. The 
doses which excited the liver 

had in one case no marked purgative effect, but in another case the purgative 

effect was considerable. 

Action of Senna. 

Senna is a well-known purgative agent. Probably no physician has ever 
ascribed to it any cholagogue property, and had not Rohrig stated (Op. vi.) that 
it excites the liver as much as rhubarb, we should not have deemed its powers 
worthy of investigation. The ordinary infusion of senna of the " British Pharma- 





Experiment 15. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 


cc. 


hour. 




hour. 




cc. 




1-2 


\ 


1-2 




1-2 

1-3 


> 0-212 cc. 


1-2 




1-2 


) 


13 




r 




1-2 




1-2 




1-5 




1-1 




1-3 




1-15 




1-17 




1-2 




s" 




1-2 




1-2 




s 




13 


\ 


1-2 
12 




1-4 
15 


[ 0-238 cc. 


1-1 


- 


1-3 


) 


1-3 




12 




1-4 




*'" 




1-2 




1-1 




1-5 




1-2 




1-3 


1 


1-0 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



161 



copoeia " was prepared and concentrated until 5 cc. contained the active part of 
forty-five grains of senna ; a small dose for a man. 

Experiment 15. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 231 kilo- 
grammes. — \ cc. bile and 5 cc. water were injected into duodenum at b (tig, 
15), and \ cc. bile, with 5 cc. infu- 
sion of senna of the strength above 



slight increase 



There 
the 



in 



had 
ength 




Fig. 16. — Secretion of bile before and after 60 grains extract 
of colchicum in 10 cc. water were injected into the 
duodenum at c. 



mentioned, at s, s' 
was only a 
biliary secretion. 

Necropsy. — The senna 
passed through the whole 
of the small and had entered the 
large intestine. The amount of 
fluid in the small intestine was 
103 cc, showing that a very con- 
siderable purgative effect had been 
produced. 

Result of Experiment ivith 
Senna. — Although senna is a 
powerful intestinal, it is a very 
feeble hepatic stimulant. Rohrig's 
error with regard to it was doubt- 
less the result of his faulty method. 



Action of Colchicum. 

Colchicum has been recom- 
mended by Garrod as a chola- 
gogue in cases of gout, but its 
action on the liver has not hitherto 
been tested by direct experiment. 
Two grains of the extract is the 
maximum dose for a man. 

Experiment 16. Dog that had 
fasted sixteen hours. Weight 23*5 
kilogrammes. — Sixty grains of the 
aqueous extract of colchicum of the 
"British Pharmacopoeia" in 10 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum 
(c, fig. 16). In an hour the biliary secretion began to increase, and five hours 
after the injection it was nearly five times more than before the drug was 
given. The secretion then fell, and just at the close of the experiment a 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 T 



Experiment 16. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-07 


1 0138 cc. 


1-25 


V 0-246 cc. 


0-92 

0-5 

077 


1-65 
1-45 
1-45 


c 




1-7 


1 0-371 cc. 


1-02 

1-0 

07 


1 0-207 cc. 


2-25 
2-22 
2-55 


1-15 


i 


2-65 


^ 


1-25 

1-1 

1-05 


1 0-227 cc. 


2-7 
2-5 
2-8 


V 0-453 cc. 


0-95 


J 


1-36 

2-0 

1-5 





162 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




Fit 



17. — Secretion of bile before and after 60 grains of aqueous extract 
of colchieum in 10 cc. of water were injected into duodenum at c. 



large quantity of liquid frcces was discharged. The rise in the curve in 
fig. 16 suggests a very powerful stimulation of the liver, but it must be 
remembered that the animal was of large size, and the table of numbers 
shows that the secretion per kilogramme of dog never went higher than 
453 cc. 

Neckopsy. — There was great vascularity of the upper four-fifths of the 

mucous membrane of the 
small intestine. The vas- 
cularity of the duodenum 
was intense. The mucous 
membrane of the large 
intestine was also unusu- 
ally vascular. The gastric 
mucous membrane was 
pale. There was evidence 
of considerable hydroca- 
tharsis in the small in- 
testine. The large intes- 
tine was empty, owing to 
the recent discharge of 
faecal matter. 

Experiment 17. Dog that 
had fasted eighteen hours. 
Weight 23 '6 kilogrammes. 
— Sixty grains of aqueous 
extract of colchieum in 
10 cc. of water were in- 
jected into the duodenum 
(c, fig. 17). Although 
the biliary flow thereafter 
varied much, a decided 
increase was evident an 
hour and a half after the 
administration of the drug. 
The increase lasted about 
four hours, after which the secretion gradually fell. The liver was certainly 
excited, but not powerfully, for the secretion of bile per kilogramme of dog 
did not rise above 0-205 cc. 

Necropsy. — There was increased vascularity of the mucous membrane of 
the upper three-fourths of the small intestine. The whole small intestine 
contained evidence of powerful cathartic action. 







. _ - 






Exper 


ment 17. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 


cc. 


hour. 




hour. 




cc. 




1-42 




1-1 




075 


^ 


11 




0-47 
0-5 


VO-1 cc. 


0-75 
1-35 




0-72 


J 


1-0 




c 




0-95 




1-35 


\ 


0-85 




0-95 
1-55 


I 0-186 cc. 


0-85 
0-8 




55 


3 


1-0 




0-62 




0-75 




1-02 




0-75 




13 




0-7 




102 


\ 


0-55 


i 


1-15 
1-22 


Y 0-205 cc. 


0-5 
0-4 




1-47 


J 


0-37 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 163 



Table XI. 



Colchicura. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Bo ly- weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 16, 

17, . 


60 without bile, 
60 


2-5 
2-5 


0-13 cc. 
0-1 cc. 


0-45 cc. 
0-2 cc. 



Table XII. — Composition of the Bile be/ore and after Colchicum. 



Experiment 17. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, 

Organic Bile-solids, . 

Ash, 


88-434 

10-616 

0-950 


90-63 
8-75 
0-62 


10000 


10000 


Velocity of bile-secretion per half hour, .... 


1-2 cc. 


2-24 cc. 



It appears from the above analysis that colchicum rendered the bile more 
watery ; nevertheless, owing to the increased velocity of secretion, more biliary 
matter was excreted by the liver under its influence. 

Results of Experiments with Colchicum. — 1. Sixty grains of the aqueous 
extract of colchicum powerfully excited the liver in Experiment 16, but 
feebly in Experiment 17 ; yet, in both cases, the relation of the dose to the 
size of the animal was the same. In the latter case the purgative action was 
more marked, and the decided fall in the curve at the close of the experiment, 
as well as the never very great excitement of the liver, was probably due to 
the greater purgation. The dose was needlessly large ; but we were still under 
the erroneous idea that the dog requires larger doses of drugs. 2. Although 
colchicum increases the amount of biliary matter secreted by the liver, it renders 
the bile more watery. 

As in all the preceding experiments, the drugs stimulated the intestinal 
glands as well as the liver, and as the podophyllin experiment (9) and the 
colchicum experiment (17) seemed to show the stimulating effect of the mole- 
cules of a substance on the liver may be overcome by a very powerful action 



164 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



on the intestinal glands, it was obviously important to ascertain the effect 
which a purely intestinal stimulant has on the bile-secreting mechanism. The 
following experiments with magnesium sulphate, castor-oil, gamboge, and 
ammonium chloride afford conclusive evidence regarding this point of great 
importance in practical medicine; regarding which it ought to be observed 
that, although the physician has correctly pointed out that certain substances 
increase the discharge of bile, he has never detected the fact that purely 
intestinal purgatives diminish the biliary flow. Nor is this surprising, for, 
when the fsecal matters are much diluted by secretion from the intestinal 
glands, it is impossible from their appearance to say whether or not the 
normal quantity of bile has been discharged into the duodenum. 

Action of Magnesium Sulphate. 

Experiment 18. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 5 4 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 18). 

Necropsy. — Great purgative action in upper half of small intestine. 
Mucous membrane intensely reddened. 

Experiment 19. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 8*2 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 19). 




Fig. 18. — Secretion of bile before and after mag- 
nesium sulphate. 60 grains in 6 cc. water 
injected into duodenum at m, m', and in" 
(180 grains given in all). 




Fig. 19. — Secretion of bile before and after mag- 
nesium sulphate. 60 grains in 12 cc. water 
at m. 60 grains in 6 cc. water at m', m", 
ml", and 120 grains in 12 cc. water at m"", 
all injected into duodenum (360 grains given 
in all). 



Necropsy. — Small intestine contained 90 cc. of fluid, whereas only 42 cc. 
had been injected. There was, therefore, evidence of decided purgation, and 
there was intense irritation of the mucous membrane in the upper half of the 
small intestine. 

Result of Experiments with Magnesium Sulphate. — Experiments 18, and 
more especially 19, show that magnesium sulphate does not increase but, on 
the contrary, lessens the biliary secretion. The fall in secretion was probably 
due to an indirect effect of the action of the substance on the intestinal glands. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



165 



1 







Action of Castor-Oil. 

As Rohrig experimented with castor-oil {Op. vi.), and found that it has 
scarcely any effect on the hepatic secretion, it appeared desirable to emulsify 
the oil with bile, so that its condition in the intestine might more closely re- 
semble that in any normal case. 

Experiment 20. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 7*7 kilo- 
grammes. — 3 cc. of bile were injected into the duodenum at b (fig. 20). One 
ounce of castor-oil, emulsified with 3 cc. 
of bile, was injected into the duodenum 
at c, and again at c'. A slight increase 
in the bile secretion followed the second 
dose; but as its extent was trifling, it 
should probably be disregarded. There 
was a great diminution towards the 
close of the experiment. 

Necropsy. — There was decided evi- 
dence of purgation in the small intes- 
tine. There was no unusual redness 
of the mucous membrane, save at the 
lower part of the duodenum. 

Experiment 21. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours 
grammes. — 3 cc. bile injected into 
the duodenum at e (fig. 21), and 
28 5 cc. castor-oil with 3 cc. bile 
injected at o, and again at o'. 

Necropsy. — The oil had ex- 
tended throughout the whole 
length of the small and large in- 
testine. There was evidence of 
profuse purgative action, but the 
increased vascularity of the in- 
testinal mucous membrane was 
slight. 

Result of Experiments with 
Castor-Oil. — It stimulates the in- 
testinal glands, but not the liver. It lowers the bile-secretion, probably 
indirectly, owing to its action on the intestinal glands. The appearance of the 
intestinal mucous membrane was in complete harmony with the belief that 
castor-oil is an exceedingly bland purgative. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 U 



Fig. 20. — Secretion of bile before and after castor-oil. 
3 cc. of bile injected, into the duodenum at b. 
The same, with one ounce of castor-oil, given at c, 
and at c'. 



Weight 24'5 kilo- 




1234567 8 

Fig. 21. — Secretion of bile before and after castor-oil. 3 cc. 
bile injected into duodenum at e. The same witb 28 '5 cc. 
castor-oil injected at o, and again at o'. 



166 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




Fig. 22. — Secretion of bile before anil after gam- 
boge. 3 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into 
duodenum at b ; 20 grains gamboge at g, and 
40 grains at (J, in the same fluid injected into 
duodenum. 



Action of Gamboge. 

Experiment 22. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 4 - 8 kilogrammes. 
— 3 cc. of bile and 3 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum at b (fig. 22). 

Previously to this there was, considering 
the small size of the dog, a large secre- 
tion of bile. The increased secretion 
which followed the injection was probably 
owing to the action of the bile. Twenty 
grains of gamboge in the same quantity of 
bile and water were given at g, and 40 
grains in the same fluid at g'. Half an 
hour after the first dose there was a de- 
cided acceleration of the biliary flow, but 
in an hour afterwards it had temporarily 
sunk nearly to zero. If the mean be taken, it will be found that the increase 
of secretion was so slight that it might have been due to the bile that was given 
with the gamboge. On the whole, therefore, it can scarcely be said that the 
amount of bile secreted was increased by the gamboge, and certainly the next 
experiment lent no support to such a view of the matter. 

Necropsy. — There was great redness of the mucous membrane in the upper 
half of the small intestine. There was evidence of profuse hydrocatharsis in 
this portion of the gut. Some of the gamboge had passed into the stomach, 
the mucous membrane of which was somewhat reddened. 

Experiment 23. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 8 kilogrammes. 
— 1 cc. of bile and 2 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum at b (fig. 23) ; 

4 grains of gamboge in 
0*2 cc. of bile and 2 cc. 
of water were injected 
at g, g', and g" . At g'", 
g iv , g v , twice the amount 
of gamboge was given in 
the same fluid. The in- 
crease in the bile-secre- 
tion after the first dose was trifling. The chief result of the experiment was 
diminution of the secretion. 

Necropsy. — There was profuse hydrocatharsis in the small intestine. There 
was no very noteworthy increase in the vascularity of the mucous membrane. 

In Experiment 23 a smaller quantity of bile was given than in Experiment 
22, in order to eliminate, as far as possible, its stimulating effect on the liver : 
23 is therefore a better experiment than 22. 




Fig. 23. — Secretion of bile before and after gamboge. (See text.) 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 167 

Result of Experiments with Gamboge. — It is a powerful hydrocathartic, but 
is not a hepatic stimulant. It is extremely interesting to contrast the negative 
effect on the liver of this hydrocathartic with the positive effect of colchicum, 
also a hydrocathartic. In both there was violent irritation of the mucous 
membrane of the duodenum and small intestine generally. And it is important 
to observe that in the case of gamboge this irritation gave rise to no increased 
action of the liver, showing that duodenal irritation is not of necessity followed 
by hepatic excitement. 

Action of Ammonium Chloride. 

According to Garrod {Op. viii. p. 51), chloride of ammonium is "by some 
considered a cholagogue." The most valuable evidence which we have regarding 
the action of this substance is that furnished by Dr Stewart of Brecon (Op. ix. 
p. 316). The large experience in the treatment of hepatic affections acquired by 
Dr Stewart in India has led him to regard ammonium chloride as an invaluable 
agent in the treatment of active hepatic congestion, chronic hepatitis, and in 
" torpor of the liver," associated with congestion of the organ and litheemia. 
Many such cases he has seen cured by from ten to twenty grain doses, given twice 
or thrice daily, with attention to diet, rest, and such other general indications. The 
drug produces diuresis, a sensation of warmth beginning in the epigastrium and 
gradually extending over the whole body, diaphoresis, exhilaration of the nervous 
system, and an undoubted effect on the liver, as shown, not only by gradual 
disappearance of the symptoms referable to hepatic congestion, but by other and 
more immediate signs, " peculiarly and directly referable to the liver and related 
parts." Thus, within five minutes or half an hour after a dose of the salt, the 
patient may experience one or more " shocks" as of "something giving way," 
or a " pricking" or "gnawing" sensation in the hepatic region. In addition to 
these, a full dose increases intestinal peristalsis, "as evidenced by the twisting 
and other movements experienced in the situation of the duodenum, or all over 
the abdomen, and which, at times, are more sensibly felt in the situation of the 
umbilicus, or in the inguinal region. The abdominal muscles may also be 
thrown into tonic contractions, which are perceptible at times to both sight and 
touch. "Torpor of the liver," and functional derangements attended by 
lithaemia (Murchison), associated with congestion of the liver, want of sleep, 
and depression of spirits, are benefited in a remarkable manner by a course of 
ammonium chloride, with careful attention to diet and regimen. In such cases, 
he has known a few twenty-grain doses of the salt "remove symptoms of dis- 
ordered liver, restore sleep, and revive the drooping spirits, after the failure of 
other remedies." Dr Stewart, however, nowhere says that he ever observed 
any cholagogue effect of this remedy. 



168 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




Fig. 24. — Secretion of bile before and after 
ammonium chloride. 6 cc. water in- 
jected into duodenum at w. The same 
with 6 grains ammonium chloride, in- 
jected at a, and again at a' and a" (18 
grains given in all). 




Experiment 24. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 7 kilogrammes 

(fig. 24). 

Necropsy.— Small intestine, in nearly its whole length, contained a large 

quantity of a very watery fluid. The vascu- 
larity of the mucous membrane was only 
slightly increased. 

Experiment 25. Dog that had fasted twenty 
hours. Weight 137 kilogrammes (fig. 25). 

Necropsy. — Somewhat increased vascular- 
ity of the mucous membrane of the upper 
three-fourths of the small intestine. There 
was evidence of a moderate purgative effect. 
Result of Experiments with Ammonium Chloride. — The two experiments with 
this substance show that doses capable of stimulating the intestinal glands did 

not excite the liver. The effect on 
the biliary secretion is comparable 
to that of sulphate of magnesia (Ex- 
periments 18 and 19), or other sub- 
stance having a stimulant effect on 
Lieberkuhn's glands, but not on the 
liver. In proportion to the body- 
weight, the doses we gave to the 
dog were greater than those given 
to man, and therefore it need not 
be expected that, in the doses re- 
commended by Dr Stewart, a pur- 
gative effect should be observed in 
man. Inasmuch, therefore, as these 
experiments give no evidence of any 
stimulant action of this substance on 
the liver, and seeing that in the 
human subject also there is no cer- 
tain evidence of its having any direct 
cholagogue action, one is led to ask 
whether the effects observed by Dr 
Stewart, in cases of chronic hepatic 
torpidity, may not have been the 
result of some indirect action on the 
liver, due to a slight but prolonged 
increase of the intestinal secretion, 
or to some effect on the system generally. Our experiments supplement Dr 



Fig. 25. — Secretion of bile before and after ammonium chloride. 
£ cc. bile and 5 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 
The same with 10 grains ammonium chloride injected at 
a. At a' the same with 20 grains, at a" the same with 40 
grains, at a'" the tame with 60 grains. 





Experiment 25. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". i 


of dog ; per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-00 


) 

,-0-267 cc. 


95 




0-90 
0-87 


077 

a" 




90 


0-80 




b 




0-70 




0-90 




0-80 




0-90 




075 




0-85 




a!" 




a 




0-80 




0'90 




070 




0-85 




0-90 




1-00 




070 




0'90 




0-65 


\ 


0-80 
a' 




0-55 
0-62 


0'169 cc. 


0-90 




0-50 


) 


0-80 









PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 169 

Stewart's observations, and plainly narrow the range of speculation in searching 
for a rational theory of the action of the drug in hepatic congestion. 

These experiments (Nos. 18 to 25), with purely intestinal stimulants, all 
point to one great fact, that intestinal purgation per se lowers the bile-producing 
/unction of the liver, and it may therefore be inferred, that when the molecules 
of a substance have the double effect of exciting the liver as well as the intes- 
tinal glands, the former effect has in some measure to contend with the latter, 
and may indeed be overcome by it, if the purgative effect be rapid and severe. 
This has been already pointed out in Experiment 9, and indeed it may be 
generally observed, that although a substance with this twofold effect 
excites the liver in the early part of the experiment, the secretion of bile soon 
begins to diminish as the substance finds its way down the intestinal canal 
and implicates a greater and greater number of Lieberkiihn's glands. (See 
Experiments 10, 17.) In the concluding observations an important indication 
for the guidance of the physician will be deduced from this significant fact. 



Action of Scammony. 

The resin of scammony, being insoluble in water, was dissolved in dilute 
alcohol, and some bile was added, in order still further to promote its absorp- 
tion from the alimentary canal. 

Experiment 26. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 9*5 kilo- 
grammes. — 25 cc. bile were 
injected into the duodenum 
(b, fig. 26). This produced 
no notable effect. Twenty 
grains of scammony resin 
dissolved in 3 5 cc. recti- 
fied spirit, 3 cc. water and 

S PP blip WPrP thpn ill- ^8* ^' — Secretion of bile before and after scammony. Bile injected into 

duodenum at b, and scammony with bile and alcohol at s and s'. (See 

jected (s), and this dose text ) 

was afterwards repeated ($'). There was a slight increase in the biliary 

secretion. 

Necropsy. — There was greatly increased vascularity of the mucous mem- 
brane of the whole length of the small intestine. Vascularity of the gastric 
mucous membrane was also somewhat increased. There was evidence of severe 
purgative action in the whole extent of both the small and large intestine. 

Experiment 26a. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 6 8 kilo- 
grammes. — In this experiment it was determined to give scammony in smaller 
doses. 1 cc. bile and 2 cc. water were injected into the duodenum at b, fig. 26a. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 X 





170 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

The exact effect of this was not ascertained, owing to the loss of the bile 
secreted during one of the periods. About an hour after this, 0*25 cc. bile, 

0*5 cc. rectified spirit, and 
125 cc. water, were injected 
(6'). This having scarcely 
any effect, it was given with 
four grains of scammony 
resin at s, and again at 

Fig. 26a. — Secretion of bile before and after scammony. Bile given at b ' Tha Q-mminf r»f doom 
and V; scammony, &c, given at s, s', s", s'". (See text.) b ' " Llly amount OI SCdni- 

mony was doubled, and this 
dose was given at s" and s". There was an increase of the biliary secretion 
after the first two doses of scammony, but after the third and fourth the 
secretion diminished. 

As two experiments (73, 74) in which alcohol was given, prove that it 
certainly does not augment the biliary secretion, this experiment shows that 
scammony is a hepatic stimulant, although not a powerful one. 

Necropsy. — The scammony had passed along two-thirds of the small intes- 
tine. There was decided evidence of purgation, but no remarkable increase in 
the vascularity of the mucous membrane. 

From these experiments it appears that scammony is a hepatic stimulant of 
feeble power, and it seems unnecessary to detail them further. 



Action of Resina Euonymi or "Euonymin." 

It is stated by Wood and Bache (Op. x. p. 374), that "the precise virtues 
of the bark of Euonymus atropurpureus have not been determined." Mr C. A. 
Santos — quoted by them — describes it as " tonic, hydragogue cathartic, diuretic, 
and antiperiodic." Dr Tidyman informed them that he had obtained useful 
effects from it, as an alterative of the hepatic function. Wood and Bache 
conclude that " on the whole its character is somewhat uncertain ; and it might 
well form a subject of further examination." The American " Eclectics"""' give 
" euonymin " as a mild aperient in doses of from 1 to 2 grains. The substance 
used by them, however, is an impure resin, only a portion of which consists of 
the active principle — the true euonymin. Mr Clothier (Op. x. I, c.) found it 
to produce active purgation without griping. The substance employed in our 
experiments is an impure resin, said to be prepared by precipitating the tincture 
of euonymin with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and mixing the 



* The American " Eclectics " are charlatans, who nevertheless employ substances many of which 
are of undoubted value, and have received too little attention from the physician. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



171 



precipitate with an equal bulk of some inert powder. It was obtained from 
Tilden & Co. of New York, through Messrs Duncan & Flockhart of 
Edinburgh. 

Experiment 27. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 19 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 27). — 2 cc. bile and 2 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. Five 
grains of euonymin in the same fluid injected at e. 

The irregularity in the biliary flow in this case was certainly owing to an 
irregularity in secretion, for the cannula was perfectly patent throughout the 
whole of the experiment. The irregularity did not consist in the bile being 




Fig. 27. — Secretion of bile before and after euonymin. 2 cc. bile 
and 2 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 5 grains of 
euonymin, together with the above fluid, injected at c. 



Experiment 27. 


Secretion of bile 
per 15". 


Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog: per hour. 


cc. 




1-82 




1-2 




1-6 




1-85 




2 2 




1-3 




1-95 




2-2 

b 

1-35 






17 




1-2 


) 


1-8 
0-95 


V0'2578cc. 


0-95 


J 


2-6 




1-5 




1-5 




1-6 




2-95 


) 


1-7 
1-75 


V0'4789cc. 


2-7 


J 


11 




1-5 




1-4 




1-1 




1-5 





expelled in jets, as might have been expected had it been owing to contraction 
of the larger bile-ducts at intervals ; but there was a rapid aud steady flow for 
some minutes, and then for a while it flowed much more slowly. This irregu- 
larity of secretion was probably in large measure clue to unusual traction upon 
the bile-duct and liver during the introduction of the cannula, which in this case 
was much more difficult than usual. We have repeatedly observed that unless 
this part of the preliminary operation be conducted so as to very slightly disturb 
the bile-duct and its surroundings, the biliary secretion is rendered irregular. 
Nevertheless it is evident that in this case the euonymin stimulated the liver. 



172 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — There was very slight evidence of purgative action, but the 
mucous membrane of the upper fourth of the small intestine was much more 
vascular than usual. 

Experiment 28. Dog that had fasted twenty-four hours. Weight 23*3 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 28). — The unusually long fast resulted from the animal having 
refused to take food on the afternoon of the day preceding the experiment. It 
was probably owing to this circumstance that the secretion of bile was so low 




Fig. 28. — Secretion of bile before and after euonymin. 1 '1 cc. bile and 
3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. The same with 5 
grains euonymin injected at c. 



Experiment 28. 


Secretion of bile 
per 15". 


Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog: per hour. 


cc. 




0-55 




0-4 




0-2 




0-21 




3 

h 

0-45 






0-45 


) 


0-55 
0-35 


V 0-0708 cc. 


0-3 


J 


0-6 




0-35 




2-4 




2-35 




2-9 


) 


2-4 
3'1 


V0-4678cc. 


2-5 


i 


2-8 




2-45 




2-25 




175 




2-25 




1-6 




1-85 




1-6 




1-2 




1-45 




1-1 




1-25 





at the beginning of the experiment. 11 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into 
duodenum at b. The same with 5 grains of euonymin injected at e. 

Necropsy. — Stomach contracted, mucous membrane normal. The euonymin 
had extended along about a third of the small intestine. The mucous mem- 
brane of the upper third was extremely vascular. Mucous flakes were scattered 
over the surface. But notwithstanding the increased vascularity, the intestine 
at this part contained only a small quantity of a watery fluid. The remainder 
of the intestine was dry and contracted, without any signs of irritation. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 173 



Table XIII. 



Euonymin. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 27, 
28, 


5 with bile, 
5 „ „ 


0-21 
0-26 


0-07 cc. 
0-25 cc. 


0-46 CC. 
0-47 cc. 



Results of Experiments with Euonymin. — 1. Five grains of euonymin, when 
mixed with a small quantity of bile and water, and placed in the duodenum, 
powerfully stimulated the liver. 2. Coincident with the marked action on the 
liver there was only a slight increase of intestinal secretion. 

Experiments with Euonymin on Man. — In consequence of the powerful 
stimulation of the liver produced by euonymin in the above experiments, we 
were induced to make observations with it on the human subject in cases of 
biliousness, and we found the remedy of such value that it will, in consequence 
of these experiments, doubtless ere long be generally employed as a hepatic 
stimulant. Two grains made into a pill with conserve of roses, and taken at 
night, is a fair average dose for a man, though as much as five grains may be 
taken. A dose of two grains produces no sickness, headache, or other dis- 
agreeable sensation, and leaves no depression. But it must be remembered 
that while euonymin is a powerful hepatic, it is a feeble intestinal stimulant, 
and therefore it is well to follow it in the morning with some intestinal stimu- 
lant, such as two or three ounces Pullna water, or some other saline aperient. 
We are convinced from many observations that euonymin is particularly suited 
for cases in which the liver requires to be frequently stimulated. 



Action of Resina Iridis or "Irldin." 



The root of the Iris versicolor, or American Blue Flag, is said by Wood 
and Bache {Op. x. p. 487) to possess cathartic, emetic, and diuretic properties. 
The American "Eclectics " have used, under the name of iridin or irisin, an 
oleo-resin prepared in the same way as euonymin (p. 170). The dose of this is 
1-5 grains as a purgative. "It is thought to unite cholagogue and diuretic 
with aperient properties " (Wood and Bache, loc. tit.). An anonymous writer 
in the Lancet (August 30, 1862) states that "it is gentler in its action than 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 Y 



174 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



podophyllin, and more reliable when a slight cholagogue action is required for 
a lengthened period." This statement, however, has been generally neglected/ 
and the substance appears to be unknown to most persons. 

The substance employed by us was obtained from Messrs Duncan & 
Flockhart of Edinburgh. 

Experiment 29. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 227 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 29). — 2 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
The same with 5 grains of iridin injected at i. 




Fig. 29. —Secretion of bile before and after iridin. 2 cc. bile and 3 cc. 
water injected into the duodenum at b. 5 grains iridin in the 
same fluid injected at i. 



Experiment 29. 


Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


per 15". 


per kilogramme of 
dog : per liour. 


cc. 




1-8 




11 




1-25 




1-0 




1-15 




b 




1-5 


\ 


1-16 

1-3 


>0-227cc. 


1-2 


) 


i 




1-4 




1-25 




1-45 




13 




1-55 




1-55 




2 75 




2-45 




2-8 


\ 


4-0 
2-65 


> 0-537 cc. 


275 


) 


2-4 




25 




2-1 




2 4 




2-6 




2-3 




15 




1-3 





Necropsy.— Stomach normal. Mucous membrane of upper two-thirds of 
small intestine rather more vascular than usual. This portion of the intestine 
contained 63 cc. of fluid, thus affording evidence of a decided purgative 
effect. 

Experiment 30. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 5.4 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 30).— 2 cc. bile and 2 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
The same with 5 grains of iridin injected at i. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 175 




Fig. 30. — Secretion of bile before and after iridin. 2cc. bile anl 2cc. 
water injected into the duodenum at h. 5 grains iridin in the 
same fluid injected at i. 



Necropsy. — Stomach normal. There was increased vascularity of the 
mucous membrane of nearly the whole length of the small intestine. The 
redness was not very marked, but it was greater than in the previous experi- 
ment. There was decided purgation, the small intestine containing 87 cc. of 
fluid with abundant mucous 
flocculi. 

Results of Experiments with 
Iridin. — 1. Five grains of iridin 
when mixed with a little bile 
and water and placed in the 
duodenum very powerfully 
stimulated the liver. It is not 
so powerful as large doses 
(four grains) of podophyllin, 
but it is more powerful than 
euonymin, as is shown by the 
amount of bile secreted per 
kilogramme of clog ; the hourly 
coefficients of secretion for 
the two euonymin experiments 
being 0*4789 cc. and 0'4678 cc, 
whereas in the iridin experi- 
ments they are 0'537 cc. and 
0*638 cc. respectively. The 
high coefficient in the second 
iridin experiment probably re- 
sulted from a much smaller 
dog getting the same dose as 
in the first experiment, the 
smaller liver being thereby 

stimulated to do a proportionally greater amount of work. 2. Iridin is also a 
decided stimulant of the intestinal glands. Judging from these experiments, its 
irritant effects on the intestinal mucous membrane are decidedly less than 
those of podophyllin, while the purgative effects are greater than in the case 
of euonymin. The statement of the writer in the Lancet (above quoted) that 
in man " it is gentler in its action than podophyllin " is fully supported by these 
experiments. 





Ex perin 


ent 30. 






Secretion of bile 




Secretion of bile 


•Secretion of bile 


per kilogramme 


Secretion of bile 


per kilogramme 


per 15". 


of dog : per 


per 15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 


! 


cc. 




0-32 




0-25 




0-3 




0-45 




-2 


j 


0-3 




0-25 




0-4 




0"2 




0-55 




(V25 




55 




h 




0-6 




0-25 


\ 


55 




0-2 




07 




0-25 


>0-166ec. 


0-85 




0-25 


( 


e-9 


] 


0-2 


) 


0-8 

0-85 


>0-638cc. 


0-2 




0-9 


) 


0-15 




07 




0-2 


i 


075 





176 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

Table XIV. 




Experiments with Iridin on Man. — In consequence of the striking results of 
the above experiments, we have made many observations with iridin on the 
human subject, and it is certain that we have in this substance a remedy for 
functional hepatic derangement of such value that it will probably in due time 
be universally employed. As yet we have found four grains of iridin a certain 
remedy for biliousness. It may be made into a pill with conserve of roses and 
taken at bedtime. It produces no disagreeable sensations, and on awaking in 
the morning the yellow tongue is clean, and the headache and malaise are gone. 
As iridin, though a powerful hepatic, is not a powerful intestinal stimulant, it 
is well to give in the morning an ordinary mild saline aperient, such as Pullna 
water. Iridin is a more powerful excitant of the liver than euonymin, and a 
more powerful remedy for biliousness,* and is particularly suitable when the 
bilious attack is very pronounced, but we find that when taken two nights in 
succession it is apt to leave a somewhat depressed effect, and therefore it 
probably ought not to be taken more than once a week. Euonymin is there- 
fore to be preferred when repeated stimulation of the liver is required; and 
further, observations which we have made on an elderly gentleman suffering 
from indolent liver and irritable prostate, convince us that iridin is a prostatic 
irritant, and that as euonymin produces no apparent effect on the prostate, it is 
to be preferred as a stimulant of the liver in cases of prostatic irritation. It 
will also be of practical importance to bear in mind that iridin and euonymin 
are both of them diuretics, iridin being the more powerful of the two. 



Action of Reslna Leptandr^e or "Leptandrin." 

" Leptandria " or " Leptandrin " is a resin prepared from the root of the 
American plant, Leptandra virginica or Veronica virginica, in the same manner 
as euonymin (p. 170). It is a remedy that has been much lauded by the 

* It is difficult to say what is the exact cause of biliousness, but it is certain that this condition is 
speedily cured by iridin and euonymin, and that both of these substances powerfully stimulate the 
liver, while they stimulate the intestine to only a moderate extent. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 177 

" Eclectics" as a cholagogue and tonic. As this remedy is now a good deal 
employed in the case of children, it seemed desirable to obtain more precise 
information regarding its mode of action. The dose for a man is ^-3 grains 
three or four times daily. 

Experiment 31. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 20*4 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 31). — 3 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
6 grains leptandria in the same fluid injected at e. 12 grains leptandria in 
2 cc. rectified spirit and 8 cc. water injected at e'. 



Experiment 31. 



Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 



cc. 
0-8 
0-85 
95 
0-85 
0-8 

b 

1-2 

0-95 

0-95 

e - 

1-4 

1-3 

1-45 

1-45 

1-35 

1-3 

1-2 

1-2 

e' 

1-45 

1-3 

1-45 

15 

1-35 

1-2 

11 

1-4 

1-25 

1-2 



Secretion 

of bile per 

kilogramme 

of dog : per 

hour. 



0-191 cc. 



■0-272 cc. 



0-274 cc. 



Experiment 32. 



Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 



Secretion 

of bile per 

kilogramme 

of dog : per 

hour. 



cc. 


0-35 


0-2 


0-25 


0-3 


0-25 


0-3 • 


0-55 


0-4 


0-45 


0-35 


0-55 


e' 


0-4 


0-55 


0-55 


5 


05 


0-7 


0-85 


1-2 


0-9 


09 


1-05 


1-0 


1-05 


0-95 


1-1 


1-05 



0-0839 cc. 



0-3167 cc. 




Fig. 31. — Secretion of bile before and after leptandria. 
3 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum 
at b. 6 grains leptandria in the same fluid injected 
at e. 12 grains leptandria in 2 cc. rectified spirit and 
8 cc. water injected at e'. 




Fig. 32. — 6 grains leptandria in 4 cc. water injected into 
the duodenum at e. 1£ cc. bile and 3 cc. water 
injected at e'. 12 grains leptandria in the same fluid 
injected at e". 



Experiment 32. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 131 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 32).— 6 grains leptandria in 4 cc. water injected into the duo- 
denum at e. H cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected at e'. 12 grains leptandria in 
the same fluid injected at e" . 

Necropsy.— Slightly increased vascularity of the mucous membrane of the 
upper half of the small intestine. There was slight purgation ;— the upper half 
of the small intestine containing 37 cc. of a viscous fluid. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 2 Z 



178 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Table XV. 



Leptandria. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 31, 

32, . 


18 with bile, 
18 „ 


0-88 
1-1 


0-191 cc. 
0-083 cc. 


0-274 cc. 
0-316 cc. 



Table XVI. — Composition of the Bile before and after Leptandria. 



Experiment 33. 


Before. 


After. 


Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, .... 
Mucus, . . . , ..... 


91-34 
6-64 
0-95 
1-07 


91-41 
6-60 
0-92 
1-07 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half hour, .... 


1-9 cc. 


2-5 cc. 



It appears from this analysis that the bile secreted under the influence of 
leptandria retained its normal composition. 

Results of Experiments with Leptandria. — Leptandria is a feeble hepatic 
and intestinal stimulant. Notwithstanding the large doses employed, the 
hourly coefficient of secretion did not rise above 0*316 cc. The bile has the 
normal composition. As in the case of other resinous matters, the absence of 
the biliary solvent from the duodenum greatly lessens the effect (Experi- 
ment 32). 

Action of Resina Sanguinary, ok " Sanguinarin." 



Dr Wood {Op. xi. p. 367) states that, "although the Sanguinaria cana- 
densis has been used more or less for so many years, we are still without any 
really definite knowledge of its action. Little or nothing has been added to 
our knowledge since the papers by Dr Tully in 1830, who stated that when 
given in small repeated doses it acts as a very decided cholagogue ; and more 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 179 




recently it has been affirmed that it is also a stimulating expectorant. 
In full doses it is certainly a harsh emetic, and in overdoses, according to 
Tully, it produces with the vomiting, burning at the stomach, faintness, 
vertigo, dimness of vision, general insensibility, coldness, extreme reduc- 
tion of the force and frequency of the pulse, great prostration of the muscular 
strength, and sometimes a convulsive rigidity of the limbs." Dr Wood 
states that he has never known of its employment except as a stimu- 
lant expectorant in obstinate 
bronchitis. Dr Mothershead, 
of Indianapolis (quoted in Op. 
x. p. 741) however " speaks in 
the strongest terms of its effi- 
cacy as an excitant of the liver, 
when given in alterative doses." 
On the other hand, Professor 
Thomas of Philadelphia (quoted 
in Op. x. p. 742), found the 
active principle sanguinarina to 
"have no effect of any kind 
directly on the liver " of man. 
" Sanguinarin " is, however, re- 
commended by the American 
" Eclectics " in doses of ^-1 
grain as a hepatic alterative. 
The substance employed in the 
following experiments is a resin 
prepared in the same manner 
as euonymin (see p. 170). 

Experiment 33. Dog that 
had fasted seventeen hours. 
Weight 277 kilogammes (fig. 
33). — 2 cc. bile and 2-5 cc. water 
injected into the duodenum at 
b. 1 grain sanguinarin in the 
same fluid injected at s. 2 
grains sanguinarin in the same 
fluid injected at s'. 

Necropsy. — Mucous mem- 
brane of upper two-thirds of small intestine was of a clear claret colour, 
here and there it was marked by brownish patches of a size varying from that 
of a sixpence to that of a half-crown. There were 35 cc. of a thick brown fluid 



Fig. 33. — Secretion of bile before and after sanguinarin. 2 cc. bile 
and 2 - 5 cc. water injected into the duodenum at 6. 1 grain 
sanguinarin in the same fluid injected at s. 2 grains sanguin- 
arin in the same fluid injected at s'. 





Experiment 33. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-0 




1-15 




09 




1-25 




1-1 


. 


1-4 




b 


) 


1-6 




1-2 


V 0-1678 cc. 


1-25 




1-2 


( 


2-22 




1-15 


J 


2-0 


1 0-3039 cc. 


s 

1-1 




2-0 
2 2 


0-95 




2-22 


1-0 




1-85 




1-0 




2-2 




s' 




2-2 




115 




2-2 




1-12 




20 




1-0 






1 



180 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



in the small intestine. The brown colour was apparently owing to the presence 
of the sanguinarin, a substance of a brownish-red colour. 

Experiment 34. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 20 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 34). — 2 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 
The same with 1 grain sanguinarin injected at s. 




Fig. 34. — Secretion of bile before and after sanguinarin. 2 cc. bile 
and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 1 grain 
sanguinarin in the same fluid injected at s. 



Experiment 34. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




0-41 




0-49 




0-52 




0-45 

b 

0-65 


\ 


[■ 0-12 co. 


0-65 


J 


0-65 


) 


1-25 




2-15 


\ 


2-65 
1-55 


V 0-401 cc. 


1-7 


J 


1-45 




1-8 




1-9 




2-02 




17 




1-3 




2-0 




1-05 




1-05 




1-35 




2-0 




1-05 




1-4 




11 




8 





Necropsy. — Vascularity of the mucous membrane of upper half of small 
intestine somewhat increased. Considerable evidence of purgative action in 
upper half of small intestine. Contents of a viscid mucous character. 

Table XVII. 



Sanguinarin. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body- weight. 


Secretion of Bile per 

Kilogramme of Body-weight 

per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 33, 

34, . 


1, with bile 
3, » 


0-05 
0-11 


012 cc. 
0-16 cc. 


0-30 cc. 
0-40 cc. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OP DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 181 
Table XVII. — Composition of Bile before and after Sanguinarin. 



Experiment 33. 


Before. 


i 

After. 


Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, . ... 

Ash, 


90-09 
7-38 
1-04 
1-49 


91-41 
6-57 
0-90 
1-12 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half hour, 


2-4 cc. 4-25 cc. 

i 



It appears from this analysis that under the influence of sanguinarin the 
bile becomes more watery, nevertheless the velocity of secretion having been 
nearly doubled by this agent, it is evident that the liver secreted more biliary 
matter. 

Results of Experiments with Sanguinarin. — 1. In one experiment three 
grains, in another experiment one grain, of sanguinarin when mixed with a 
small quantity of bile and water and placed in the duodenum powerfully 
stimulated the liver. 2. It rendered the bile more watery, nevertheless it 
caused the liver to secrete more biliary matter in a given time. 3. The 
secretion of the intestinal glands was slightly increased by these doses. These 
results show that the statements of Tully and Mothershead ought not 
to be treated with indifference and neglect, as they appear to be, in practical 
medicine. 

Action of Ipecacuan. 

As is well known, ipecacuan is regarded as almost a specific remedy in 
certain cases of dysentery. It is stated that it gives rise to evacuations con- 
taining a large quantity of bile. The manner in which it does this is not 
definitely known. Some maintain that it permits of biliary discharge by 
relieving spasm of the bile-ducts. The following experiments, undertaken at 
the desire of Sir Robert Christison, prove beyond a doubt that this substance 
is a powerful stimulant of the hepatic secreting apparatus. The maximum 
dose for a man is 60 grains. 

Experiment 35. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 15 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 35). — 2 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
60 grains ipecacuan powder in the same fluid injected at i. 

Necropsy. — The ipecacuan had extended along the upper half of the small 
vol. xx rx. part t. 3 a 



182 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



intestine, the mucous membrane of which portion was covered with thick white 
mucus. No purgation. 




Fig. 35. Secretion of bile before and after ipecacuan. 2 cc. bile and 
3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at 6. 60 grains ipecacuan 
powder in the same fluid injected at i. 




Experiment 35 






Secretion 




Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


15". 


of dog : per 
hour. 


15". 


cc. 




1-0 


0-8 




0-9 


0-55 




1-2 


0-25 




1-3 


0-4 




1-5 


b 




1-0 


0-3 


) 


10 


0-4 


1 


0-5 


V 0-113 cc. 


0-5 


0-S 


1-0 


% 




1-0 


0-8 




1-0 


2-0 


^1 


1-05 


1-1 


( « , 


1-1 


1-4 


V0-4 cc. 


0-8 


1-5 


J 


07 


11 







Fig. 36. Secretion of bile before and after ipecacuan. 2 cc.bile 
and 5 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. The 
same fluid with 60 grains ipecacuan powder injected at i. 



Experiment 36. 


Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


per 15". 


per kilogramme of 


dog : per hour. 


cc. 




1-9 




1-7 




1-5 




1-7 

b 

1-65 


) 


>0-24 cc. 


1-55 


( 


1-65 


; 


1-6 




1-9 




1-8 




1-7 




1-85 




2-4 




2-6 




33 




3-05 




375 




2-02 


3-0 " 


\ 


4-25 
4-0 


V 0-555 cc. 


3-85 


J 


3 42 




2 6 




2-8 




2-35 




2 3 




1-7 





PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 183 

Experiment 36. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. .Weight 27"2 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 36). — 2 cc. bile and 5 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
The same fluid with 60 grains ipecacuan powder injected at i. 

Necropsy. — Stomach normal. The ipecacuan extended along the upper 
two-thirds of the small intestine, the mucous membrane of which exhibited a 
slight increase of vascularity, and was covered with thick mucus, but there was 
no purgation. 

Even in much smaller doses, however, ipecacuan excites the liver, as is 
shown by the two following experiments. 

Experiment 37. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 61 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 37). — 1*5 cc. bile and 2 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
The same fluid with 3 grains of ipecacuan powder injected at i. 



Experiment 37. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of Jog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




i 




0-2 




0-4 




0-2 




0-25 




2 




0-3 




0-25 




07 


\ 


0-3 

25 




07 
0-45 


\ 0-385 cc. 


0-3 




5 


i 


3 




07 




0-2 




07 




b 




0-35 




0-25 


\ 


0-45 




0-25 
0-3 


\ 0-18 cc. 


0-5 

0-45 




3 


i 


0-4 






Experir 


dent 38. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog: per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




0-9 




0-3 




0-6 




0-2 




0-6 




0-25 




0-9 


\ 


0-25 
0-25 




1-0 
0-8 


1 0-506 cc. 


b 




1-15 


i 


0-3 


\ 


0-55 




0-35 
0-32 


U -186 cc. 


0-45 
0-5 




0-3 


i 


0-35 




i 




0-4 




0-45 




0-3 




0-6 










Fig. 37. Secretion of bile before and after ipecacuan. 1 - 5 ce. 
bile and 2 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
The same fluid with 3 grains of ipecacuan powder injected 
at i. 




Fig. 38. — Secretion of bile before and after ipecacuan. 1 - 5 cc. 
bile and 2 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 3 
grains ipecacuan powder in the same fluid injected at i 



Necropsy. — Thick mucus covering the mucous membrane of upper fourth 
•f small intestine. No purgation. 



184 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Experiment 38. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 6' 8 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 38). — 1*5 cc. bile and 2 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 
3 grains ipecacuan powder in the same fluid injected at i. 

Necropsy. — The appearances of the intestine were similar to those observed 
in the preceding experiment. 

Table XVIII. 



Ipecacuan. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body- Weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 36, 

37, . 

-* . — 


60 with bile, 
3 „ „ 


2-2 
0*49 


0-24 cc. 
0-18 cc. 


0-55 
0-38 



Table XIX. — Composition of the Bile before and after Ipecacuan. 



Experiment 36. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, 

Bile acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, 

Mucus, .......... 

Ash, . 


89-631 
8-13 
1-01 
1-229 


89-77 
8-129 
0-87 
1-231 




100-000 


100-000 


Velocity of secretion per half hour, 


3-2 cc. 


6-35 cc. 



Table XX. 



Experiment 38. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, .... 

Mucus, 

Ash 


91-32 
6-73 
0-98 
0-97 


91-51 
6-73 
0-79 
0-97 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half hour, 


0-65 cc. 


1-9 cc. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 185 

These analyses show that, notwithstanding the acceleration of secretion by 
ipecacuan, the percentage amount of the special biliary constituents remains 
unchanged. 

Results of Experiments with Ipecacuan. — 1. Sixty grains of powdered 
ipecacuan mixed with a small quantity of bile and placed in the duodenum 
powerfully stimulated the liver. Even three grains had an effect on a dog 
weighing 6*8 kilogrammes very nearly as great as the effect of sixty grains on a 
dog weighing 27*2 kilogrammes; the amount of bile secreted per kilogramme 
of dog being nearly the same in both cases. 2. The bile secreted under its 
influence was of normal composition as regards the biliary matter proper. 
3. No purgative effect was produced, but there was an increased secretion of 
mucus in the small intestine. The composition of the bile did not afford any 
evidence of an increased secretion of mucus having taken place from the glands 
of the bile-ducts. The sickness which ipecacuan is apt to induce will prevent 
its use as a hepatic stimulant in ordinary cases. 

The increased biliary flow that followed ipecacuan could not in these experi- 
ments be ascribed to any relaxation of " spasm of the bile-ducts," for that no 
such thing existed was clearly shown by the free flow of the bile before the 
substance was given. Nor could it be owing to contraction of the gall-bladder, 
for the cystic duct was clamped. Nor could it be ascribed to contraction of the 
bile -ducts, for the increased flow was far too prolonged to be attributable to 
any such cause. It is therefore certain that this substance, like the others, has 
the power of stimulating the secreting apparatus of the liver. This being now 
proved as regards the dog, it can scarcely be doubted that the modus operandi 
is the same in man. The results of these experiments will therefore lead to 
new speculations regarding the pathology of dysentery ; for every step towards 
greater accuracy of knowledge regarding the modus operandi of any therapeutic 
agent is certainly calculated to advance our knowledge of the true nature of the 
pathological condition that is relieved or cured by it. 

Action of Colocynth. 

Colocynth and jalap are well known intestinal stimulants, but nothing is 
said in works on Materia Medica regarding their influence on the discharge of 
bile. Rohrig, however (Op. vi. p. 240), investigated their action in the dog, 
and found that they excite the liver. He thought them so powerful that he 
placed them next to croton oil in importance. We have already pointed out 
the faultiness of Rohrig's method, and have shown that croton oil is scarcely 
worthy of being classed amongst cholagogues. It seemed therefore desirable 
that we should experiment with colocynth and jalap in order to have results 
comparable with our experiments on lother substances. The maximum dose of 
colocynth pulp for a man is eight grains. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3B 



186 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Experiment 39. Dog that had fasted sixteen hours. Weight 26*3 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 39).— 2 cc. bile and 2 cc. Water injected into the duodenum at 5. 




Fig. 39. Secretion of bile before and after colocynth. 
2 cc. bile and 2 cc. water injected into the duo- 
denum at 6. The same fluid with 7 grains of 
powdered colocynth pulp injected at c. The same 
dose repeated at c'. 



Experiment 39. 


Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


15" 


per kilogramme of 




dog: per hour. 


cc. 




2.3 




1-6 




1-8 

b 

17 






2-2 


\ 


175 
2-2 


j-0'2908 cc. 


1-5 


3 


1-4 




23 




1-95 




2-0 




2-2 




2-55 




2-2 




2-5 


\ 


2 5 


f 


3-2 


>0 , 452 cc. 


3-15 




3-05 


; 


2-45 




1-5 




1-4 





The 



The same fluid with 7 grains of powdered colocynth pulp injected at c 
same dose repeated at c'. 

Necropsy. — Gastric mucous membrane very vascular. The mucous membrane 
of the small intestine was intensely vascular throughout its entire length. There 
was evidence of powerful purgation — the small intestine containing 82 cc. of fluid. 




Fig. 40. Secretion of bile before and after colocynth. 
3 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum 
at 6. The same with 7 grains colocynth injected at c. 
The same repeated at d. 





Experiment 40. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 


i 


cc. 




0-6 




0-8 




0-6 


.. 


11 




55 


\ 


115 




. 0-6 


1 


1-1 




0'55 


>0-165cc. 


c'— , 




b 




l'O 




' 0-8 


) 


0'95 




075 




0'65 




€ 




0-6 




0-9 




0-8 




115 


\ 


105 




1-3 . 
105 


lo-279ec. 


0-85 
0-65 




1-05 


J 







PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 187 



Experiment 40. Dog that had fasted sixteen hours. Weight 16 3 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 40). — 3 cc. bile and 3 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
The same with 7 grains colocynth injected at c. The same repeated at c. 

Necropsy. — There was increased vascularity throughout the whole length 
of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, especially marked in the upper 
part. There was considerable evidence of purgation. 

Table XXI. 



Colocynth. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 39, 

40, . 


14 with bile, 

7 






0-45 cc. 
0-27 cc. 


0-53 

0-4 

■ 


0-29 cc. 
0-16 cc. 



In Experiment 40, the pulse became very weak towards the close of the 
experiment, and it may be that this weakness rendered the effect of the colo- 
cynth upon the liver less than it otherwise might have been. Be this as it may, 
we did not think it necessary to perform another experiment, for the first 
experiment with this substance may be regarded as sufficient. 

Table XXII. — Composition of the Bile before and after Colocynth. 



Experiment 39. 


Before. 


After. 


- 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, .... 

Mucus, 

Ash, 


92-99 
5-49 
0-90 
0-62 


94-13 
4-70 
0-70 
0-47 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half hour, ..... 


3-4 cc. 


6-35 cc. 



The analysis shows that colocynth renders the bile more watery, but it is 
evident from the increased velocity of secretion that it compels the liver to 
secrete more of the biliary solids proper. 

Results of Experiments with Colocynth. — Colocynth is, in large doses, a 
powerful hepatic, as well as intestinal stimulant. Though rendering the bile 
more watery, it increases the secretion of biliary matter. 



188 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Action of Jalap. 

What is known of the action of jalap on the liver has been already referred 
to under colocynth. The maximum dose of jalap powder for a man is 30 grains. 




Fig. 41. — Secretion of bile before and after jalap. 2 5 cc. 
bile and 2 '5 cc. water injected into the duodenum at b. 
30 grains of jalap powder in the same fluid injected 
at./. 



Experiment 41. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 25 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 41). — 25 cc. bile and -2*5 cc. water injected into the duodenum 





Experiment 41. 






Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-1 




1-6 




1-1 




1-5 




1-0 




1-65 




1-0 




1-4 




b ■ 




1-8 




0-95 




1-9 




1-0 


) 


1-9 


\ 


1-05 


^0-16cc. 


1-8 


1 


1-0 


! 


1-9 


> 0-296 cc. 


1 


i 


1-8 


) 


1-0 




1-6 




1-1 




1-2 




1-15 




1-4 




1-4 




1-1 




1-45 


! 







at b. 30 grains of jalap powder in the same fluid injected at/. 

Table XXIII. 



Jalap. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body- weight. 


Secretion of ', 
gramme of 
per' 

Before. 


Jile per Kilo- 

Body-weight 

lour. 

After. 


Experiment 41, 
42 


30 with bile, 
40 


1-2 
3-2 


0-16 cc. 
0-17 cc. 


0-29 cc. 
0-35 cc. 






Table XXIV. — Composition of the Bile before and after Jalap. 



Experiment 41. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, ....... 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, .... 

Mucus, 

Ash, . . . . . ■.--■■. 


89-31 
8-41 
0-93 
1-35 


89-75 
8-05 
0-87 
1-33 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half-hour, .... 


2-1 cc. 


3-7 cc. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETIONS OF BILE. 1 89 



Necropsy. — The jalap had extended along about four-fifths of the small 
intestine, the mucous membrane of which was more vascular than usual, 
especially at the lower part of the duodenum. The purgative effect was con- 
siderable there being 64 cc. of fluid in the intestine. The fluid was of a 

very watery character. 



Experiment 42. Dog that had fasted twenty-two hours, 
grammes (fig. 42). — 2 cc. 



Weight 12-3 kilo- 




Fig. 42. — Secretion of bile before and after jalap. 2 cc. bile and 3 
cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 20 grains jalap powder 



in the same fluid injected at j, f, and/ 



bile and 3 cc. water injected 
into duodenum at b. 20 
grains jalap powder in the 
same fluid injected at j, f, 
and /'. 

The fall of the bile-secre- 
tion towards the close of the 
experiment is only another 
illustration of the fact often 
witnessed by us — that severe 
purgation diminishes the se- 
cretion of bile. 

Necropsy. — 20 cc. of 
fluid had been injected into 
the duodenum, much of 
which had probably been 
absorbed ; the small intes- 
tine, however, contained in 
its upper third 117 cc. of 
watery fluid, showing that 
a profuse purgative action 
was taking place. The jalap 
had extended along only a 
third of the small intestine. 
The analysis shows that 
although jalap renders the 
bile more watery, it so increases the velocity of secretion that more biliary 
matter is secreted in a given time. 

Results of Experiments with Jalap. — 1. Jalap is a hepatic stimulant of con- 
siderable power. It renders the bile more watery, but at the same time increases 
the secretion of biliary matter. 2. Its effect on the liver is however far less 
notable than its effects on the intestinal glands. Its hydragogue cathartic 
effects were fully manifested in these experiments. 

vol. xxix. part i. 3 c 



! 
Experiment 42. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




0-6 




1-05 


) 


0-55 




1-05 


[ 0-357 cc. 


0-6 




95 


) 


075 




10 




0-5 




ro5 




b 


) 


55 




0-5 


V 0-178 cc. 


j" 




0-6 


f 


075 




0-6 


J 


0-5 




3 




0-75 




0-65 




075 




0-85 




0-25 




0-8 




0-25 




0-6 




0-25 




0-9 




0-35 


^ 


1-0 




0-4 
35 


V 0-113 cc. 


1-35 


0'357 cc. 


0-3 


j 



190 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



- | K 


V V \A 


/ \ !« .f \ / i , \,^ 


I 

".- . 1 1 i 


b' 
1 . i l l . I . , . I 



Action of Taraxacum. 

There exists a vague idea that taraxacum has some influence on the liver. It 

is stated that it is "supposed to modify and increase its secretion" (Op. viii. 

p. 295), but it is generally felt that its action is extremely doubtful. 

Experiment 43. Middle-sized dog that had fasted twenty-four hours. — 180 

grains of solid extract 
of taraxacum in 25 cc. 
water were injected 
into the duodenum (t, 
fig. 43), and, two hours 
after this, 120 grains 
in the same quantity 
of water were injected 
(t 1 ). After both doses 
there was a greater 
increase in the biliary 
secretion than was at all 

likely to have been caused by the same quantity of water. (See Experiment 7.) 
Necropsy. — The taraxacum had passed along nearly the whole length of 

the small intestine. Most of the fluid had been absorbed. There was no 

evidence of purgative action. 

Experiment 43a. Small dog that had fasted eighteen hours. — 120 grains of 

solid extract of taraxacum in 15 
cc. of water were injected into the 
duodenum (t, fig. 43a), and this 
dose was repeated in two-and-a- 
half hours. The increase of the 
biliary secretion after the second 
dose was trivial ; but after the 
An examination of the 



Fig. 43. — Secretion of bile before and after taraxacum, t, 180 grains ; t', 120 
grains of solid extract of taraxacum in 25 cc. of water were injected into 
the duodenum. (The triangles and dotted lines indicate the mean of the 
high and low readings in order that a conclusion regarding the effect of 
the substance may be more easily arrived at. ) 




Fig. 43a. — Secretion of bile before and after taraxacum. 120 
grains of solid extract of taraxacum in 15 cc. of water in- 
jected into the duodenum at t and t'. 

first it was considerable, though of short duration 
intestine at death revealed no purgative action. 

From these experiments it may be concluded that taraxacum is a very 
feeble hepatic stimulant, a conclusion that is in harmony with clinical experience, 
although the observations on man — from the nature of the case — have yielded 
nothing perfectly definite. We think it unnecessary to detail these two experi- 
ments more fully. 

Action of Nitro-hydrochloric Acid. 

The dilute nitro-hydrochloric acid employed by us was prepared by mixing 
3 cc. nitric acid with 4 cc. hydrochloric acid, and after an interval of twenty- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 191 



four hours, adding 25 cc. water (" British Pharmacopoeia"). The dose for a 
man is from 5 to 20 minims. 

The employment of this substance in hepatic disorder was first recommended 
by Dr Scott of Bombay, who used it largely in congestion of the liver. It was 
administered as a foot-bath, and also internally. Its effects, however, were by 
some held to be so doubtful, that its use appears to have been abandoned for a 
time (Christison, Op. xii. p. 41). Annesley, Martin, and others — experienced 
in the diseases of India — have, however, supported the opinion held by Scott. 
Wood (Op. xi. p. 88) maintains, from 
his own observation, that it increases 
the flow of the bile. 

Experiment 44. A small dog 
(weight not ascertained) that had 
fasted seventeen hours (fig. 44). — 20 cc. 
water injected into duodenum at a. The 
same with 20 minims dilute nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid injected at b, c, d, and e. 

Necropsy. — The duodenal mucous membrane was slightly congested. 
There was no evidence of purgation. 

Experiment 44a. Dog that had fasted seventeeen hours. Weight 177 




Fig. 44. — Secretion of bile before and after nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid. 20 cc. water injected into duodenum at 
a. The same with 20 minims dilute nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid injected at b, c, d, and e. 



Experiment 44a. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




0-55 


\ 


0-40 
0-50 


V 0-117 cc. 


0-65 


J 


1-00 




0-95 




1-05 




1-10 




1-40 




1-45 




1-55 




1-60 




1-40 




1-50 


\ 


2-20 
172 


V0-392cc. 


1-62 


3 


1-45 




1-50 




1-35 




0-95 






Fig. 44a. — Secretion of bile before and after nitro- 
hydrochloric acid. 40 minims dilute nitro- 
hydrochloric acid in 8 cc. of water injected into 
duodenum at a, and again at a'. 



kilogrammes (fig. 44a). — 40 minims dilute nitro-hydrochloric acid in 8 cc. 
water injected into duodenum at a, and again at a. 



192 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — There was slight congestion of the upper part of the small 
intestine to the extent of about 10 inches. In the duodenum the mucous 
membrane had a yellowish-grey appearance, as if it had been slightly corroded 
by an acid. There was no evidence of any purgative effect. 

Results of Experiments with Nitro-hydrochloric Acid. — The positive effect 
of the acid in Experiment 44a is in remarkable contrast to the negative result 
observed in Experiment 44. In consequence of the positive result in the former 

case, and seeing that it com- 
pletely agrees with observa- 
tions on man, we did not think 
it necessary to perform another 
experiment. In view of the 
positive effect in 44a, we do 
not attach any importance to 
the negative result of Experi- 
ment 44; for the animal was 
a small one, and in such cases 
we have found that undoubted 
cholagogues sometimes fail 
to act. It is proved, then, 
that dilute nitro-hvdrochloric 
acid is a hepatic stimulant of 
considerable power. 



0'5 




Fig. 45. — Secretion of bile before and after sodium chloride. 10 cc. 
water injected into duodenum at w. The same with 120 grains 
sodium chloride injected at's, sf, s", s'" (480 grains given in all). 



Experiment 45. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-82 
172 




1-90 
2-00 


| 0-306 cc. 


1-82 




1-80 




172 




s" 




w 




1-85 




172 


\ 


2-10 


<-0'346ce. 


175 
1-80 


VO-28 cc. 


2-15 

2-20 


1-75 


J 


2 22 


J 


s 




2-00 




1-70 




2-15 




1-70 




2-00 




175 




s" 




175 




1-90 




s' 




1-90 




175 




2-00 




1-85 
1-90 


| 0-306 cc. 


1-80 





45). 



Action of Sodium Chloride. 

Sodium chloride is a cath- 
artic when given in doses of 120 
to 240 grains. It is not stated 
to be a cholagogue, but as it 
is contained in considerable 
quantity in the mineral waters 
of Carlsbad, Ems, Friedrich- 
shall, that have a reputation 
in abnormal conditions of the 
liver, we thought it desirable 
to test its action on this organ. 

Experiment 45. Dog that 
had fasted eighteen hours. 
Weight 25 kilogrammes (fig. 
10 cc. water injected into duodenum at w. The same with 120 grains 



sodium chloride injected at s, s', s", s'" (480 grains given in all). 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 193 

Necropsy. — The small intestine contained 203 cc. of fluid, with numerous 
mucous flakes. As only 50 cc. of fluid had been injected, decided purgative 
action had taken place. The vascularity of the mucous membrane was slightly 
increased. 

Result of Experiment with Sodium Chloride. — Inasmuch as the first three 
doses of sodium chloride, amounting in the aggregate to 360 grains, produced 
scarcely any effect on the secretion of bile, it may be concluded that this sub- 
stance is a very feeble hepatic stimulant. Another experiment did not appear 
to be required. 




Fig. 46.— Secretion of bile before and after tartrate of potash and soda. 
10 cc. water injected into duodenum at to. The same with 60 
grains Rochelle salt injected at?-, /•', /•", r" (240 grains given in all). 



Action of Sodium and Potassium Tartrate. 

Rochelle salt is well known as an intestinal stimulant, but its action on the 
liver has not hitherto been pointed out. The dose for a man is ] 20 to 240 
grains. 

Experime?it 46. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 5*2 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 46). — lOcc. water 
injected into duodenum at w. 
The same with 60 grains Ro- 
chelle salt injected at r, r , r" , 
and/" (240 grains given in all). 

No Necropsy. 

Considering the small size 
of this animal, the exciting 
effect of the salt on the liver 
was very remarkable, the se- 
cretion of bile per kilogramme 
of body- weight per hour being 
raised to 0-653 cc. The fall 
in the secretion towards the 
close of the experiment was 
doubtless owing to purgative 
action taking place. 

Experiment 46a. — Dog 
that had fasted twenty hours. 
Weight 12-5 kilogrammes (fig. 
46a). — 3 cc. bile and 55 cc. 
water heated to 37° C. injected 
into duodenum at b. The same with 463 grains Rochelle salt heated to 37° C. 
injected at r. 

Necropsy.— Small intestine contained 130 cc. of a clear mucous fluid. 
vol. xxix. part i. 3 D 





Experiment 46. 






Secretion of 




Secretion of 


Secretion of 


bile per kilo- 


Secretion of 


bile per kilo- 


bile per 15". 


gramme of 


bile per 15". 


gramme of 




dog: per hour. 




dog: per hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




0-25 




0-50 




0-15 


) 


0-60 




Ml 


y 0-115 cc. 


rp" 




0-15 


f 


0-80 




0-05 


) 


1-00 


) 


r 




r'" 


10 653 cc. 


0-25 




1-00 


t 


0-30 




0-60 


; 


0-35 




0o0 




?•' 




0-55 




0-35 




0-35 








194 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Mucous membrane of small intestine exhibited a slightly increased vascu- 
larity. 

Results of Experiments with Rochelle Salt. — It is certainly a hepatic stimulant. 
Experiment 46 shows what a rapid secretion of bile it called forth in a liver that 
was nearly passive before it was given. The effect was by no means so remark- 
able in Experiment 46a, where the liver was relatively more active before the 
substance was given. Probably the latter affords a better general indication 




Experiment 46a. 




Secretion of 




Secretion of 


Secretion 


bile per kilo- 


Secretion 


bile per kilo- 


of bile 


gramme of 


of bile 


gramme of 


per 15". 


dog: per 


per 15". 


dog: per 


cc. 


hour. 




hour. 




cc. 




0-75 




0-85 




070 




0-90 




0-70 




0-95 




070 




0-85 




b 




0-85 




0-75 


^ 


1-00 


) 


0-80 
0-70 


V 0-236 cc. 


1-05 
1-00 


V 0-332 cc. 


0-70 


J 


1-10 


J 


r 




1-00 




0-75 




0'90 




070 




1-00 




0-70 




0-90 




0-80 




070 




0-90 









Fig. 46a. — Secretion of bile before and after Rochelle salt. 
3 cc. bile and 55 cc. water heated to 37° C. injected into 
duodenum at b. The same with 463 grains Rochelle salt 
heated to 37° C. injected at r. 



than the former of the power of this substance as a hepatic stimulant, and it 
must be remembered that in both cases, especially in the first, considering the 
size of the animals as compared with man, the doses were large; so that, on the 
whole, it may be anticipated that observations on man — now that we specially 
direct attention to the matter — will show that this substance stimulates the 
liver, but not powerfully. 

Table XXV. 



Rochelle Salt. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 46, . 
Experiment 46a, . 


240 
463 


461 
37-2 


0-115 cc. 
0-236 cc. 


0-653 cc. 
0-332 cc. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



195 



Action of Sodium Phosphate. 

Sodium phosphate is described in the text-books as a mild saline purgative; 
nothing being said about its action as a cholagogue. Professor Stephenson of 
Aberdeen (Op. xiii.), however, has found it specially useful for children when 
there is a deficiency of bile in the discharges. The dose as a purgative for a 
man is 120 to 480 grains. 

Experiment 47. Dog that had fasted twenty hours. Weight 26*9 kilo- 




Fig. 47. — Secretion of bile before and after sodium phosphate. 77 
grains in 15 ee. water injected into duodenum at s, and 124 grains 
in 25 cc. water injected at s'. 



Experiment 47. 


Secretion of bile 
per 15". 


Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme of 

dog: per hour. 


cc. 




2-05 




2-07 




1-90 


\ 


1-90 
1-80 


1 0-278 cc. 


1-80 


J 


1-70 




1-90 




1-80 




1-95 




2-07 




2-15 




2-17 




2-17 




s' 




2-20 




2-27 




2 '25 




2-40 




2-40 




2-30 




2-60 




lost. 




2-70 




2-80 




2-90 


^ 


2-95 
3-15 


V 0-448 cc. 


3-05 


J 


2-30 




2-57 





grammes (fig. 47). — 77 grains in 15 cc. water injected into duodenum at s, and 
124 grains in 25 cc. water injected at s. 

Necropsy. — Somewhat increased vascularity of mucous membrane of small 
intestine. Evidence of a very decided purgative effect : the contents of the 
small intestine being of a very watery character. 



196 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Table XXVI. — Composition of the Bile before and after Sodium Phosphate. 



Experiment 51. 


Before. 


After. 


Water, 

Bile-acids, pigments, cholesterin, fats, .... 
Mucus, 


84-69 

13-23 

1-01 

1-07 


85-15 

12-91 

0-93 

1-01 




100-00 


100-00 


Velocity of secretion per half-hour, 


3-6 cc. 


5 - 5 cc. 



Results of Experiments with Sodium Phosphate. — 1. This substance is a 
powerful hepatic stimulant. 2. Although it renders the bile more watery, it 
increases the amount of biliary matter secreted per unit of time. 3. It is a 
moderately powerful intestinal stimulant, and, while acting as a purgative, it 
irritates the intestinal mucous membrane very slightly. 

The results of Experiment 47 were so satisfactory — both doses of the sub- 
stance producing an effect — that it was thought needless to repeat it, as it 
confirms Dr Stephenson's observations on the human subject, adding to these, 
however, the definite knowledge that it has the power of actually increasing the 
flow of the bile, and that it does so by stimulating the hepatic cells. 

It will be shown by Experiment 65 that ammonium phosphate is also a 
powerful hepatic stimulant. 



Action of Sodium Sulphate. 



Works on therapeutics generally make no mention of any cholagogue action 
of this substance. In the fourth edition of Garrod's Materia Medica, however, 
it is stated that, in addition to its action as a saline purgative, it " probably 
influences the biliary secretion." 240 to 480 grains is the dose for a man. 

Experiment 48. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 195 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 48). — 12 cc. water injected into duodenum at w. 60 grains 
sodium sulphate in 12 cc. water injected at s, and again at s'. 

Necropsy. — Evidence of decided purgative action in small intestine, the 
mucous membrane of which exhibited a considerably increased vascularity. 

Experiment 48a. Dog that had fasted twenty hours. Weight 15-7 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 48a). — 3 cc. bile and 5 cc. water — heated to 37° C. — injected 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 197 

into duodenum at b. 508 grains sodium sulphate, in the same fluid heated to 
37° C, injected at s. 



Experiment 48. 


Experiment 48a. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




0-25 




1-00 




25 




0-95 




0-30 




0-95 




0-40 




0-95 




0-55 


} 


6 




0-50 




0-95 


\ 


0-50 

w 


> 0-107 cc. 


1-05 
0-95 


V 0-251 cc. 


0-55 


) 


1-00 


i 


0-80 




1-00 




TOO 


\ 


1-10 




1-05 
1-65 


I 0-266 cc. 


1-05 
115 




1-50 


J 


1-25 




0-65 




1-40 




1-00 




1-45 




s' 




1-50 


^ 


0-60 
1-30 


1 


1-60 
1-55 


V 0-388 cc. 


1-40 
1-50 


I- 0-279 cc. 


1-45 
1-55 


j 


125 


3 


1-45 
1-35 
1-50 
1-45 
1-55 
1-35 





l-i 




Fig. 48. — Secretion of bile before and after sodium sulphate. 
12 cc. water injected into duodenum at w. 60 grains 
sodium sulphate in 12 cc. water injected at s, and again at s'. 




Fig. 



48a. — Secretion of bile before and after sodium sulphate. 
3 cc. bile and 5 cc. water, heated to 37° C. , injected into 
duodenum at b. 508 grains sodium sulphate, in the same 
fluid heated to 37° O., injected at s. 



Necropsy. — Mucous membrane of whole length of small intestine slightly 
reddened. The small intestine contained 147 cc. of clear fluid with greenish 
flakes, thus affording evidence of a decided purgative effect. 

Table XXVIT. 



Sodium Sulphate. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 48, 

„ . 48a, . 


120 
508 


61 
32-3 


0-10 CC. 
0-25 cc. 


0-25 cc. 
0-38 cc. 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



3 E 



198 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Results of Experiments with Sodium Sulphate. — In addition to being a power- 
ful intestinal stimulant, it is also a moderately powerful hepatic stimulant. 
The positive character of this result is important, because it is well known that 
the waters of Carlsbad have a cholagogue action, and although they contain, in 
addition to sodium sulphate, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, potassium 
sulphate, and small quantities of other substances, sodium sulphate is the prin 
cipal salt, and to it the cholagogue action is doubtless chiefly due. 

Sodium sulphate, however, has for a considerable time been, in practical 
medicine, almost entirely superseded by magnesium sulphate, on account of 
its more agreeable taste, but it must in future be borne in mind that while 
sodium sulphate stimulates the liver, magnesium sulphate does not. (See 
Experiments 18 and 19.) 



Action of Potassium Sulphate. 



Potassium sulphate is sometimes employed as a purgative agent, but no 
mention is made in the books of its having any action on the liver. Dr Wade 
of Birmingham, however, informed us that he finds this substance a cholagogue 
in man, and at his request we tested its action on the liver of the dog by our 
method. 

Experiment 49. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 17 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 49). — 2^ cc. bile and 16 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 
The same with 124 grains potassium sulphate heated to 37° C. injected at p. 






1-5 



05 




F« 



49.— Secretion of bile before and after potassium sulphate. 2 J cc. 
bile and 16 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. The same with 
124 grains potassium sulphate, heated to 37° C, injected at .p. 



Experiment 49. 


Secre- 


Secretion 


\ Secre- 
tion of 


Secretion : 


tion of 


of bile per 


of bile per ! 


bile 


kilogramme 


bile 


kilogramme j 


per 


of dog : per 


per 


of dog : per i 


15". 


hour. 


15". 


hour. 


cc. 




cc. 


i 


1-45 




1-42 




1-40 




1-35 




1-35 




1-40 




1-40 




1-42 




1-32 




1-38 




b 




1-42 




1-32 


1 0-315 cc. 


1-20 




1-32 
1-40 


1-35 
1-20 




1-32 


1-45 




P 




1-27 




1-40 




1-37 




1-32 




1-17 


^ 


1-40 




1-22 




1-42 




1-10 


V0-266cc. 


1-20 




1-02 


J 


1-52 









Necropsy. — Small intestine contained 137 cc. greenish fluid with mucous 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



199 



flakes. The mucous membrane exhibited increased vascularity with small 
ecchymoses in its upper fourth. 

In this case, therefore, this substance irritated the intestine and produced 
purgation, but did not excite the liver. It was decided to give in the next case 
a larger dose. 

Experiment 49a. Large dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight not 
recorded (fig. 49a). — 2^ cc. bile and 35 cc. water injected into duodenum at b, 
the same with 142 grains potassium sulphate injected at s, and again at s'. 



Experiment 49a. 


Secretion 


of bile per 


15". 


cc. 


2-20 


2-14 


2-20 


2-15 

b 

2-20 


2 20 


215 


2-22 


2-20 


2-35 


2-37 


2-40 


2-30 


2-40 


2-25 


2-32 


2-20 


2-10 


^ 1-95 


1-90 


2-05 


2-20 


2 30 


2-20 


2-25 


2 '05 


2-22 


2-05 


2-20 


1-95 


1-85 


1-95 



0--5 




Fig. 49a. — Secretion of bile before and after potassium sulphate. 1\ cc. 
bile and 35 cc. water injected into duodenum at b, the same with 142 
grains potassium sulphate injected at s, and again at *'. 



Necropsy. — Small intestine contained 143 cc. watery fluid. The vascularity 
of the mucous membrane in the whole length of the small intestine was slightly 
increased. 

There being in this case evidence of a slight increase of the biliary secretion, 
another experiment was thought desirable. 



200 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Experiment 49b. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 21*5 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 49b). — 232 grains potassium sulphate dissolved in 32 cc. water 
at 37° C. and injected into duodenum at p. 




Fig. 49b. — Secretion of bile before and after 232 grains potassium sulphate 
dissolved in 32 cc. water at 37° C, and injected into duodenum at^?. 



Experiment 49b. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




1 


80 




1 


90 




1 


70 


^ 


1 
1 


65 
65 


V 0-316 cc. 


1 


70 


) 


P — 
1 


80 




1 


70 




1 


90 




1 


80 




1 


90 




2 


05 




2 


07 




2 


10 




2 


25 




2 


37 




2 


45 




2 


40 




2 


45 




2 


50 




2 


47 




2 


55 


^ 


2 
2 


55 

57 


V0'47cc. 


2 


45 


J 


2 


40 




2 


30 




2 


40 




2 


40 


^ 


2 

1 


20 
95 


V 0-352 cc. 


1-20 


) 



Necropsy. — Increased vascularity of mucous membrane in whole length of 
small intestine. The small intestine contained 90 cc. clear brownish fluid, 
with numerous mucous flakes. There was, therefore, evidence of considerable 
purgative action. 

Results of Experiments with Potassium Sulphate. — Experiment 49b shows 
that potassium sulphate is undoubtedly a hepatic stimulant. The dose of 232 
grains, given in this case to a full-sized dog, was just the maximum dose for a 
man. The negative effect of 124 grains in Experiment 49, and the slight effect 
of 142 grains twice repeated in Experiment 49a, show that this substance is 
uncertain in its action on the liver. Regarding its action on the intestinal 
glands, however, there was no uncertainty, for its purgative effect was pro- 
nounced in all the three experiments. Possibly, the sparing solubility of the 
salt may render its absorption into the portal vein uncertain. The bile given 
along with the salt in Experiments 49 and 49a had probably nothing whatever 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



201 



to do with the result. The result of Experiment 49b completely supports Dr 
Wade's opinion, that potassium sulphate is a cholagogue. Indeed, the amount 
of bile secreted per kilogramme of body-weight under its influence in that 
experiment was greater than in either of the experiments with sodium sulphate 
(48 and 48a). The apparent uncertainty, however, in the action of potassium 
sulphate must not be lost sight of. 



Action of Sodium Bicarbonate. 



15 



05 




The previously mentioned salts of sodium and potassium having all been 
found to have some action on the liver, it was determined to try the effect of 
the bicarbonates. 

Experiment 50. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 16 3 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 50). — 
5 cc. water and 2 cc. 
bile were injected 
into the duodenum 
at b (a needless pre- 
caution) ; 31 grains 
of sodium bicarbon- 
ate in the same fluid 
were injected at s, s', 
and s" ; and 124 
grains in 15 cc water 
and 2 cc. bile were 
injected at s"' : 217 
grains being given 

in all. Only after the last dose did the secretion of bile begin to rise 
slightly. 

Necropsy.— The vascularity of the mucous membrane of the small intestine 
was slightly increased. The viscus contained 60 cc. of a greenish mucous 
fluid. 

Experiment 50a. — Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 19 9 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 50a). — 5 cc. of water and 2-5 cc. of bile were injected into the 
duodenum at b (a needless precaution), and the same fluid, with 64 grains of 
sodium bicarbonate, was injected at s, s', and s" — 192 grains being given in all. 
The secretion of bile rose slightly after each dose. 

Result of Experiments vritk Sodium Bicarbonate. — In Experiment 50, the 
hourly coefficient of secretion per kilogramme of body-weight during the first 
hour was 0294 cc. ; during the seventh hour, it was 0287 cc; and during the 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 F 



Fig. 50. — Secretion of bile before and after sodium bicarbonate. 5 cc. water and 
2 cc. bile injected into the duodenum at b. The same with 31 grains sodium 
bicarbonate injected at s, s' and s". 15 cc. water with 2 cc. bile and 124 
grains sodium bicarbonate injected at s'". 



202 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



0-5 




last hour, after 217 grains of the salt had been given, it was 0*341 cc. In 
Experiment 50a the coefficient during the first hour was 023 cc; during the 
fifth hour, when the secretion was at its height, it rose to 0'28 cc, — 128 grains 
of sodium bicarbonate having been given. It is, therefore, evident that, though 
the blood of the portal vein was, comparatively speaking, laden with this very 
readily decomposable sodium salt, the hepatic cells were scarcely at all excited 

thereby. It may, 
therefore, be inferred 
that, although sodium 
is required to form 
the salts of the bile- 
acids, a liberal supply 
of sodium has a 
feeble influence in 
leading to an in- 
creased formation of 
bile. Sodium bicar- 
bonate is, therefore, 
an exceedingly feeble 
hepatic excitant even in large doses ; and it may, therefore, be inferred 
that the ordinary dose of 10 or 20 grains, given to the human subject, 
produces no appreciable influence on his bile-secretion. It should be stated 
that the introduction of bile into the intestine — though of great service 
when resinous substances are given, as has been already explained — was in 
these experiments entirely needless. Indeed, the introduction of 10 cc. of bile 
in the case of dog 50 was of itself calculated to slightly increase the bile- 
secretion ; but in Experiment 50a the distinct rise of secretion after each dose 
of the sodium salt was combined with the 2 cc. of bile and water that had pre- 
viously had no effect, clearly shows that the sodium bicarbonate was the cause 
of the increased hepatic activity. 



Fig. 50a. — Secretion of bile before and after sodium bicarbonate. 5 cc. water and 
2'5cc. bile injected into duodenum at b. The same with 64 grains sodium 
bicarbonate injected at s, s', and s". 



Action of Potassium Bicarbonate. 



Experiment 51. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 19*3 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 51). — 31 grains of potassium bicarbonate in 8 cc. of water were 
injected into the duodenum at p, p\ and p", and 108 grains in 8 cc. of water 
were injected at p'" — 201 grains being given in all. The bile-secretion was 
distinctly increased. 

Necropsy. — 53 cc. of a clear brownish fluid, with numerous mucous flakes in 
small intestine: Vascularity of mucous membrane considerably increased. 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 203 

Remit of Experiment with Potassium Bicarbonate. — Before the alkaline salt 
was given, the hourly coefficient of secretion per kilogramme of body-weight 
was - 238 cc. ; and, after 201 grains had been given, it rose to 0*384 cc. Seeing 
that 31 grains produced no effect, it may be safely assumed that, when a dose 
of 10 or 15 grains is taken by man, his biliary secretion is not sensibly affected. 




Fig. 51. — Secretion of bile before and after potassium bicarbonate. 31 grains in 8 cc. 
water injected into duodenum at p, p', and p". 108 grains in 8 cc. water in- 
jected at })'". 



Experiment 51. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-30 




1-40 




1-35 




p'" 




1-10 


\ 


1-45 




1-15 
1-20 


1 0-238 cc. 


1-40 
1-45 




1-15 


) 


1-50 




P 




1-50 




1-20 




1-60 




1-15 




1-50 




1-15 




1-67 




/ 




1-70 




1-25 




1-50 




T30 




1-80 


^ 


1-45 
1-30 
1-50 


1 0-287 cc. 


1-85 
1-85 
1-90 


lo-384cc. 


1-30 


J 


1-70 




P" 




1-40 




1-25 




1-45 




1-30 




1-30 





Action of Iodide of Potassium. 

Potassium iodide is sometimes- administered in hepatic affections, in the 
hope that it may produce an "alterative " effect. On that account it seemed 
desirable to ascertain whether or not it affects the biliary secretion. 



204 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




Fig. 52. — Secretion of bile before and after potassium iodide. 
At p 10 grains, at p' 20 grains, and at p" 30 grains in 3 
cc. of water injected into the duodenum. 



1VW 



1-5 



X M^ 



V \ 



Experiment 52. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 17 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 52).— 10 grains of 
potassium iodide in 3 cc. of water 
were injected into the duodenum at 
p, 20 grains at p', and 30 grains at 
p". There was no increase of secre- 
tion, but, on the contrary, a rather 
greater fall than is usually ob- 
served in a normal case. A repe- 
tition of the experiment was there- 
fore necessary. 

Necropsy. — 54 cc. of a thick 
yellowish mucous fluid found in 
the small intestine, thus affording evidence of a slight purgative action. 

Experiment 52a. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. "Weight 16 9 kilo- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ grammes (fig 52a). — 5 grains 

of potassium iodide in 2 cc. of 
water were injected into the 
duodenum at p, 10 grains in 2 
cc. of water at p' , 20 grains in 
5 cc. of water at p", 30 grains 
in 5 cc. of water at p"' ', and 40 
grains in 8 cc. of water at p"". 
The trifling increase of secre- 
tion after the second and fourth 
doses may be discarded, and 
the fall of secretion as the ex- 
periment advanced might very 
probably have been equally 
marked had nothing been given. 
Necropsy. — Small intestine contained 25 cc. of a clear mucous fluid, indi- 
cating a slight purgation ; for, though 22 cc. of water had been injected, much 
of it had doubtless been absorbed. 

Result of Experiments with Potassium Iodide. — This substance does not 
appear to affect the biliary secretion. 

Action of Physostigma. 

Since the well-known researches of Sir Eobert Christison and Professor 

Fraser, the physiological actions of Calabar bean have been made the subject 

of extensive inquiry ; its action on the liver has not, however, hitherto been 

investigated, owing to the want of a reliable method of experiment. As stated 




Fig. 52a.— Secretion of bile before and after potassium iodide. 
At p 5 grains in 2 cc. of water, at p' 10 grains in 2 cc. of 
water, at p" 20 grains in 5 cc. of water, at p'" 30 grains in 5 
cc. of water, and at p"" 40 grains in 8 cc. of water, injected 
into the duodenum. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS OK THE SECRETION OF BILE. 205 



Weight 267 kilo- 




by Professor Fraser, this agent excites the salivary, intestinal, and lachrymal 
glands ; and at his request we performed the following experiments on the 
liver. The extract of Calabar bean of the " British Pharmacopoeia " was the 
preparation employed, the maximum dose of which for the human subject is a 
quarter of a grain. 

Experiment 53. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours, 
grammes (fig. 53). — 1 
grain extract of Calabar 
bean triturated with half 
cc. of bile, half cc. of rec- 
tified spirit, and 5 cc. of 
water, was injected into 
the duodenum at c, and 
the same dose was given 
again at c'. The in- 
creased secretion of bile 
was decided and pro- 
longed after the second 
dose. The bile and al- 
cohol were employed 
merely to promote ab- 
sorption of the active 
principle, and it may be 
safely assumed that none 
of the effect was directly 
due to either, for it has 
been already stated that 
2 cc. or 3 cc. of bile 
introduced into the duo- 
denum does not notably 
affect the biliary secre- 
tion ; and it will be 
shown that a much 
larger quantity of alco- 
hol than was given in 
this case has also no 
effect (Experiments 73 
and 74). 

Although the anta- 
gonism between atropia 
and physostigma has been abundantly proved by Fraser, Arnstein, Heiden- 



Fig. 53. — Secretion of bile before and after Calabar bean and atropia. 1 
grain extract Calabar bean with £ cc. bile, J cc. rectified spirit, and 5 cc. 
water, injected into duodenum at c, and again at c' ; fths grain atropia 
sulphate injected into duodenum at a ; fths grain into jugular vein at a'. 



Exjieriment 53. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile pel- 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




070 




2 50 




0-90 




2-40 


^ 


0-65 
0-55 


\ 


2-15 
2-40 


V 0-365 cc. 


070 
0-60 


V 0-098 cc. 


2-20 
1-75 


) 


0-80 


J 


2-00 




0-75 




CC 

1-90 




0-55 




1-80 




0-85 




1-90 




1-10 




1-65 




1-60 




a' 




1-30 




1-20 




1-35 




0-60 




0'90 




0-90 


) 


075 




0-50 


V 0-098 cc. 


c' 




0-70 




1-95 




0-55 


3 


2-05 









VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



3 G 



206 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



hain, and others, it was nevertheless deemed desirable to definitely ascertain 
whether or not, in the case of the liver, this antagonism also obtains ; accord- 
ingly, four-fifths of a grain of atropia sulphate, dissolved in 3 cc. of water, was 
injected into the duodenum at a. The effect being somewhat doubtful, three- 
fifths of a grain dissolved in 3 cc. of water was injected into the jugular vein. 
The bile-secretion speedily fell, and it is evident from the chart that within 
half-an-hour after the administration of the second dose the effect of the physo- 
stigma had entirely disappeared. 

Necropsy. — There was decided irritation of the duodenal mucous membrane 
to the extent of 8 inches below the pylorus. Evidence of only slight purgative 
action was found in the small intestine. 

Experiment 53a. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 13*6 kilo- 



ii 




Fig. 53a. — Secretion of bile before and after Calabar bean, atropia, and lead 
acetate. 2 grains extract of Calabar bean with 1 cc. of bile and 5 cc. of 
water injected into the duodenum at c ; 1 J grain extract, with same, at c' ; 
2 grains extract, with same, at c"; £ths of a grain of atropia sulphate in 4 cc. 
of water injected into the jugular vein at a ; fths of a grain at a'; 8 grains 
of lead acetate in 20 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at I. 



Experiment 53a. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




0-35 


^) 


0-45 
0-50 


1 0-138 cc. 


0-60 


3 


110 




2-00 




1-75 


I 0753 cc. 


1-90 


270 


a 

4-00 


5-05 




1-95 




1-45 




1-00 




0-95 




1-05 




,(£ 




0-65 


\ 


0-50 
0-15 


V 0-121 cc. 


0-35 


j 


«f 




1-35 




0-85 




0-75 




1-05 




1-10 




1-30 




115 




1-25 




1-10 
1-35 






0-25 




o-oo 





grammes (fig. 53a). — Two grains of the extract of Calabar bean, triturated 
with 1 cc. bile and 5 cc. water, were, injected into the duodenum at c. The 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 207 

stimulating effect on the liver was rapid and very powerful. Four-fifths of a 
grain of atropia sulphate, dissolved in 4 cc. water, was injected into the jugular 
vein at a. This was done just five minutes before the next reading of the 
bile. It is, therefore, certain that much of the bile that formed the highest 
reading in the experiment was secreted previous to the injection of the atropia; 
and, as atropia did not increase the secretion in the preceding experiment, it 
follows that the very high reading of the bile immediately subsequent to the 
atropia administration is to be attributed to the action of the physostigma not 
yet antagonised. Ere long, however, the atropia asserted its influence and 
antagonised the physostigma. At a', three-fifths of a grain of atropia sulphate 
was again injected into the jugular vein, and it is evident from the chart that 
the physostigma was completely antagonised thereby. A continuation of the 
experiment was, perhaps, scarcely necessary; still a grain and a half of Calabar 
extract, triturated with 1 cc. bile and 5 cc. water, was injected into the 
duodenum at c, and two grains of the extract similarly treated were injected at 
c". The exciting effect was not very marked; nor need this be wondered at, 
considering how powerfully the liver had been previously stimulated, and its 
partial exhaustion induced not merely owing to the above cause, but also owing 
to the duration of the experiment. 

As the action of acetate of lead on the liver was to be investigated, eight 
grains of that substance, dissolved in 20 cc. of water, were injected into the 
duodenum at /, and the secretion of bile soon thereafter came to a standstill. 
Subsequent experiments show that this effect was unusual and attributable to 
the depressant effect of the lead on a liver already well-nigh exhausted. 

Necropsy. — Great irritation of the mucous membrane of the small intestine 
to the extent of about fifteen inches below the pylorus. The viscus contained 
only slight evidence of purgative action. 

Result of Experiment with Physostigma. — The relation of the dose to the size 
of the animal, and the coefficients of the secretion before and after its adminis- 
tration, are stated in Table XXVIII. 

Table XXVIII. 



Physostigma. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per 
Kilogramme of Body- 
weight per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 53, . 
Experiment 53a, . 


2 with bile 
2 » 


0-0074 
0-0147 


0-098 cc. 
0-138 cc. 


0-365 cc. 
0-753 cc. 



208 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

It is interesting to observe that in Experiment 53a the dose, which, in rela- 
tion to the size of the animal, was twice as great as in Experiment 53, raised 
the coefficient of secretion to a little more than twice the figure attained in 
Experiment 53, showing forcibly the precision of the experimental method 
employed. The high coefficient in Experiment 53a indicates a very powerful 
effect; yet, since the dose employed was four times the maximum dose for a 
man, and seeing that one grain produced only a trifling effect in Experiment 
53, it may be inferred that, in the human subject, physostigma will probably be 
found to have, in the relatively small doses administered, an insignificant effect 
on the liver ; for many of the preceding experiments have demonstrated that, 
when the same dose of a substance that powerfully excites the human liver is 
given to an average-sized dog, it powerfully excites its liver. It is an error to 
suppose that the dog requires much larger doses of all drugs than are necessary 
for the human subject. The effect of physostigma on the liver is completely 
antagonised by atropia sulphate. 

Prevost of Geneva, in a communication to the Paris Academy of Sciences 
(August 3, 1874), states that muscaria increases the biliary secretion, and that 
atropia checks the hypersecretion due to muscaria. 

Action of Atropia. 

It is known that atropia causes purgation and diuresis in dogs {Op. viii. 
p. 322). On the other hand, it paralyses the chorda tympani and the secretory 
nerves of the sweat and milk glands, and thereby arrests their secretions. It 
therefore seemed desirable to give atropia previous to the administration of any 
other substance, in order to determine its influence on the liver. 

Experiment 54. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 16 1 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 54.) — In this experiment the secretion of bile rose at the end 
of the first hour, although no drug had been administered. Our previous 
experiments have convinced us that this is due to reaction, which is apt to 
ensue unless great care is taken to pull as little as possible at the bile-duct 
during the operation for inserting the cannula. 

Half a grain of atropia sulphate, dissolved in twenty minims of water, was 
injected into the jugular vein at a, a', a" , and again at a"; and one grain was 
injected at a"". Thus three grains were given in all. The fall of secretion 
after the first dose may be discarded, as it would probably have taken place 
had no atropia been given. It is evident that the atropia does not arrest the 
secretion of bile as it does that of saliva, sweat, and milk. Nor can it be said 
to augment it; for the increased secretion that followed the third dose is 
trivial, and may be discarded in view of the sequel to the second dose in 
Experiment 53a. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



209 



Ten grains of acetate of lead, dissolved in 20 cc. of tepid water, were in- 
jected into the duodenum at I, without producing any notable effect. 

Having, in other experiments — mentioned in the sequel — discovered that 
the alkaline salts of benzoic acid are powerful hepatic stimulants, we suspected 




Fig. 54. — Secretion of bile before and after atropia sulphate, lead acetate, and 
sodium salicylate. \ grain of atropia sulphate in 20 minims of water in- 
jected into jugular vein a, a', a", and a'"; 1 grain injected into vein at a""; 
10 grains of lead acetate in 20 cc. of warm water injected into the duodenum 
at I ; 25 grains of sodium salicylate in 25 cc. of water injected into the 
duodenum at s. 



Experiment 54. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15." 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




0-65 




050 




0-60 




0-60 




1-00 




1-30 




1-55 




1-45 




1-50 




135 




1-20 




070 




0-55 




060 




0-6.0 




0-65 
a / 




0-60 




070 




a" 




075 




0-80 




0-90 




a'" 




1-05 




1-00 




fl"" 








100 




TOO 




1-10 
0-95 






1-05 


\ 


1-10 
0-95 


Vo - 260cc. 


1-10 


) 


1-50 




2-75 


\ 


2-90 
2-60 


V 0-664 cc. 


2-45 


J 



that the alkaline salts of salicylic acid would be found to have a similar action. 
Accordingly, twenty-five grains of sodium salicylate, dissolved in 25 cc. of 
water, were injected into the duodenum, and within half an hour a very rapid 
secretion of bile had begun ; and this, notwithstanding the previous administra- 
tion of lead acetate and three grains of atropia sulphate. 

Result of Experiments with Atropia. — Atropia sulphate does not paralyse 
the hepatic cells, neither does it appear to excite them. Whether or not it 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 H 



210 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

possesses the power of paralysing the hepatic secretory nerves is doubtful; but, 
seeing that it antagonises the effect of physostigma on the liver, and remember- 
ing the action of these substances on the nerves of the heart and salivary 
glands, the suspicion is entertainable that physostigma stimulates the hepatic 
cells through a nervous apparatus that is affected in an opposite sense — possibly 
paralysed — by atropia; while the hepatic cells, and perhaps some nervous 
mechanism like the motor ganglia of the heart in close relation to them, are 
unaffected by atropia. 

Action of Eesina Menispermi or "Menispermin." 

The substance termed menispermin by Keith & Co. of 41 Liberty Street, 
New York, is derived from the root of the yellow parilla (Menispermum 
canadense). Messrs Keith have informed me that the crude root of the plant 
is dried, crushed, and percolated with alcohol. The alcohol is then evaporated 
or distilled off, leaving the active principles in the form of an extract, which is 
then "freed from impurities," dried, and pulverised. How it is freed from 
impurities is not stated. This is also the manner in which they prepare 
baptism, phytolaccin, hydrastin, and juglandin — substances whose actions are 
described in the sequel. 

Menispermin is stated by Keith (Op. xiv.) to be " alterative, tonic, laxative, 
diuretic, stimulant, and resolvent, and to be useful in hepatic torpor, indiges- 
tion," &c. On this account, we experimented with it on the liver ; but we pro- 
bably would not have taken the trouble had we at the time been aware of the 
account given of its effects by Wood and Bache (Op. x. p. 1555). In that 
account the root is said to be a gently stimulating tonic, probably very closely 
allied to : j 'umba, which also belongs to the Menispermaceae. The medium 
dose of Keith's menispermin for a man is two grains. 

Experiment 55. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 231 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 55). — Seven grains of menispermin, triturated with 1*5 cc. of bile 
and 3 cc. of water, were injected into the duodenum at m ; and, as no obvious 
effect ensued, seven grains of baptisin, similarly treated, were injected into the 
duodenum at b. The secretion of bile thereafter speedily rose. The result was 
evidently somewhat equivocal, and therefore another experiment, in which 
menispermin was alone given, was performed. 

Necropsy. — The duodenal mucous membrane showed only one slightly 
reddened patch. There was but scanty evidence of purgative action, for the 
upper part of the small intestine contained only 35 cc. of fluid; but whether 
due to a purgative action of the menispermin, or of the baptisin, could not be 
apparent from this experiment. 

Experiment 56. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 157 
kilogrammes (fig. 56). — Two cc. of bile and 2 cc. of water were injected into the 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



211 



duodenum at b. This producing no perceptible effect on the secretion, five 
grains of menispermin were triturated with the same amount of bile and water, 
and injected into the duodenum at m ; and the same dose was repeated at in. 
The secretion remaining unaffected, ten grains with bile and water, as before, 



Experiment 55. 



Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 



cc. 
1.65 
2-00 
1-95 
1-80 
1-55 

1-45 
1-40 
1-30 
1-25 
1-05 
1-30 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme 

of dog : per 

hour. 



0-311 cc. 



0-233 cc. 



Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 



cc. 
1-40 
1-35 
1-35 

1-50 
1-65 
1-95 
2-10 
3-00 
2-05 
1-95 
1-75 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme 

of dog : per 

hour. 



0-233 cc. 



0-394 cc. 



0-5 




Fig. 55. Secretion of bile before and after menispermin 
and baptisin. 7 grains of menispermin in 1 "5 cc. of 
bile and 3 cc. of water injected into the duodenum 
at in ; 7 grains of baptisin in 2 cc. of bile and 3 cc. of 
water injected at b. 





Experiment 56. 




Secretion 

of bile per 

15" 


Secretion of 

bile per 

kilogramme of 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


Secretion of 

bile per 

kilogramme of 




dog : per hour. 


dog : per hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-4 




m' 




1-4 




1-30 




1-3 




1-25 




1-4 


1 


1-15 


\ 


6 




l - 25 


1 


1-4 


}-0-34cc. 


1-30 


V 0-315 cc. 


1-3 




1-25 


1 


1-25 


J 


m" 




m 




1-30 




1-25 




1-15 




1-20 




1-16 


\ 


1-25 
1-30 




1-25 
1-05 


> 0-287 cc. 


1-15 




1-05 


' 




Fig. 56. Secretion of bile before and after menispermin. 
2 cc. of bile and water injected into the duodenum at 
b ; the same, with 5 grains of menispermin, injected 
at m, and again at m' ; the same, with 10 grains in- 
jected at m". 



were injected at m". The bile-secretion was remarkably constant, and the 
experiment clearly proved that this substance, even in large doses, does not 
excite the liver; and that the rise of secretion observed in Experiment 55 



212 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



could not be ascribed to the menispermin. Indeed, the chart of this experiment 
(fig. 56) simply shows the normal curve of bile-secretion in a fasting animal. 

Necropsy. —The mucous membrane of the upper third of the small intestine 
was slightly reddened, and there was evidence of decided purgative action ; for, 
while only 16 cc. of fluid had been injected, the small intestine contained 
170 cc. of yellowish fluid containing much mucus. 

Result of Experiments with Menispermin. — This substance is an intestinal, 
but not a hepatic, stimulant. 



Action of Eesina Baptisle or " Baptisin." 

The substance termed " baptisin " is an impure resin prepared from the root 
of the wild indigo plant (Baptisia tinctoria) after the same manner as meni- 
spermin. The specimen employed in these experiments was obtained from 
Keith & Co. of New York. The root of this plant is said to be a powerful 
emetic and cathartic in large, and a mild laxative in small, doses. Stevens of 
Pennsylvania recommends a decoction of the root in epidemic dysentery. It is 
said to have proved useful in scarlatina, typhus fever, and in that state of the 
system that attends mortification (Op. x. p. 1469). The physiological actions 
of this plant have apparently not been investigated, and it is nowhere stated that 
it is a cholagogue. The dose of baptisin for a man is from one to five grains. 

In Experiment 55 it has already been shown that baptisin increases the 
biliary secretion ; but, as in that experiment its administration followed that of 
menispermin, it was desirable to give baptisin first in another experiment. 

Experiment 57. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 187 kilo- 




Fig. 57. Secretion of bile before and after baptisin and lead 
acetate. 7 grains of baptisin, with 2 cc. of bile and 5 cc. 
of water, injected into the duodenum at b ; 8 grains of lead 
acetate in 15 cc. of water injected at I ; 12 grains in 25 cc. 
of warm water at V. 



- 


Experiment 57. 




Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


Secretion of 
bile per kilo- 
gramme of 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


Secretion of 
bile per kilo- 
gramme of 


dog : per hour. 


dog: per hour. 


cc. 




cc. 


0-75 




1-30 


0-296 cc. 


0-80 




1-25 




0-55 




I 




0-60 




1-15 




075 


j 


1-15 




65 
0-45 


V 0-120 cc. 


0-95 
0-75 




0-40 


) 


0-85 




6 




0-65 




0-45 




I' 




0-50 




0-55 




075 




0-50 


\ 


1-35 
1-45 


( 0-296 cc. 


0-45 
0-40 


[ 0-098 cc. 


1-45 


) 


0-50 


> 



grammes (fig. 57.) — Seven grains of baptisin triturated with 2 cc. of bile and 
5 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum at b. In half an hour its 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 213 

stimulating effect on the liver was perceptible, and in the course of an hour it 
became very evident. As this result confirmed the observation made in 
Experiment 55, no more baptisin was given. 

With a view to follow up the observations made with lead acetate in Experi- 
ments 53a and 54, eight grains of lead acetate dissolved in 15 cc. of water were 
injected into the duodenum at I, and twelve grains of the same in 25 cc. of tepid 
water were injected at V into the lower part of the small intestine. The result 
was equivocal, in so far as the secretion of bile would doubtless have diminished 
had no lead been given. The experiment is, therefore, decisive as regards the 
action of baptisin, but inconclusive as regards that of lead. 

Necropsy. — Considerable redness of the mucous membrane of about 15 
inches of upper part of small intestine. Slight evidence of purgative action. 

Result of Experiments with Baptisin. — The two experiments with this sub- 
stance prove it to be a hepatic stimulant, and Table XXIX. indicates its power 
as such. 

Table XXIX. 



Baptisin. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body- weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 55, 

57, . 


7 with bile, 

7 " 


0-303 
0-374 


0-233 cc. 
0-120 cc. 


0-394 cc. 
0-296 cc. 



Taking into account the fact that in Experiment 57 the coefficient of bile- 
secretion did not rise higher than 0*296 cc, when nothing but baptisin had been 
administered, and at the same time the dose being relatively larger than in Ex- 
periment 55, it may be concluded that this substance is a hepatic and also an 
intestinal stimulant of moderate power, and it may possibly be found of service 
as a hepatic stimulant in cases of torpid liver with a depressed condition of the 
system tending to gangrene. We commend it to the attention of the physician. 



Action of Resina Phytolacca or " Phytolaccin." 

The poke-plant {Phytolacca decandra) grows abundantly in the United 
States. The root is the part employed ; and in small doses it is said to act as 
an alterative, and has been highly recommended in chronic rheumatism. In 
large doses it produces excessive vomiting and purging, with great prostration 
of strength, and sometimes with convulsions {Op. x. p. 646). The preparation 
vol. xxix. part i. 3 i 



214 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



employed by us was a substance termed " phytolaccin," prepared from the root 
of the plant by Keith & Co. of New York, after the same manner as meni- 
spermin (page 210). The dose for a man is from one to three grains. The 
physiological actions of phytolacca have not hitherto been investigated. 

Experiment 58. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 31*1 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 58.) — Two grains of phytolaccin triturated with 2 cc. of bile and 
4 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum at p. The subsequent excitement 
of the liver was unequivocal. When the increase of secretion was well declared, 




Experiment 58. 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


Secretion of 

bile per 

kilogramme of 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


Secretion of 

bile per 

kilogramme of 


dog: per hour. 


dog: per hour. 


ec. 




cc. 




1-10 
0-85 




2-00 
a 


1 0-244 cc. 


0-90 




1-80 




1-10 


] 


2-25 




1-30 
1-20 


U-144cc. 


a' 

1-90 




v — 


J 


2-20 




1-45 




2-80 




1-55 




a" 




1-65 




2-40 




1-85 




2-35 


^ 


1-85 
1-90 




2:35 


L 0-299 cc. 


1-90 
1-90 


I 0-244 cc. 


2-30 


J 



Fig. 58. — Secretion of bile before and after phytolaccin and 
atropia. 2 grains of phytolaccin in 2 cc. of bile and 
4 cc. of water injected into the duodenum &tp ; l-10th 
of a grain of atropia sulphate injected into the jugular 
vein at a, a', a", and a'". 

one-tenth of a grain of atropia sulphate dissolved in ten minims of water was 
injected into the jugular vein at a, and again at a, a", a" — in all four-tenths 
of a grain ; but the stimulating effect of the phytolaccin was not antagonised 
thereby. Had this experiment been performed after instead of before Experi- 
ment 53, a larger dose of atropia would have been given. Remembering the 
non-exciting effect of atropia on the liver, the high secretion at the close 
of the experiment may be safely referred to the continued action of the 
phytolaccin. 

Necropsy. — The duodenal mucous membrane was slightly reddened, but 
there was no evidence of purgative action worthy of mention. 

Experiment 59. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 19 2 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 59). — Two cc. of bile and 2 cc. of water were injected into the 
duodenum at b, and 2 grains of phytolaccin triturated with the same fluids 
were injected at p. A considerable increase of bile-secretion ensued. Owing 
to the high secretion previous to the administration of the drug, the result is 
less striking than in the preceding experiment ; yet, in this case, the coefficient 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 215 

of secretion was much higher than in the former experiment (Table XXX), a 
circumstance which was probably largely due to the fact that, while the same 
dose was given in both cases, the subject of Experiment 59 was much smaller 
than that of Experiment 58. The liver of the fifty-ninth dog was, therefore, 
more powerfully affected than that of the fifty-eighth dog. 



Experiment 59. 


Secretion of bile 
per 15". 


Secretion of bile 
per kilogramme of 


dog : per hour. 


cc. 




1-65 




1-60 




1-60 


^ 


1-65 




b 


V 0-338 cc. 


1-60 


( 


1-65 


; 


P 

1-55 




175 




1-90 




1-80 




1-80 




2-15 




2-30 




2-20 




2-15 




2-25 




215 




2-30 


> 0-471 cc. 


2-20 


2-25 




2-30 


2-15 




2-10 




1-60 




1-95 






Fig. 59. — Secretion of bile before and after phytolaccin. 
2 cc. of bile and 2 cc. of water injected into the 
duodenum at b ; 2 grains of phytolaccin with 2 cc. 
of bile and 2 cc. of water injected at p. 



Necropsy. — The small intestine contained 40 cc. of liquid, indicating a mild 
purgative effect. 

Remit of Experiments with Phytolaccin. — It is a mild intestinal, but a 
powerful hepatic stimulant, as is shown by Table XXX. 



Table XXX. 



Phytolaccin. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 58, 

59, . 


2 with bile, 
2 „ 


0-064 
0104 


0144 CC. 

0-338 cc. 


0299 CC. 

0-471 cc. 



216 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

Considering the small dose that was given, the high coefficient of secretion 
in Experiment 59 is probably to be regarded as a nearer indication than that 
in Experiment 58 of the power of phytolaccin as a hepatic stimulant. This 
substance appears to be eminently worthy of the attention of the physician. 

Action of Eesina Hydrastis or "Hydrastin," 

The root of the Hydrastis canadensis has had various medicinal properties 
claimed for it. It is admitted by all to be tonic, and by some it is said to be 
aperient, cholagogue, diuretic, antiseptic, &c. " It has been employed in 
dyspepsia, and other affections requiring tonic treatment, in jaundice and other 
functional disorders of the liver, as a laxative in constipation and haemorrhoids, 
and as an alterative in various diseases of the mucous membranes, such as 
catarrh, chronic enteritis, &c. By some it is used as one of the best substitutes 
for quinia in intermittents." These and other statements regarding it are made 
by Wood and Bache {Op. x. p. 458), who further aver that a " more precise 
investigation of its physiological and therapeutic properties is necessary before 
we can venture to decide its place among medicines." It contains an alkaloid, 
hydrastia or hydrastin, which has been found to be identical with berberina 
{Op. x. p. 457), found in the Berberis vulgaris and in calumba. The 
" hydrastin " employed in the following experiments was not the alkaloid, but 
a resinous substance prepared from the root of the plant, in the same manner 
as menispermin (p. 210) by Keith & Co. of New York. The dose for a man of 
this preparation is from one to two grains. 

Experiment 60. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 259 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 60). — Two grains of hydrastin triturated with 2 cc. of rectified 
spirit, 1 cc. of bile, and 2 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum at h, 
and the same dose was repeated at h'. A wave, as it were, of increased bile- 
secretion followed both doses, the second being higher than the first. It is 
notable that the periods of excitement after both doses were of the same 
length — an hour and a half. Twenty grains of sodium salicylate in 10 cc. of 
water were then injected into a lower part of the small intestine (s), and it pro- 
duced a higher bile-secretion than had resulted from the hydrastin. 

Necropsy. — Decided redness of mucous membrane in the upper 12 inches 
of the small intestine ; but there was only scanty evidence of purgation where 
the hydrastin had been injected. 

Experiment 61. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 136 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 61). — Two grains of hydrastin, triturated with 2 cc. of bile, 1 cc. 
of rectified spirit, and 6 cc. of water were injected into the duodenum at h, and 
the same dose was again given at K. Before the experiment was begun, it 
was observed that the animal was somewhat unhealthy, which accounts for the 
result being less definite in this than in the previous case : yet, ere the second 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 217 

dose was given, the bile-secretion had begun to rise, and after the second dose 
the increase was decided. 



Experiment 60. 


Experiment 61. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 


of bile 
per kilo- 
gramme 


Secretion 

of bile per 

15''. 


of bile 
per kilo- 
gramme 


of dog : 




of dog : 




per hour. 




per hour. 


CO. 




cc. 




1-40 


1 0-230 cc. 

J 


07 




1-60 
165 


0-35 
0-60 




1-45 


0-35 




h 




0-30 




0-60 




0-40 


) 


0-95 




0-30 


I 0-09 cc. 


1-60 




0-35 




2-15 




h 


i 


1-90 




017 




175 




0-17 




K 




0-15 




1-40 




o-io 




0-85 




0-30 




170 




0-20 




3-55 


> 0-336 cc. 


0-15 




2-45 
2-30 


0-30 
35 




170 


055 




2-15 




h! 




1-00 




0-60 




1-30 




0-80 




s 




0-80 




1-95 




0-90 


I 0-323 cc. 


1-40 
3-95 




1-10 
1-15 


345 


i 


1-05 






1-10 








0-95 








1-05 






Fig. 60. — Secretion of bile before and after hydrastin and 
sodium salicylate. 2 grains of hydrastin in 2 cc. of 
rectified spirit, 1 cc. of bile, and 2 cc. of water in- 
jected into the duodenum at h and h!\ 20 grains of 
sodium salicylate in 10 cc, of water injected into the 
lower portion of the intestine at s. 




Fig. 61.— Secretion of bile before and after hydrastin. 2 grains of 
hydrastin in 2 cc. of bile, 1 cc. of rectified spirit, and 6 cc. of 
water injected into the duodenum at h and ti. 

Necropsy.— Slightly increased redness of duodenal mucous membrane. 
Very slight evidence of purgative action. 

Result of Experiments with Hydrastin.— -It is a hepatic stimulant of consider- 
able power, and a feeble intestinal stimulant. The fact shown in Table XXXI — 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 K 






218 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



that in Experiment 61 a dose relatively larger in proportion to the size of the 
animal than in Experiment 60 produced a smaller effect on the liver — seems 
only explicable by the fact that the subject of the former experiment was, as 
already stated, in an abnormal condition. Altogether, hydrastin appears to be 
a substance eminently worthy of the attention of the physician. 

Table XXXI. 



Hydrastin. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 60, 

61, • 


2 with bile, 
2 „ 


0-077 
0-147 


0-23 cc. 
0-09 cc. 


0-386 cc. 
0-323 cc. 



Action of Resina Juglandis or " Juglandin." 

The juglandin employed in the following experiment was not an alkaloid, but 
an impure resin prepared by Keith & Co. of New York, from the bark of the 
root of the butternut or white walnut (Juglans cinerea), after the same manner 
as menispermin (p. 210). Regarding the properties of the bark of the butter- 
nut, Wood and Bache {Op. x., p. 492) state that it is a mild cathartic, operating 
without pain or irritation, and resembling rhubarb in the property of evacuating 
without debilitating the alimentary canal. It was much employed during the 
late American civil war by Dr Rush and other army physicians. It is especially 
useful in habitual costiveness and dysentery. Nothing is stated regarding any 
influence on the liver. An extract of the bark is officinal in the United States. 
The dose of Keith's juglandin — the substance used in the following experiment 
— is from two to five grains. 

Experiment 62. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 211 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 62). — Five grains of juglandin, triturated with 2 cc. of bile, 
2 cc. of rectified spirit, and 5 cc. of water, were injected into the duodenum at 
j, and the same dose was repeated at /. Both doses were followed by increased 
bile-secretion, which lasted four hours, and would probably have lasted even 
longer. Twenty grains of sodium salicylate in 10 cc. of water were injected 
into a lower part of the small intestine at s, and speedily caused a much greater 
hepatic excitement. Before any drug was given, the coefficient of secretion 
was 0*104 cc. of bile per kilogramme of body- weight per hour. After the first 




PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BlbE. 219 



dose, it rose to 0'286 cc., and after the second to 0*327, showing that juglandin 
is a hepatic stimulant of moderate power. Indeed, it occasions a coefficient 



Experiment 62. 




Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


per kilogramme 


per 15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




075 




0-65 




045 




0-45 




0-40 


, 


0-45 


V0-104cc. 


0-45 


0-45 


J 


0-65 


0-65 




0-60 




0'85 




0-95 




1-80 


>-0'286 cc. 


1-40 


1-55 


1-30 


1-30 




1-45 




1-75 
1-65 


V 0-327 cc. 


165 


1-85 
1-55 


1-60 




1-70 




• 1-65 




1-95 




3-40 




3-75 






Fig. 62. — Secretion of bile before and after juglandin and sodium 
salicylate. 5 grains of juglandin in 2 cc. of rectified spirit, 2 cc. 
of bile, and 5 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at j and/; 
20 grains of sodium salicylate in 1C cc. of water injected into the 
lower portion of the intestine at s. 



of secretion almost precisely the same as rhubarb (0*32 cc.) and leptandria 

(0-31 cc). 

Necropsy. — Slightly increased redness of the duodenum, and slight pur- 
gation. 

Result of Experiment with Juglandin. — It is a mild hepatic stimulant and a 
mild purgative, and seems eminently worthy of the attention of the physicians 
of this country. 

Action of Benzoic Acid and its Compounds. 

Benzoic acid is said to act as a stimulant of the system generally, and 
particularly of the kidneys, mucous membrane of the bladder, and bronchial 
glands. It is nowhere stated to be a cholagogue. Yet it is sometimes used 
empirically in hepatic affections. Tanner, in his " Practice of Medicine," recom- 
mends ammonium benzoate in hepatic congestion with deficient urine, and 



220 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



benzoic acid in suppressed action of the liver and uraemia. Dr Wade of 
Birmingham employs benzoic acid in cases of catarrh of the bile-ducts ; and we 
owe to the deep interest which he has taken in this research the valuable sug- 
gestion that we should endeavour to furnish a rational theory for the use of this 
agent in hepatic affections, by ascertaining whether or not it has the power of 
stimulating the liver. For a man, the dose of benzoic acid is from ten to thirty 
grains ; that of benzoate of ammonia, from ten to twenty grains. Benzoate of 
soda has been employed by Socquet and Bonjean (Wood and Bache, Op. x- 
p. 1471) as a remedy for gout and rheumatism; but we have not been able to 
ascertain the dose given. Probably the dose of the sodium is similar to that of 
the ammonium salt. 

Experiment 63. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 14*3 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 63). — Fifteen grains of benzoic acid, partially dissolved in 
20 cc. of water, were injected into the duodenum at b. A slight increase of 




Experiment 63. 




Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


per kilogramme 


per 15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


ce. 




0-75 


^ 


0-80 
0-90 


I 0-223 cc. 


075 

b 

0-85 


J 




1-20 




1-05 




1-25 


[• 0-332 cc. 


0-80 


1-30 


1-40 


bs 




1-05 




1-60 




2-35 




2-80 




2-50 


\ 


2-35 




2-35 


> 0-646 cc. 


2-05 


J 


210 





Fig. 63. — Secretion of bile before and after benzoic 
acid and sodiuiu ben/.oate. 15 grains of benzoic 
acid in 20 cc. of water injected into the duo- 
denum at b ; 20 grains of sodium benzoate in 
10 cc. of water injected at bs. 



the bile-secretion ensued; but 'it was not thought judicious to repeat the 
benzoic acid, owing to the fallacy that would have arisen from the effect of the 
large quantity of water required for its solution. Accordingly, twenty grains 
of sodium benzoate — an extremely soluble substance — dissolved in 10 cc. of 
water, were injected at bs, and a very powerful stimulation of the liver was the 
result, the coefficient of secretion rising as high as 0*646 cc. of bile per kilo- 
gramme of body-weight per hour. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 221 



Necropsy. — Very slight increase of redness of the duodenal mucous mem- 
brane. No purgation. 

Experiment 64. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 271 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 64). — Twenty grains of ammonium benzoate, dissolved in 25 cc. 
of water, were injected into the duodenum at b. Within half an hour a 



Experiment 64. 




Secretion of bile 


Secretion of bile 


per kilogramme 


per 15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




1-40 




1-35 




1-85 




1-55 




1-55 


^ 


1-65 
1-70 


V 0-247 cc. 


1-80 

b 

1-55 


J 




3 63 


\ 


4-05 


| 


4-00 


Y 0-544 cc. 


3-10 


j 


3-30 




3-20 




2-90 




2-65 




2-80 




2-55 




2-55 




2 '45 




2'50 


\ 


2-50 


| 


2-50 


Vo-37 cc. 


2-50 


j 


2-65 


• 


2-35 




CI 

2-45 




d — ■ — ■ 
2-25 




2-30 




a" 




2-40 




2-25 






Fig. 64. — Secretion of bile before and after ammonium bjnio.ite and atropia. 
20 grains of ammonium benzoate in 25 cc. of water injec ted into the 
duodenum at b ; one-fifth of a grain of atropia sulphate injected into 
the jugular vein at a, a', and a" . 



powerful stimulation of the liver ensued that lasted five hours, and would pro- 
bably have continued still longer had the experiment been continued. One-fifth 
of a grain of atropia sulphate, injected into the jugular vein at a, a', and a" — 
three-fifths of a grain in all — did not antagonise the action of the benzoate. 

Necropsy. — There was no purgation, the intestine being perfectly dry ; but 
the mucous membrane of the small intestine was considerably reddened to the 
extent of three feet below the pylorus. 

A repetition of experiments so entirely satisfactory was unnecessary ; never- 
theless, in Experiment 70 there was a reason for giving sodium benzoate, and 
hepatic excitement again resulted from it. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 L 



T2-2 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Table XXXII. 





Total Dose in 
' Grains. 


Grains per 

Kilogramme of 

Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilogramme of 
Body-weight per Hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Sod. benzoate. — Ex. 63 . 

Ammon. „ „ 64 . 


20 

20 


1-320 

0-737 


0-223 cc. 
0-247 cc. 


0-646 CC. 
0-544 cc. 



Result of Experiments with the Benzoates. — Sodium benzoate and ammonium 
benzoate are both v£ry powerful stimulants of the liver, but are not stimulants 
of the intestinal glands. It appears from the above experiments that the salt of 
sodium is a more powerful stimulant than that of ammonium ; but the experi- 
ments are inconclusive on this point, because in Experiment 63 the sodium salt 
was assisted in its action by the previous administration of benzoic acid, and in 
addition the dose of the salt was greater in proportion to the size of the animal 
than in Experiment 64. Now that we have proved this action of these sub- 
stances on the liver of the dog, a similar action on the human liver will doubt- 
less be found ; and probably the reason why it has hitherto escaped the attention 
of physicians is, that these substances, being hepatic but not intestinal stimu- 
lants, the hypersecretion of bile induced by them has not been revealed so as 
to attract attention. But probably, if a dose of sodium or ammonium benzoate 
were given at night, and a purely intestinal stimulant, such as magnesium sulphate, 
given in the morning, clear evidence would be found of the increased secretion 
of bile. These results, therefore, furnish a rational theory for the employment 
of the benzoates in congestion and some other affections of the liver. In view 
of the above discovery, we would ask the practical physician to consider the 
propriety of testing the effect of the benzoates in dysentery, for while they, like 
ipecacuan, powerfully stimulate the liver, and not the intestinal glands, they, 
unlike ipecacuan, induce no sickness or depression, but on the contrary, are 
nerve stimulants. Both the sodium and ammonium salts should be tried. It 
may also be well to observe that it would be perhaps advisable to increase the 
administration of the benzoates in ordinary catarrh, for they stimulate the liver 
as well as the bronchial glands, and the action of the liver in a common cold 
generally becomes somewhat defective. 

One cannot leave the subject of benzoic acid without recalling Wohler and 
Keller's well-known discovery, that when benzoic acid is introduced into the 
economy, it is eliminated by the kidneys entirely in the form of hippuric acid. 
The fact that the latter, when treated with boiling hydrochloric acid, splits up 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 223 

into benzoic acid and glycin, suggested that the hippuric acid consequent upon 
the ingestion of benzoic acid arises from the union of that substance with glycin. 
Seeing that the two bile-acids — glycocholic and taurocholic acids — are conju- 
gates of cholalic acid with glycin and taurin respectively, the thought naturally 
arose that the formation of hippuric acid by the conjugation of benzoic acid 
with glycin probably takes place in the liver. This theory of the seat of its 
formation was supported by Kuhne and Hallwachs (Op. xv.) ; but, on the 
other hand, Meissner and Shepard (Op. xvi.) maintained that the transforma- 
tion of the benzoic acid takes place more in the kidneys than in the liver, and 
this opinion is supported by Schmiedeberg and Bunge (Op. xvii.). The evidence 
adduced by Kuhne in favour of the liver as the exclusive seat of formation, or 
that by the other observers in favour of the kidney, need not here be entered 
into, for no light would thereby be thrown on the fact that, while benzoic acid 
is allying itself with glycin and carrying this substance into the urine, the 
hepatic cells are stimulated to produce more bile. In reviewing this subject, 
we have to express our regret that the bile was not analysed in the last two 
experiments, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not its percentage 
amount of glycocholic acid was diminished, and to find out whether or not 
hippuric acid is excreted by the liver as well as by the kidney.* 

Action of Sodium Salicylate. 

Scarcely anything is known regarding the physiological actions of salicylic 
acid. Bertagnini (quoted in Op. xviii. p. 696) took 100 grains within two days 
in 4-grain doses, and felt nothing but ringing in the ears and some degree of 
deafness. He observed that the acid was excreted in the urine in the form of 
salicyluric acid. It is known that this is a conjugate of salicylic acid and 
glycin. The formula of benzoic acid is, C 7 H 6 2 ; that of salicylic acid, C 7 H 6 3 . 
Their near chemical alliance and their similar behaviour towards glycin rendered 
it probable that salicylic acid, like benzoic acid, excites the hepatic cells. This 
substance has been lately much employed as a remedy in acute rheumatism. 
The dose for a man is from 15 to 20 grains. 

Experiments 54, 60, and 62, already detailed, furnish abundant evidence of 
the remarkable powers of sodium salicylate as a stimulant of the liver, and 
other experiments yet to be described (Experiments 65, 67, 71a, and 73) 
furnish evidence still more striking ; indeed, this substance is a certain hepatic 
stimulant, never failing, when placed in the duodenum, to excite the liver 

* Since the above was written we have ascertained that Mosleb (Op. iii. p. 45) found, from 
several experiments on a dog with a permanent fistula, that when 60 and even 90 grains of benzoic 
acid are administered by the mouth, no hippuric acid is found in the bile. It is singular that he did 
not collect and measure the bile secreted daily, otherwise he would doubtless have anticipated our 
discovery of the stimulating effect of benzoic acid on the liver. 



224 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



within half-an-hour. Owing to its certain and speedy action, it has been 
repeatedly used in the later experiments merely to furnish an effect which 
might be readily compared with that produced by some other substance. 
Table XXXIII. gives the coefficients of bile secretion under its influence. 

Table XXXIII. 



Sodium Salicylate. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body- weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 

1 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 73, 

54, . 

65, 

1 


20 
25 
20 


1-00 
1-55 
215 


0-178 cc. 
2-260 cc. 
0-329 cc. 


- 565 cc. 
0-664 cc. 
0-890 cc. 



Result of Experiments with Sodium Salicylate. — It is a very powerful hepatic 
stimulant in the dog. Its slight action on the intestine is probably the reason 
why its effect on the human liver has passed unobserved by the physician. We 
have given to a man 30 grains of sodium salicylate at night, and next morning 
a purely intestinal stimulant, such as magnesium sulphate, and we feel con- 
vinced that there was an increased discharge of bile. We commend this point 
to the attention of physicians. 



Action of Ammonium Phosphate and of Tannic Acid. 

The similar effects produced on the liver by the sodium and ammonium salts 
of salicylic acid, led us to think again of the stimulating effect of sodium 
phosphate, and induced us to test the action of ammonium phosphate. It is 
employed in cases of chronic gout, and in urinary affections where uric acid 
calculi exist or threaten. Nothing has been hitherto known regarding its 
action on the liver, probably because it is not an intestinal stimulant ; and, 
therefore, the increased secretion of bile— which it probably induces in man as 
it certainly does in the clog — has passed unobserved. The dose for a man 
is from 5 to 20 grains. 

The first experiment with this substance yielded a negative result ; but it 
has been thought right to discard it, because the ammonium phosphate was 
injected after liquor bismuthi into the same part of the intestinal canal. 

Experiment 65. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 9 7 kilo- 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OE BILE. 



225 



grammes (fig. 65). — 20 grains of ammonium phosphate dissolved in 22 cc. of 
water, were injected into the duodenum at a. The subsequent increased bile- 
secretion was decided and prolonged. Since tannin is employed as an astringent 
in cases of diarrhoea, 20 grains, dissolved in 20 cc. of warm water, were injected 
into a fresh portion of the small intestine (t) ; but, as it did not afi'ect the bile- 
secretion, it was not thought worth while to repeat the dose. 20 grains of 
sodium salicylate, in 10 cc. of water, were then injected into a fresh portion of 
the small intestine (s), and, within half-an-hour, its never-failing effect was 
evident. Obviously it stimulated the liver much more powerfully than the 
ammonium phosphate. At the beginning of the experiment, the coefficient of 



Experiment 65. 




Secretion of 


Secretion of 


bile per kilo- 


bile per 15". 


gramme of dog : 




per hour. 


cc. 




0-35 




0-50 


^ 


0'45 
0-40 


VO-lQcc. 


0-50 


J 


0-75 




0-80 




1-10 




1-25 




1-10 




1-25 




1-30 




1-50 




1-50 


~\ 


1-55 
1-60 


Lo-634cc. 


1-50 


J 


1-20 




1-05 




1-00 




090 

0-90 






0-85 


•J 


0-80 
0-80 


lo-329cc. 


0-75 


) 


1-25 


^ 


2-50 
2-65 


V0'89cc. 


2-25 


3 




Fig. 65. — Secretion of bile before and after ammonium phosphate, 
tannin, and sodium salicylate. 20 grains of ammonium phosphate 
iu 22 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at a ; 20 grains of 
tannin in 20 cc. of water injected at t ; 20 grains of sodium sali- 
cylate in 10 cc. of water injected at s. 



secretion was 019 cc. per kilogramme of body- weight per hour; a fair average 
for a fasting dog. After the ammonium phosphate, it rose to the unusually 
high figure of 0-634 cc. ; but after the sodium salicylate, it rose still higher to 
89 cc. The result of this experiment being apparently so unequivocal, it was 
not thought necessary to repeat it. Nevertheless, considering the small size of 
the animal (9'7 kilos.), and that the dose was the maximum dose for a man, 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 M 



226 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



it seems reasonable to regard the effect of the ammonium phosphate in this 
case as perhaps unduly exaggerated. 

Necropsy. — Nothing notable observed in the intestine. 

Result of Experiment with Ammonium Phosphate and Tannic Acid. — Am- 
monium phosphate is a powerful hepatic stimulant, but not so powerful as 
sodium salicylate. It is not an intestinal stimulant. Probably now that we 
have directed attention to the matter, it will be found to be a stimulant of the 
human liver also. Tannin does not appear to affect the liver. 






. 



Action of Acetate of Lead. 

The well-known astringent effect of lead acetate in cases of diarrhoea renders 
it desirable to know whether or not it has the power of diminishing the secre- 
tion of bile. Eohrtg (Op. vi. p. 270) experimented with acetate of lead, and 
found that 06 gramme (92 grains), dissolved in 4 ounces of warm water, and 
injected into the small intestine of a dog, diminished the secretion of bile. The 
erroneous nature of some of Rohrig's results, due to his very imperfect mode of 
experiment — as pointed out in the introduction — rendered necessary a re- 
investigation of the effects of lead acetate. 

It has already been stated that, in Experiment 53a, the administration of 
8 grains of lead acetate was followed by a diminution of the bile-secretion, 
but that the result was of an equivocal nature. In Experiment 54, 10 
grains produced no effect. In Experiment 57, a first dose of 8 grains, 
with a second dose of 12 grains, was indeed followed by a diminished bile- 
secretion ; but, as stated in the 
description of that experiment, the 
result was entirely equivocal, and 
therefore other experiments were 
obviously required. 

Experiment 66. Dog that had 
fasted seventeen hours. Weight 
not ascertained (fig. 66). — Owing to 
great difficulty in introducing the 
biliary cannula, and consequent 
serious disturbance of the bile-duct 
and its surroundings, the secretion 
of bile became, as mostly happens 
in such a case, very irregular; so 
much so, indeed, that the record of 
the first three hours is omitted from the chart. Two grains of lead acetate in 
15 cc. of water were injected in the duodenum at I and l x ; 4 grains in 32 cc. 




Fig. 66. — Seeretion of laic before and after lead acetate. 
2 grains in 15 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at 
/ and l x \ 4 grains in 32 cc. of water at ?.,; 4 grains in 15 cc. 
(if water at / :f ; 8 grains in 15 cc. of water at / 4 ; and 10 
grains in 15 CC. of water at l t (30 grains given in all). 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



227 



of water at 4 J 4 grains in 15 cc. of water at l z ; 8 grains in 15 cc. of water at 
l 4 ; and 10 grains in 15 cc. of water at l 5 . Thirty grains were given in all. 
The irregularity of secretion rendered the experiment unsatisfactory, and the 




Fig. 67. — Secretion of bile before and after lead acetate and sodium salicylate. 10 grains 
of lead acetate in 20 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at I and V; 10 grains 
in 10 cc. of water at I", V", and I""; 20 grains of sodium salicyate in 10 cc. of water 
injected into the duodenum at s. 



Experiment 67. 




Secretion of 




Secretion of 


Secretion of 


bile per kilo- 


Secretion of 


bile per kilo- 


bile per 15". 


gramme of 


bile per 15". 


gramme of 




dog : per hour. 




dog : per hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-8 




0-75 




1-15 




90 




1-25 




I" — 




1-80 




0-95 




1-55 




0-95 




1-70 




095 




1-40 




0-80 




1-85 




0-70 




1-55 




V" 




1-20 




0-60 




1-60 




0-80 




1-15 


H 


0-70 




1-25 
1-25 
1-2 


V 0-331 cc. 


0-75 
0-65 
0-55 


1 0-171 cc. 


1-2 




0-55 




1-15 




s 




rio 




0-55 


) 


0'90 




1-55 




1-05 




2-10 


V0-452cc. 


1-00 




2-40 


3 



discovery that the acetate of lead used in this and the previous experiments 
was impure, necessitated another experiment. 

Experiment 67. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 14-6 kilo- 



228 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

grammes (fig. 67). — Ten grains of pure lead acetate, dissolved in 10 cc. of dis- 
tilled water, were injected into the duodenum at I, V, I", I'", and I""; 50 grains in 
all being given. The decided fall in secretion towards the close of this experi- 
ment is abnormal, and may fairly be ascribed to a depressant effect of the lead ; 
but it is obvious that the first doses did not produce the effect which might 
have been anticipated from Rohrig's experiments. That the liver was not 
exhausted, however, and was capable of increased action, was proved by 
injecting into the duodenum 20 grains of sodium salicylate dissolved in 10 cc. 
of water. Although it was the ninth hour of the experiment, the biliary secre- 
tion became greatly accelerated, and reached a point decidedly higher than it 
had been at the beginning of the experiment. All the more, therefore, may the 
previously diminished secretion be ascribed to the depressant action of the lead; 
while it is obvious that an ordinary dose of sodium salicylate can excite the 
liver thus poisoned and depressed. 

Result of Experiments ivith Lead Acetate. — In large doses, it has a depressant 
effect on the secretion of bile. Sodium salicylate can overcome that effect. 
The obstinate constipation observed in cases of lead-poisoning may, to some 
extent, be owing to the depressant effect of lead on the liver; but it is probably 
chiefly owing to a depressant action on the intestinal glands; for, in view of the 
astringent effect of a dose of from 1 to 4 grains in diarrhoea, it seems likely, 
from the above experiments, that it affects the intestinal canal more than the 
liver. It is a remarkable fact that, of all the substances employed in this 
research, lead acetate is the only one which depresses the action of the liver 
without producing purgation. It seems to be a direct hepatic depressant. As 
previously explained, every purely intestinal purgative agent depresses hepatic 
action, in a manner which is probably, however, purely indirect, and to which 
allusion will again be made in the sequel. 

Action of Jaborandi. 

Jaborandi being a powerful stimulant of the salivary and sweat glands, 
we thought it desirable to ascertain its influence on the liver. The mean 
dose for a man is a watery infusion of sixty-four grains of the leaves. 

Experiment 68. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 21*5 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 68). — Eight cc. of water with 2 cc. of bile were injected into the 
duodenum at b, and 8 cc. of a concentrated aqueous infusion containing the 
active principle of 64 grains of jaborandi leaves were injected at j, and 
the same close was again given at,/'. Powerful salivation began half-an-hour 
after the first dose (at s), and it is to be observed that shortly afterwards the 
bile-secretion also underwent a slight increase, that became more marked after 
the second dose. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



229 



Necropsy. — Ninety-seven cc. of liquid in the small intestine (30 cc. had 
been injected), but whether most of it had been secreted by the pancreas or by 
Lieberkithn's follicles was undetermined. There was no unusual redness of the 
intestinal mucous membrane. 



Experiment 68. 


Experiment 68a. 




Secretion 




Secretion 




of bile 




of bile 


Secretion 


per kilo- 


Secretion 


per kilo- 


of bile per 


gramme of 


of bile per 


gramme of 1 


15". 


dog: per 


15". 


dog: per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-40 




1-80 




1-42 




1-70 




1-40 




1-67 




b 


V 0-265 cc. 


1-70 




1-40 


6 




V45 


1-70 


^ 


1-40 


172 
1-65 


1 0-314 cc. 


1-40 




170 


J 


140 




3 




s . 




170 




1-40 




1-60 




1-S0 




s 




1-50 




1-60 




1-55 




170 




1-50 




1-60 




1-60 




175 




1-45 




1-80 




/ 




, 1-75 




1-50 




1-90 




1.50 




1-95 




1-60 




2-00 


\ 


170 

1-60 


V 0-310 cc. 


1-80 
2-00 


V0-365cc. 


172 




2-05 


3 


1-55 


i 


1-85 




1-80 




172 




1-55 




1-60 




1-65 




/ 




150 




1-50 




1-40 




1-52 




170 




1-62 




1-50 




1-67 




135 




1-70 
175 






Fig. 68. — Secretion of bile before and after jaborandi. 2 cc. of bile 
and 8 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at 6 ; 8 cc. of 
infusion of jaborandi with 2 cc. of bile injected at; and/ ; sali- 
vation began at s. 




Fig. 68a. — Secretion of bile before and after jaborandi. At 6, 2 cc. 
of bile and 10 cc. of water ; &tj and f the same fluid, with 10 cc. 
infusion of 75 grains of jaborandi leaves injected into the 
duodenum. Salivation began at s. 



Experiment 68a. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 21 "5 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 68a). — Ten cc. of water with 2 cc. of bile were injected into the 
duodenum at b, and the same fluid, with 10 cc. of aqueous infusion of jaborandi, 
was injected at j and again at j'. As each cubic centimetre of the infusion 
contained the active principle of 7% grains of the leaves, 150 grains had been 
given. Salivation began half-an-hour after the first dose, and soon thereafter 
the bile-secretion rose, but to no great extent. It was observed in this experi- 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 N 



230 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

ment that the bronchial glands were much stimulated by the jaborandi, the 
respiratory cannula being completely obstructed by a watery mucus, which 
must have been secreted in the bronchi and trachea. 

Necropsy.— The jaborandi had traversed the whole length of the small 
intestine, which contained 107 cc. of a clear greenish fluid without mucous 
flakes. Thirty-six cc. of fluid had been injected; but how much of the remainder 
had been secreted by the pancreas and how much by Lieberkuhn's follicles 
could not be determined. 

Residt of Experiments with Jaborandi. — In doses that were much more 
than sufficient to excite the salivary glands, jaborandi produced only a slight 
increase in the biliary secretion. It is therefore to be regarded as a very 
feeble hepatic stimulant. 



Action of Sulphate of Manganese. 

It is stated by Pareira (Op. xix. I. p. 635) that " C. G. Gmelin tried the 
effect of the sulphate of the protoxide of manganese on animals, and found 
that it caused vomiting, paralysis with convulsions, and inflammation of the 
stomach, small intestines, liver, spleen, and heart. He notices as a remark- 
able fact, the extraordinary secretion of bile produced by it, and which was 
so considerable that nearly all the intestines were coloured by it, and the 
large intestines had a wax-yellow colour communicated to them." At the 
suggestion of Pareira (loc. cit.), its effects on the human subject were tested by 
Mr Ure, who found that, in closes of from 60 to 120 grains, it acts as a 
purgative and cholagogue. In a recent communication to the Lancet (1878, 

i. 882), Dr E. H. Goolden states that he has been in 
the habit of using the substance as a cholagogue for 
more than thirty years. He finds that, in doses 
of from ten to twenty grains, it produces large 
bilious evacuations. Ten grains he regards as a 
sufficient close for ordinary purposes. This he 
dissolves in a tumbler of water, and adds some 
citrate of potash or magnesia. These statements 
rendered it desirable for us to test the action of this 
substance by our method of experiment. 

Fig. 69. — Secretion of bile before and . . 

after sulphate of manganese. 60 Experiment 69. Dog that had fasted eighteen 

grains of manganese sulphate _ T .. , ., /n . m1 . , 

in 30 cc. of water injected into hours. Weight 15 kilogrammes (fig. 69). — IhmK- 

the duodenum at m. . „ _' , . . . » ., , . 

ing, from Pareira s statement of the amount given 
to the human subject by Ure, that 60 grains of manganese sulphate would not 
be too large a dose for a dog, we injected that amount in 30 cc. of water 




PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



231 



into the duodenum at m. So far from any increase of the bile-secretion resulting, 
there was a decided fall, the secretion coming nearly to a standstill. The weak 
pulse of the animal suggested that collapse had been occasioned by the drug, 
and the necropsy fully confirmed the idea that too much had been given. The 
fall of secretion, however, was in the first instance indirectly due to the effects 
of the powerful purgation that was induced, though the very low secretion at 
the close was, in all probability, due to collapse. 

Necropsy. — Evidence of powerful purgation in the upper third of small 
intestine. Very violent irritation of the mucous membrane of this region of 
the gut, the surface of which was covered with a yellowish-white pulpy 
matter, as if the epithelium had been dissolved by a caustic alkali. 

Experiment 70. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 177 
kilogrammes (fig. 70). — As the dose in the previous case had evidently been 
too large, only 20 grains of manganese sulphate were given, in the same 
manner as before, in this instance (m). But there was not the slightest rise in 
the bile-secretion ; on the contrary, there was a decided fall, as is the rule 
under the influence of a substance that produces 

purgation without exciting the liver. It now ___—____^___ 

came to be the question, Would the bile-secre- 
tion rise in spite of the purgative drain from 
the portal vein, if a hepatic stimulant were 
administered ? To determine this, 21 grains of 
sodium benzoate in 15 cc. of water were in- 
jected into the duodenum at s ; and, in spite of 
the disadvantageous circumstance of its being 
introduced into a column of intestinal juice 
actively being secreted, it excited the liver to 
secrete more bile, showing that the liver could 
be excited by a substance possessed of the pro- 
perty of so doing. 

Necropsy. — Copious watery purgation through- 
out the whole length of small intestine, whose 
mucous membrane was, however, scarcely at all 
reddened. The dose had, therefore, been efficient as an intestinal, but not as a 
hepatic, stimulant. 

Results of Experiments with Manganese Sulphate. — Experiments 69 and 70 
entirely bear out the statement that manganese sulphate is an intestinal 
stimulant, but lend no support to the idea that it is a hepatic stimulant. The 
effect on the biliary secretion is, indeed, similar to that of magnesium sulphate 
(Experiments 18 and 19), or any other purely intestinal stimulant ; that is, it 
diminishes the biliary secretion, probably by draining the portal system. Yet 



(•5 




Fig. 70. — Secretion of bile before and 
after manganese sulphate and sodium 
benzoate. 20 grains of manganese 
sulphate in 15 cc. of water injected 
into the duodenum at m ; 21 grains 
of sodium benzoate in 15 cc. of water 
injected at s. 



232 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Dr Goolden's statements are explicitly to the effect (lib. cit.) that the same 
result was not produced by sulphate of magnesium as by sulphate of manganese. 
We cannot, of course, from the above experiments, deny that the manganese 
salt is a cholagogue in man ; but, looking to the general harmony between our 
observations on the dog and those on man, we think we are entitled to throw 
very grave doubts upon the idea that manganese sulphate excites the human 
liver. It might, indeed, be maintained that it has the power of inducing con- 
tractions of the gall-bladder and larger bile-ducts, and of thus increasing the 
amount of bile in the dejections ; but we can only commend to the attention 
of physicians Dr Goolden's positive observations as to the increased amount 
of bile in the dejections of man, and our negative results as to any stimulating 
effect on the bile- secreting mechanism of the dog. 



Action of Morphia. 

As morphia has the well-known power of arresting diarrhoea and of 
producing constipation, it is desirable to know whether this is to be 

ascribed to its effect on 
the intestine alone, or 
also to a power of di- 
minishing the secretion 
of bile. 

Experiment 71. Dog 
that had fasted eighteen 
hours. Weight 33 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 71). — One 
grain of morphia hydro- 
chlorate in 3 cc. of bile 
and water was injected 
into the duodenum at m, 
m' m", and m'" , 4 grains 
being given in all. The 
first two doses had no 
obvious effect on the bile-secretion ; but it began to fall after the third, 
and continued to do so after the fourth, doses. As it was impossible to 
know, from this single experiment, whether or not this fall in the secretion 
was due to the morphia, a second experiment was performed. 

Necropsy. — The mucous membrane of the small intestine was almost 
perfectly dry. 




Fig. 71. — Secretion of bile before and after morphia hydrochlorate. 1 grain 
with 2 cc. of bile and 1 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at 
m, m', m", and m'". 




PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 233 

Experiment 71a. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 19 9 kilo- 
grammes (%• 71a). — One grain of acetate of morphia in 5 cc. of water was 
injected into the duodenum at m, and 2 grains in 10 cc. of water were injected 
at m. No diminution of secretion was the result ; in short, the morphia did 
not appear to affect the secretion. As it seemed desirable to know whether 



Experiment 71a. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


cc. 




115 




0-85 




0-80 


lo-15cc. 


0-70 
0-70 


0-80 


m 




0-95 




1-10 




0-95 




m' 




0-90 




0-85 


L 0-178 cc. 


075 
105 
0-90 


1-05 




3 05 


^ 


3-35 
2-45 


j-0-565cc. 


2-40 


J 


2-15 




2-30 




2-30 




2-30 




2-60 




2-60 






Fig. 71a. — Secretion of bile before and after morphia and sodium 
salicylate. I grain of morphia acetate in 5 cc. of water 
injected into the duodenum at in ; 2 grains in 10 cc. of 
water at m'; 20 grains of sodium salicylate in 10 cc. of water 
injected into the duodenum at •«. 



or not the liver of an animal so narcotised could be excited by an appropriate 
stimulant, 20 grains of sodium salicylate in 10 cc. of water were injected 
into the duodenum at & Powerful and prolonged excitement of the liver 
was the result. 

Necropsy. — Slightly increased redness of the duodenal mucous mem 
brane. Evidence of slight purgative action in the upper part of the small 
intestine. 



Result of Experiments with Morphia. — Three grains of morphia acetate did 
not affect the secretion of bile. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 O 



234 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




Fig. 72. — Secretion of bile before and after hyoscyamus. 2 grains of 
extract of hyoscyamus with ?> cc. of water injected into the duodenum 
at h, h', h", and ti". 



Action of Hyoscyamus. 

As extract of hyoscyamus is often administered with cholagogue 

substances, it is import- 
ant to know whether or 
not it diminishes the 
secretion of bile. The 
dose of this substance 
for a man is from 5 to 
10 grains. 



Experiment 72. Dog 
that had fasted eighteen 
hours. Weight 21 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 72). — 2 
grains of aqueous ex- 
tract of hyoscyamus in 3 
cc. of water were inject- 
ed into the duodenum at 
h, ti, h", and ti", 8 grains 
being given in all. It 
was impossible, from this 
single experiment, to say 
whether or not the fall 
in the secretion was 
due to the hyoscyamus ; 
but the unusually high 
coefficient of secretion 
in the earlier part of 
the experiment (0*311 
cc. per kilogramme per 
hour) favoured the con- 
clusion that the fall 
was not due to the 
drug. 



Experiment 72. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




17 




1-45 




1-75 




1-55 




1-55 




h" 




1-65 




1-50 




1-65 


1 0-311 cc. 
j 


1-45 




1-65 


1-30 




1-65 


1-20 




1-60 


1-35 




1-65 


1-25 




h 




ti" — — 




1-60 




1-20 




1-65 




1-10 




1-70 




0-90 




165 




0-80 


\ 


ti 

1-65 


• 


0-90 
0-80 


V0-176cc. 


1-60 




0-90 


J 


155 









Necropsy. — Mucous membrane of small intestine pale and dry. 

Experiment 73. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 168 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 73). — To decide the point left in doubt by the previous experi- 
ment, larger doses of the drug were administered. Eight grains of extract of 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 235 



hyoscyamus triturated with 1 cc. of bile and 10 cc. of water were injected into 
the duodenum at h, and the same dose was injected into a lower part of the 
intestine at h'. It is difficult to account for the slight rise of secretion that fol- 
lowed both doses. It maybe safely assumed that it was due neither to the 
bile nor to the water. At all events, there was no fall of secretion, notwith- 
standing the administration of sixteen grains of the drug. 




Experiment 73. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bileiper 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : 


. 


per hour. 


cc. 




130 




1-10 




1.10 




0-90 


\ 


0-85 
0-90 


1 0-214 cc. 


0-95 

h 

1-10 


J 




1-25 


\ 


125 
1-25 


U-288cc. 


110 


J 


1-00 

h! 

1-15 






1-30 




1-25 




1-20 




a 




0-80 




0-95 




1-00 


} 


1-00 




a' 


> 0-231 cc. 


1-00 


( 


1-00 


; 


0-90 




0-85 




2-05 




4-50 





Fig. 73. — Secretion of bile before and after hyoscyamus and absolute 
alcohol. 8 grains of extract of hyoscyamus in 10 cc. of water 
and 1 cc. of bile injected into the duodenum at h ; the same, 
injected into a lower part of the small intestine, at h' ; 5 cc. 
of absolute alcohol in 20 cc. of water injected into the small 
intestine at a ; 8 cc. of absolute alcohol in 32 cc. of water 
injected into the small intestine at «' ; 20 grains of sodium 
salicylate in 10 cc. of water injected into the duodenum at s. 

As the experiment was entirely conclusive regarding the effect of hyos- 
cyamus, it was proposed to investigate the action of pure alcohol ; accordingly 
5 cc. of absolute alcohol, diluted with 32 cc. of water, were injected into a fresh 
portion of the small intestine, and, as there was no notable effect, 8 cc. of abso- 
lute alcohol in 32 cc. of water were injected into another part of the gut. Not- 
withstanding the administration of 13 cc. of alcohol (219 minims), the bile 



236 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

secretion was virtually unaffected. It was now sought to determine what such 
a liver could do if stimulated. Twenty grains of sodium salicylate in 10 cc. of 
water were injected into the duodenum at s, and speedily thereafter the bile- 
secretion was enormously increased, and that so late as the ninth hour of the 
experiment. 

Result of Experiments ivith Hyoscyamus. — Sixteen grains of extract of hyos- 
cyamus, prepared according to the " British Pharmacopoeia," did not notably 
affect the biliary secretion, and did not prevent such a stimulant as sodium 
salicylate from augmenting it. From observations on the human subject, we 
are also able to state that hyoscyamus does not seem to interfere with the 
stimulating effect of euonymin on the liver, and very probably it may be safely 
given with all hepatic stimulants that are also intestinal stimulants, and happen 
to cause griping. 

Action of Alcohol. 

It is a matter of common opinion that alcoholic drinks affect the action of 
the liver; but, whether their hepatic effects may be ascribed to the alcohol, 
ethers, or other substances they contain, no one has hitherto sought to deter- 
mine. The results of the preceding experiment already go far to determine 

the question as regards pure alcohol ; but as hyos- 
cyamus had in that experiment been previously 
administered, it was desirable to perform another 
experiment in which nothing but pure diluted 
alcohol should be administered. 
„. „' „ " ,., , , , Experiment 74. A small dog (not weighed) 

Fig. 74.— Secretion of bile ljefore and * O \ » / 

after alcohol. At w 15 cc. of water; that had fasted eighteen hours (fig. 74). — Fifteen cc. 

at a, a, a , a", 5 cc. of absolute ° \ o / 

aicoiioi with 15 cc. of water injected f W ater were injected into the stomach through 

into the stomach through an ceso- ° ° 

phagus tube. an oesophagus tube (w) ; then 5 cc. of absolute 

alcohol diluted with 15 cc. of water were injected into the stomach in the same 
manner at a, a; a", and a", 20 cc. (338 minims) being given in all. 

Result of Experiments with Alcohol— In Experiment 73, 13 cc. of absolute 
alcohol, and in Experiment 74, 30 cc. of absolute alcohol, moderately diluted 
and introduced into the alimentary canal, did not produce any apparent effect 
on the biliary secretion. These experiments, however, furnish no evidence of 
what might be the effects of the prolonged action of alcohol on the liver-; and, in 
consideration of the great labour and length of this research, we could not un- 
dertake experiments designed to show the effects of various sorts of alcoholic 
drinks, or of the substances other than alcohol which they contain. Such 
research could scarcely be of great practical importance, for we already know 
that certain alcoholic drinks — such as ale, stout, &c. — tend to produce "bilious- 




PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 237 

ness;" and, by experiments on the human subject, we have ascertained that 
the condition, thus induced, may be cured by giving iridin or euonymin, sub- 
stances which powerfully stimulate the liver. As far as they go, however, our 
experiments show that pure alcohol has, at all events, no immediate action on 
the liver of the dog. 

Action of Mercurial Salts. 

Calomel, and mercury in the form of blue pill, are the two preparations of 
mercury commonly employed for the purpose of inducing purgative action. 
The most generally received opinion regarding the action of calomel as a chola- 
gogue is thus expressed by Christison (Op. xii. p. 505) : — " The cathartic action 
of calomel and other mercurials is uncertain, unless other cathartics are united 
with them. Their action on the bowels is believed to be always attended by 
an increased discharge of bile from the gall-bladder." But although this has 
long been the prevalent opinion, some physicians have doubted the cholagogue 
property of calomel, and on that account several attempts have been made to 
determine its action by experiments on animals. Nasse (Op. i. p. 3 58) seems 
to have been the first to make the attempt. He established a permanent 
biliary fistula in the manner already indicated (p. 3), and he found that calomel 
increased the absolute quantity of fluid bile, but diminished its solid con- 
stituents. By a similar method Kolliker and Muller (Op. ii.) found that 4 
grains of calomel given to a dog diminished the secretion of bile. Mosler (Op. 
hi.), adopting also the method of permanent fistula, found that even when large 
doses of calomel were administered, not a trace of mercury was found in the 
bile. Scott (Op. iv.) gave to a dog with a permanent biliary fistula 3 
grains, 6 grains, and 12 grains of calomel on four separate occasions. He 
collected the bile continuously before, during, and after each dose of the 
mercurial, and he found but one result, viz., a diminution in the amount of 
bile and bile-solids secreted after the administration of these doses. Scott's 
experiment appears to have been very carefully conducted. Its result was 
so much at variance with the prevalent opinion regarding the action of calomel 
in man, that some authorities alleged that there must be some difference 
between the action of mercurials on man and on the dog. Impressed with 
the necessity for obtaining precise information with regard to this point and 
others, Hughes Bennett organised the committee to which reference has 
already been made. The committee settled beyond all possibility of doubt that 
mercury produces in the dog the same general effects as in man (Op. v. p. 201). 
When small but increasing doses of corrosive sublimate were injected under 
the skin for several days in succession, salivation occurred, the breath became 
foetid, the gums ulcerated, emaciation ensued, and in dogs without biliary 
vol. xxix. part i. 3 P 



238 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 




Fig. 75. — Secretion of bile before and after calomel given without bile. 10 
grains calomel in 7 cc. water injected into duodenum at c, and again 
at c'. 



Experiment 75. 



fistulas (when therefore the bile was discharged into the intestine), the drug set 
up profuse diarrhoea, while in dogs with biliary fistulas there was no diarrhoea. 
The significance of this fact struck no one at the time, but the experiments 
hereafter to be detailed furnish what is probably the true explanation (see p. 
244). The committee further found (Op. cit. p. 214) that when calomel was 
administered to dogs with permanent biliary fistulas in doses of one-twelfth 
of a grain given from six to fourteen times daily, and in doses of 2 grains from 
two to six times daily, it did not increase the biliary secretion, nor did it pro- 
duce purgation ; but when 
given in doses of 10 grains 
once a day, it produced pur- 
gation and diminished the 
biliary secretion. More 
recently experiments were 
performed by Rohrig (Op. 
vi. p. 254), who found by 
the method of temporary 
fistula, that when " calomel 
was administered to dogs 
in large doses (20 grains), it 
rarely happened that the 
secretion of bile was re- 
called after it had come to 
a standstill, although it in- 
creased the secretion when it 
was only diminishing." The 
imperfections of Rohrig's 
method render such a state- 
ment of very little value. 
Our method of experiment 
being better adapted to 
afford accurate data, we 
accordingly performed the 
following experiments : — 
Experiment 75. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. "Weight 196 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 75). — 10 grains of calomel in 7 cc. water were injected into the 
duodenum at c, and the same dose was repeated at c. 

Necropsy. — There was evidence of a profuse purgative effect, the small 
intestine containing a large quantity of a thick greyish fluid with greenish 
flakes. The mucous membrane was pale throughout the greater part of its 
extent, but at intervals in the duodenum there were limited areas of redness. 



Secretion of bile 
per 15". 



cc. 
0-30 
0-32 
0-35 
0-60 
076 
0-50 
0-17 
0-35 
0-30 

0-10 
0-60 
0-50 
0-50 
0'80 
0-45 
0-40 
0-60 



Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme 

of dog : per 

hour. 



■0-103 cc. 



•0-067 cc. 



•0-102 cc. 



•0-114 cc. 



Secretion of bile 
per 15". 






c' — 
















Secretion of bile 

per kilogramme 

of dog : per 

hour. 



0-091 cc. 



■0-133 cc. 



•0-116 cc. 



0-12 cc. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 239 



The post-mortem examination in this case was not made until fourteen hours 
after death. 

In Experiment 75 the administration of 20 grains of calomel in two doses of 
10 grains was followed by a powerful purgative effect and by a slight increase 
in the bile-secretion ; but considering that the coefficient of secretion never rose 
above 0*133 cc, it is evident that the increased activity of the liver was very 

trifling. Yet one would be apt to be 
misled by such an experiment as this, 
had we, after the manner of Rohrig, 
failed to show the amount of bile secreted 
in relation to the weight of the animal. 
Judging from subsequent experiments, 
it can scarcely be doubted that the trifling- 
increase of secretion in this experiment 
had nothing to do with the calomel. 

Experiment 75a. Dog that had 
fasted eighteen hours. Weight 7 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 75 a). — 10 grains of calo- 
mel in 3 cc. water were injected into the 
duodenum at c, and again at </ (20 grains 




Fig. 75a. — Secretion of bile before and after calomel 
given without bile. 10 grains calomel in 3 cc. 
water injected into duodenum at c, and the same 
dose repeated at c'. 



Experiment 75a.. 



Secretion 

of bile per 

12". 



Secretion 

of bile per 

kilogramme 

of dog : 

per hour. 



■0-43 cc. 



Secretion 

of bile per 

15". 



Secretion 

of bile per 

kilogramme 

of dog : 

per hour. 



-0-31 cc. 



■0-36 cc. 



•0-27 cc. 



given in all . 

Necropsy. — The upper third of the 
small intestine was semi-distended with 
a brown, somewhat clear, viscous fluid, 
with patches of green, thus affording 
evidence of purgative action. The gas- 
tric mucous membrane was pale, and 
contained some viscous fluid of a brown- 
ish colour, with a patch of green matter 
clinging to the mucous membrane near 
to the pylorus, which was evidently due to the entrance of calomel from the 
duodenum, for a little unchanged calomel was perceptible at the margin of 
the patch. The cause of the brown colour of the fluid was not apparent. The 
necropsy was in this case performed fifteen hours after death. 

The exceptionally high secretion in Experiment 75a was probably due to 
the circumstance that the animal was a young one. In proportion to the weight 
of the animal, more bile is secreted by a young than by a full-grown dog. The 
administration of calomel was followed by decided purgation and by diminished 
bile-secretion. 

Experiment 75b. Dog that had fasted eighteen hours. Weight 12-9 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 75b). — The secretion of bile was unfortunately very irregular in 



240 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



the early part of the experiment. 10 grains of calomel in 9 cc. water were 
injected into the duodenum at c, and again at c ; 20 grains being given in all. 




Fig. 75b. — Secretion of bile before and after calomel given 
without bile. 10 grains calomel in 9 cc. water in- 
jected into duodenum at c, and the same dose repeated 
at c'. 





Experim 


mt 75b. • 






Secretion of 




Secretion of 


Secretion of 


bile per 


Secretion 


bile per 


bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : 


15". 


of dog : 




per hour. 




per hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-00 




c 




1-25 




0-56 




1-12 




0-80 


") 


1-07 
1-65 




074 
0-62 


VO-29 cc. 


1-45 




0-54 


J 


1-42 




c' 




0-97 




0-20 




2-05 




0-28 




1-00 


^ 


0-32 




0-94 
0-62 
112 


VO-28 cc. 


0-50 
0-30 
0-40 
0-36 


V0-12cc 



A profuse purgative action was the result, but the bile-secretion was only 
lowered. 

Necropsy. — Stomach contained a colourless mucous fluid, with here and 
there a green patch of calomel that had entered it through the pylorus. The 
upper half of the small intestine contained a large quantity of a greyish fluid 
with green patches, thus affording evidence of a powerful purgative effect. The 
mucous membrane in this region of the intestine was very vascular. 

The general result of the three preceding experiments is that calomel did not 
stimulate the liver, although it did not fail to stimulate the intestinal glands. 
But it is to be observed that the calomel was introduced into the duodenum 
suspended in water, it could not come into contact with bile in the intestine, 
for owing to the fasting condition of the animal previous to the establishment 
of the fistula, there was no bile there. Calomel is insoluble in water, and as 
Headland (Op. xx. p. 380) had pointed out that it is to a slight extent soluble 
in bile, we were led to suppose that possibly its non-action on the liver in these 
cases might have resulted from the absence of bile from the intestinal canal. 
And it was apparent that this source of fallacy had also vitiated every experi- 
ment that had been performed by previous observers. We accordingly per- 
formed the two following experiments, in which the calomel was mixed with 
bile, and then injected into the duodenum, and we gave smaller doses than in 
the preceding experiments. 

Experiment 76. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 147 
kilogrammes (fig. 76). — 25 cc. water and 0'5 cc. bile were injected into the 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



241 



duodenum at b, and 2 grains of calomel in the same fluid at c, c, c" , and d : 8 
grains being given in all. Unfortunately, the secretion of bile was very 
irregular. The main result of the experiment was diminished biliary secretion, 
still the slight increments of secretion that followed the first, second, and fourth 
doses, rendered a repetition of the experiment desirable. 

Necropsy. — The upper half of the small intestine contained evidence of 
decided purgation. Its mucous membrane was considerably congested. 



Experiment 76. 


Experiment 76a. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-05 


• 


1-80 




0-85 




1-90 




0-65 




1-80 




0-80 




1-70 




0-65 




1-70 




0-55 

b 

0-55 
0-35 




1-65 

b 

1-65 
1-70 


1 

J- 0-258 cc. 


J- 0-125 cc. 


_0-40 


J 


1-65 


J 


0-55 


^j 


1-70 




0-60 
0-80 


lo-196cc. 


1-70 
1-65 




075 


J 


1-62 




0-45 




d 




d 




1-60 


1 


0-35 
0-50 


~) 


1-62 
1-57 


{-0-248 cc. 


0-55 
0-55 


[ 0-129 cc. 
J 


1-62 


J 


0-30 


1-62 




c" 




1-60 




015 




1-55 




0-25 




1-60 




0-20 




d" 




o-io 




1-50 




0-15 




1-40 




d 




1-50 




0-65 


^1 


1-40 




0'40 
0-25 


1 0-108 cc. 


c 4 

1-40 




0-20 


J 


1-30 


^| 


0-30 




1-40 
1-30 


\ 0-204 cc. 






1-25 


J 




Fig. 76. —Secretion of bile before and after calomel given with bile. 
- 5 cc. bile and 2 "5 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 2 grains 
calomel in the above fluid injected into duodenum at c, d, c", and d, 
respectively. 




Fig. 76a. — Secretion of bile before and after calomel given with bile. 
- 5 cc. bile and 2 '5 cc. water injected into duodenum at b. 1 grain 
calomel in the above fluid injected into duodenum at c, d, c , d", 
c 4 , respectively. 



Experiment 76a. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 257 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 76a). — 2-5 cc. water and 0'5 cc. bile were injected into the duo- 
denum at b, and 1 grain of calomel in the same fluid was injected at c, c, c" , 
e" , and c 4 : 5 grains being given in all. The bile-secretion was never increased. 

Necropsy. — The upper half of the small intestine contained 187 cc. of a 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 Q 



242 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

viscous fluid with grey flakes ; thus affording evidence of strong purgation. 
The vascularity of the mucous membrane was decidedly increased. 

Result of Experiments with Calomel mixed with Bile. — The biliary secretion 
in Experiment 76a was so regular, and the doses of calomel so graduated, that 
its result may be regarded as conclusively showing, that calomel when mixed 
with bile and placed in the duodenum, does not excite the liver, although it 
powerfully stimulates the intestinal glands. The addition of bile to the calomel 
made therefore no difference in the result. 

As is well known, Miahle (Chimie Appliquee) ascribed all the effects of 
calomel, and other mercurial preparations, to the production of mercuric 
chloride, by the action of the alkaline chlorides in the secretions of the alimen- 
tary canal, more especially in the gastric juice. This theory has, however, been 
strongly opposed by Buchheim, (Etinger, and Winckler (referred to by Wood 
in Op. xi. p. 330), on the grounds that, at a temperature so low as that of the 
body, calomel undergoes no transformation into mercuric chloride in a solution 
of alkaline chlorides. Nevertheless, one must remember that the gastric juice 
contains free hydrochloric acid. The amount is only 0"02 per cent, in the juice 
of man, mixed with saliva : in that of the dog, the amount is 0*031 per cent. 
(C. Schmidt). When Miahle wrote, the free acid of the gastric juice was 
thought to be lactic ; therefore, the effect of very dilute hydrochloric acffl on 
calomel, at the body temperature, has not hitherto been investigated. As no 
conclusion could be legitimate in the absence of definite information on this 
point, we performed the following experiment : — 

Experiment 77. — Calomel was washed "with ether, the filtrate tested with 
caustic potash, and proved to contain no mercuric chloride. Of the calomel — 
thus ascertained to be pure — we placed three grammes in 500 cc. distilled 
water containing 0*02 per cent, anhydrous hydrochloric acid„and submitted the 
whole to a constant temperature of 100° Fahr. — the temperature of the stomach 
— for thirty-six hours. The fluid was then filtered, concentrated, and tested 
with sulphuretted hydrogen. A distinct precipitate — first white, then changing 
to yellow, and finally to black — was obtained, thus proving the presence of cor- 
rosive sublimate. Judging from the precipitate, the amount was considerable ; 
but a large quantity of calomel had been employed, and it had been acted on 
by the acid for a lengthened period. We repeated the experiment, using the 
same amount of calomel, and acid fluid, but keeping it only seventeen hours at 
the temperature of the body. The fluid was then filtered, the filtrate evapo- 
rated, the residue dried and weighed, and it was found that three grammes of 
calomel had yielded 17 milligrammes of mercuric chloride. Under similar cir- 
cumstances, 5 grains of calomel — the ordinary dose for a man — would, if digested 
seventeen hours with about 50 cc. acid fluid, have yielded ^ grain mercuric 
chloride. Whether or not so minute a quantity of the latter substance is likely 




PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS OF THE SECRETION OF BILE. 243 

to affect the human liver will be considered in the sequel. Calomel is usually 
taken at bed-time on an empty stomach. We do not know if it can call forth 
a secretion of gastric juice sufficient to exert an appreciable influence upon it ; 
but in any case, it probably does not remain in the stomach more than five or 
six hours at the utmost. We however postpone for the present the further con- 
sideration of this point. 

Obviously, our next duty was to ascertain whether or not corrosive sub- 
limate has the power of stimulating the liver. 

Experiment 78. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 8*8 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 78). — Into the duodenum there were injected the following frac- 
tions of a grain of corrosive 
sublimate dissolved in 3 cc. 
water : ^ at a, -^ at b, T l 5 - at c, 
■£j> at d, ^5 at e, -^ at /: two- 
fifths of agrain being given in all. 

Necropsy. — The mucous ° 
membrane of about fourteen „ 

iig. 78. — Secretion of bile before and after mercuric chloride (cor- 
inclieS Of the Upper portion rosive sublimate) given without bile. a fa grain, b fa grain, 

. c fa grain, dfa grain, e fa grain, / T V grain mercuric chloride in 

01 the Small intestine WaS 3 cc. water injected into duodenum. (| grain in all.) 

much congested. In the upper part of the duodenum there were minute 
hemorrhagic extravasations. There was evidence of a very slight purgative 
effect. 

The increase of secretion that followed the fourth dose of mercuric chloride 
was so slight, that on the whole the result must be regarded as negative. 
Considering the solubility of mercuric chloride in water, — and the striking con- 
trast between it and calomel in this respect, — it is not at all probable that the 
negative result in. Experiment 78 was due to the non-absorption of the mer- 
curial salt. Possibly it was simply owing to the circumstance that, in small — 
somewhat weak dogs — such as that employed in the above experiment, the 
most certain cholagogues sometimes fail to stimulate the liver, probably because 
of the depressing effect of the preliminary operation adopted in these experi- 
ments. At the same time, we resolved in the next experiment to add some 
bile to the mercuric chloride solution, in case its presence might facilitate 
absorption, or, at any rate, in order that the conditions encountered in the 
intestine in a normal case, might be more exactly imitated. 

Experiment 78a. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 16*2 
kilogrammes (fig. 78a). — 2o cc. water and 0*5 cc. bile were injected into 
the duodenum at b, and T ^ grain corrosive sublimate in the same fluid 
was injected at c, and the same dose was repeated at c'. At the end of 
two hours the bile-secretion began to rise, and rose still higher after the 
second dose. 



244 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — The mucous membrane of the upper ten inches of the small 
intestine was decidedly reddened, and there was evidence of a very slight pur- 
gative action in this portion of the intestine. 




Fig. 78a. — Secretion of bile before and after mercuric 
chloride given with bile. 0"5 cc. bile and 2 '5 
cc. water injected into duodenum at b. The 
same fluid with T V grain mercuric chloride in- 
jected into duodenum at c and again at c' ({ 
grain given in all). 




Experiment 78a. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : 




hour. 




per hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




0-60 


1 


0-65 




0-80 


1 


0-65 




b 


\ 0-171 cc. 


0-80 




0-80 




1-1 




0-95 


J 


e' 




c 




1-45 




0-80 




1-60 




0-80 




2-10 




0-70 




1-80 


^1 


0-90 
0-85 




1-95 

2 '20 


L 0-472 cc. 


0-65 




1-70 


J 



Experiment 78b. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 




hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




0-85 




c' 




0-80 




1-70 




0-80 


1 


1-70 




b 


1 


2-10 




1-05 


]■ 0-202 cc. 


2-15 




0-90 


j 


2-55 




0'80 


2-15 




c 




2-40 




0-95 




2-35 


1 


1-00 
1-10 




2-80 
2-20 


1 0-557 cc. 


1-20 




2-40 


J 


1-30 









Fig. 78b. — Secretion of bile before and after mercuric 
chloride given with bile, b, c, and c indicate pre- 
cisely the same as in fig. 78a. 

Exjieriment 78b. Dog that had fasted nineteen hours. Weight 175 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 78b). — In this experiment the same doses were given and in the 
same manner as in the preceding experiment. The result was similar, a 
decided increase of secretion following the second dose. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS-OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



245 



Necropsy. — The state of the duodenum and its contents was precisely 
similar to that described in the preceding experiment. 

Experiments 78a and 78b prove conclusively, and in a very striking manner, 
that mercuric chloride is a hepatic stimulant ; and that it is a powerful one is 
shown by the fact that in Experiment 78a, ^ grain raised the bile-secretion per 
kilogramme of body-weight to 0*472 cc. per hour ; while in Experiment 78b it 
raised the secretion to 0'557 cc. per kilogramme per hour. 

The contrast between the last two experiments with mercuric chloride and 
those with calomel is remarkable, both as regards the effect on the liver, and 
on the intestine ; for while the mercuric chloride powerfully excited the liver, 
but scarcely affected the intestinal glands, notwithstanding its immediate con- 
tact with the latter, the calomel did not stimulate the liver, but did powerfully 
excite the intestinal glands. 

This startling result so clearly established by these experiments is a striking 
proof of the value of this method of investigation as an auxiliary to clinical 
observations on man. 

To render these experiments still more complete, we in the next two cases 
injected into the duodenum a minute dose of mercuric chloride along with 
calomel and bile. These experiments are valuable in showing the very remarkable 
stimulation of the liver that followed an unusually small dose of the mercurial. 

Experiment 78c. Dog that fasted seventeen hours. Weight 99 kilo- 



Experiment 78c. 




Secretion 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 


15". 


of dog : pei- 




hour. 




hour. 


ce. 




cc. 




1-2 


\ 


1-65 




1-2 




1-80 


\ 


b 

11 


SO -48 cc. 


175 

1-85 


VO-72 cc. 


1-8 


J 


1-75 


3 


m 




1-50 




1-4 




1-35 




1-65 




115 




j 1-50 




1-15 






Fig. 78c. — Secretion of bile before and after 
mercuric chloride and calomel given 
with bile. - 5 cc. bile and 2 cc. 
water injected into duodenum at 6. ■ 
j v grain mercuric chloride and 1 grain 
calomel in the same fluid injected into 
duodenum at m. 



grammes (fig. 78c). — 0-5 cc. bile and 2 cc. water were injected into the 
duodenum at b, and ^ grain of corrosive sublimate and 1 grain of calomel 
in the same fluid were injected at m. 

VOL. xxix. part i. 3 r 



246 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — Slightly increased vascularity of mucous membrane of duo- 
denum. No purgation. 

In the above experiment, the bile-secretion per hour rose to 0*72 cc. per 
kilogramme of body-weight, but the secretion was so high — # 48 cc. — before 
the drug was given, that it was difficult to know exactly how to regard the 
very high figure first mentioned. Another experiment was therefore desirable. 

Experiment 78d. Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. Weight 184 kilo- 
grammes (fig. 78d). — ^ grain of corrosive sublimate and 1 grain of calomel 
mixed with 2 cc. water and 0*5 cc. bile were injected into the duodenum at m, 
and the same dose was repeated at m' and at m". 







4-"> 




4 




35 






3 












2 






1-5 


H^SKll 




ifffflfflBlii 


05 








Experiment 78d. 




Secretion 


Secretion 


of bile per 


of bile per 


kilogramme 


15". 


of dog : per 




hour. 


ee. 




0-7 




07 


\ 


1-2 




1-2 


\0-228cc. 


1-1 


j 


m— — 


! 


1-8 


/ 


lost 




1-9 




2-3 


\ 


3-2 

5-0 


> 0-85 cc. 


5-2 


) 


2-0 




in' 




2-4 




1-8 




1-4 




1-3 




1-7 




'hi," 




1-45 




1-4 




1-4 





Fig. 78d. — Secretion of bile before and after mercuric 
chloride and calomel given with bile. J v grain 
mercuric chloride with 1 grain calomel in 0"5 cc. 
bile and 2 cc. water injected into duodenum at m, 
m! , and in" respei lively. 



Necropsy. — Considerable irritation of the mucous membrane of the upper 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 



247 



fourth of small intestine. The contents of this portion of the canal indicated 
considerable purgative action. 

The increase of bile-secretion in Experiment 78d is very remarkable, not 
only for its absolute extent, but also because of the smallness of the dose that 
occasioned it. The amount of bile secreted per kilogramme of body-weight 
rose to the very high figure of 085 cc. per hour. The effect of so small a 
dose as ^> grain of corrosive sublimate in this experiment is very remarkable, 
for the animal was rather larger than those employed in Experiments 78a 
and 78b, where ^ and even ^ grain had not so powerful an effect. Consider- 
ing the result of Experiment 76a, it is not in the least likely that the addition 
of one grain of calomel to the dose of the mercuric chloride had anything to do 
with the difference in the result. We can only suggest, by way of explanation, 
that possibly in some cases the liver is more susceptible to a mercurial stimulus 
than it is in others. 

With the mercuric chloride we had given bile in every case save in Experi- 
ment 78, and that was the only instance where the result was negative ; we 
therefore thought it desirable to perform another experiment, with mercuric 
chloride given without bile. 



Experiment 78e. 


Secre- 
tion of 
bile per 
15". 


Secretion 
of bile per 
kilogramme 
of dog : per 


Secre- 
tion of 
bile per 
15". 


Secretion 

of bile per 

kilogramme 

of dog : per 


hour. 


hour. 


cc. 




cc. 




1-80 




135 




170 




1-50 




1-50 




1-50 




1-85 




1-55 




145 


^ 


1-75 




135 
1-30 


1 0-388 cc. 


1-30 
1-65 




110 


i 


1-70 




c 




1-50 




1-15 




1-30 




0-80 




c" 




1-45 




1-90 


^ 


lost 
1-25 




1-70 
1-65 


V0-50 cc. 


1-30 




1-45 


3 


1-55 




1-50 




1-10 




1-45 




c' 




1-60 






Fig. 7Se. — Secretion of bile before and after mercuric chloride given without bile. 
^ grain mercuric chloride in 6 cc. water injected into duodenum at c, c', and 
c". (f grain given in all.) 



Experiment 78e 
kilogrammes (fig. 78e) 



Dog that had fasted seventeen hours. 



Weight 13 4 
grain corrosive sublimate in 6 cc. water was 
injected into the duodenum at c, and the same dose was repeated at c' and 
c". The liver was stimulated, the coefficient of bile-secretion rising as high 
as 05 cc. But the experiment is inconclusive, for a reason mentioned in the 
necropsy. 



•24^ 



PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Necropsy. — The upper fourth of the small intestine contained a consider- 
able quantity of somewhat dark fluid, looking as if bile had been injected. 
Possibly some bile had, in this case, escaped from the bile-ducts into the 
intestine during the performance of the operation. The presence or absence 
of bile would have been determined by testing the fluid for bile-pigment, but 
unhappily a portion set aside for that purpose was lost. 

This experiment therefore is inconclusive as regards the point at issue, viz., 
whether or not mercuric chloride is absorbed from the intestine without the 
presence of bile. But we felt that it would scarcely be justifiable to perform 
yet another experiment to settle the point ; for it is to the last degree im- 
probable that bile is necessary, and probably no one will feel inclined to main- 
tain that it is. 



Table XXXIV. 



Mercury. 


Total Dose in 
Grains. 


Grains per Kilogramme 
of Body-weight. 


Secretion of Bile per Kilo- 
gramme of Body-weight 
per hour. 


Before. 


After. 


Experiment 78a, Mercuric \ 
Chloride, . . . . j 


| with bile, 


0-0077 




0-17 cc. 


0-47 cc. 


Experiment 78b, Mercuric ) 
Chloride, . . . . | 


i 


0-0071 




0-20 cc. 


0-55 cc. 


Experiment 78c j ^j} 2 • 


l 
1 


0-005 
0-101 


} 


0-48 cc. 


0-72 cc. 


78D |HgCL . 
/0D (HgCl . 


1 

2"0 >> 

1 


0-0027 
0-054 


} 


0-22 cc. 


0-85 cc. 



Result of Experiments with Mercuric Chloride. — These experiments con- 
clusively prove that mercuric chloride is a powerful hepatic stimulant in the 
dog. Probably — now that attention is specially directed to the subject — it will 
also be found to stimulate the liver of man ; for the experiments already 
referred to (p. 105), that were carried out by the author for Bennett's Com- 
mittee, showed that the general effects of mercuric chloride on the dog are 
similar to those observed in man. Doubtless the converse will be found to hold. 

In the series of experiments, just referred to, on the production of mer- 
curialism in the dog, the mercuric chloride was always injected subcutaneously, 
and in two experiments on the action of this substance on the biliary secretion, 
performed for that committee, the drug was given in the same manner. This 






PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 249 

mode of administering a substance for the purpose of acting on the liver was 
faulty, and its results are not fairly comparable with those of the ordinary 
method, where the substance is placed in the alimentary canal, from which its 
molecules are absorbed into the radicles of the portal vein, and so pass to the 
liver in a much more concentrated stream than they possibly can when the 
substance passes first into the general and then into the portal circulation. 

With regard to these two experiments, Huhges Bennett stated in the report 
(Op. v. p. 221) " that corrosive sublimate when given " [subcutaneously] " in 
small doses, gradually increased in strength, does not augment the biliary 
secretion, but that it diminishes it the moment the dose reaches a strength 
sufficient to deteriorate the general health." The latter part of the statement 
was warranted by the results of both experiments. But the first part, though 
true as regards one of the experiments, was certainly untrue as regards the other 
(Op. cit. p. 212, Table XIII.), where an unequivocal increase of bile-secretion 
took place when the dose of mercuric chloride, given subcutaneously, was raised 
from one-sixth grain once a day to one-sixth grain tivice a day (loc. cit. June 9th 
and 10th). The reporter of the experiments on that occasion overlooked the 
important fact here stated, and deduced the above general conclusion from 
misleading results, arrived at by taking the daily average quantity of bile 
secreted during too prolonged a period. 

Results of Experiments with Calomel. — With regard to calomel, we have 
proved the following : — (1) That calomel in doses of 10 grains, 5 grains, or 2 
grains, several times repeated, when placed, ivitliout bile, in the duodenum of a 
fasting dog, produces a purgative effect, varying with the dose ; but, so far from 
increasing the secretion of the bile, usually diminishes it, just as happens when 
any other substance that is not a hepatic stimulant — e.g. magnesium sulphate — 
is administered. (2) That when calomel is mixed with bile, and then introduced 
into the duodenum, there is no difference in the result, even when, as in Experi- 
ment 7Ga, the calomel is given in 1 grain doses several times repeated, and the 
chance of acting on the liver, previous to supervention of the depressing effect 
of purgation, thus allowed. (3) That if 5 grains of calomel be subjected at 
100° Fahr. for seventeen hours to the action of dilute hydrochloric acid, of the 
same strength as that of the human gastric juice, not more than -^ grain of 
mercuric chloride is produced. 

The question now arises, seeing that calomel does not usually remain in the 
human stomach for more than a night, probably not more than from five to six 
hours, is it likely that even so much as ¥ l g grain of mercuric chloride is pro- 
duced from the ordinary dose of 5 grains, and if it is, what effect may it be 
supposed to have on the human liver ? It must be borne in mind, however, 
that we are here on dangerous ground, for we are inclining to reason about the 
action of the gastric juice itself from experiments on the action of dilute hydro- 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3S 



250 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

chloric acid, and a solution of alkaline chlorides. It would clearly be more 
conclusive if we could substitute direct experiment for mere inference. We 
are in a position to do this. 

As regards the dog, it is evident that the only link wanting to complete our 
chain of evidence is, that we should place the calomel in the stomach instead of 
the duodenum, and thus render the case analogous to that of the human subject 
as regards the administration of this drug. With regard to the cases of calomel, 
we did indeed seriously think for a time that the negative effect of the calomel 
on the liver might possibly have been due to the circumstance, that the drug 
was introduced directly into the duodenum, and thus escaped the action of the 
gastric juice. 

Experiment 78r. — Into the stomach of a curarised dog, that had fasted the 
usual time, we injected 5 grains of calomel in water. The injection was made 
with a fine syringe, through the gastric wall, in order that the whole of it might 
certainly reach the interior of the viscus. Injection through an oesophagus 
tube was avoided, because a substance so insoluble as calomel would certainly 
have clung to the interior of the tube, and would thus have been partly lost. 

The result of the experiment was entirely negative, both as regards the 
liver and the intestinal glands. This was readily explained by the fact, that at 
the necropsy the calomel was found apparently unchanged, enveloped in the 
mucus of the stomach. The saliva of the dog is peculiar in containing a very 
large quantity of mucin. As previously stated (p. 140), the accumulation of this 
viscous saliva in the stomach during fasting is calculated so seriously to interfere 
with absorption, that we, on this account, in nearly all these experiments, 
injected the various drugs directly into the duodenum. 

We would not however have attempted the preceding experiment had we 
at the moment recollected that the question at issue had already received a 
satisfactory answer from the previous experiments of Kolliker and Mullee, 
Scott, and Bennett's Committee. In those experiments the calomel was given 
by the mouth in the usual way, and the animals had their usual diet. Every 
opportunity was therefore afforded for a transformation of the calomel into 
mercuric chloride — probably indeed a better opportunity than is afforded in the 
human subject, for the gastric juice of the dog is — as previously stated, p. 242 
— more acid than that of man, and yet we find that the action of the calomel, 
when placed in the stomach of the dog, was just the same as when introduced 
directly into the duodenum. We have proved that -£$ grain corrosive sublimate 
with 1 grain of calomel when placed in the duodenum (Experiment 78b) can 
powerfully stimulate the liver of the dog, but we find no reason for enter- 
taining the idea that the amount of mercuric chloride produced by the gastric 
juice from 5 grains of calomel has any appreciable effect on the liver, for in 
one of the experiments for Bennett's Committee the amount of calomel placed 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 251 

iii [the stomach was 10 grains, and it occasioned no increased secretion 
of bile.* 

But it may be said, Although these facts render it impossible to entertain 
the idea that the action of calomel is clue to the mercuric chloride produced 
from it by the gastric juice, is it not possible that the entire absence of the bile 
from the intestine in the case of the experiments of Bennett's Committee 
interfered with the absorption of the drug, so that while it excited the intestinal 
glands with which it came directly in contact, it failed to excite the liver because 
it could not reach it ? This objection cannot be entertained — (1) Because 
Experiments 76 and 76a of the present series prove that when calomel mixed 
with bile is placed in the duodenum it does not stimulate the liver. (2) In the 
experiments of Bennett's Committee, although the calomel could not possibly 
encounter bile in the alimentary canal, a part of it must have been absorbed, 
because when given in small doses, frequently repeated, the animal speedily 
lost its appetite and became extremely unwell, although the doses were too 
small to produce purgative action. 

The conclusion is inevitable, that while corrosive sublimate does — calomel 
does not — stimulate the liver of the dog, and that when calomel is placed in 
the stomach of the dog, there is — if the dose be sufficient— the characteristic 
action on the intestinal glands, but no excitement of the liver. There is there- 
fore no evidence that a purgative dose of calomel, when acted on by the gastric 
juice, gives rise to mercuric chloride sufficient to exert any appreciable effect 
on the liver. 

Seeing that in these observations we have submitted to direct experiment 
on the liver of the dog, every substance that has any reputation as a cholagogue 
in the case of man, and seeing that we have found that, with the exception of 
calomel, they all increase the biliary secretion in the dog, it appears to us that 
the remarkable harmony between the vast majority of our results and those of 
clinical experience, entitles us to maintain that our experiments with calomel are 
not to be set aside by the clinical observer, merely because he is of the opinion 
that calomel in some way or other increases the discharge of bile in man. There 
has been on the part of one or two physicians — who in their lamentable ignorance 
and narrow-mindedness imagine that physiological pharmacology studied on a 
dog cannot help them to know the action of a drug on man — a tendency to 
altogether set aside the results of previous experiments with calomel, because 
they do not harmonise with their previously entertained opinions. These 
physicians appear to imagine that they can end the discussion by simply saying 
" the liver of a dog is not that of a man." That truism cannot be disputed, and 

* The dose of calomel was 10 grains given on three successive days. On the first it produced 
" slight" and on the other two days " decided " purgation, but on all the days the fluid and the solid 
bile was diminished. 



252 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

we are perfectly willing to admit that it is possible that the human liver may 
be more or less susceptible than the liver of the dog to the influence of various 
substances, but we maintain that up to this time there is real/?/ no proven 
discord between our results and those arrived at by observations on man. 

All our experiments have had reference to the secretion and not the exp>ulsion 
of bile. For the purpose of arriving at definite knowledge, we intentionally — in 
the manner described at the outset of these experiments — threw out of action 
the bile-expelling mechanism, in order that we might have to deal with the bile- 
secreting apparatus only. We do not profess to have ascertained anything 
regarding the action of any drug on the bile-expelling mechanism. 

The clinical observer has supplied most valuable information regarding the 
power of various substances to increase the amount of bile in the dejections. 
He observes dejections of a clay colour, he gives five grains of calomel, and 
further observes that in some cases the dejections thereafter assume their 
natural appearance. He cannot be certain of the manner in which this result 
is brought about. For anything he knows, it might be occasioned (1) by stimu- 
lation of the hepatic secreting apparatus; or (2) by stimulation of the muscular 
fibres of the gall-bladder and larger bile-ducts — to wit — the bile-expelling 
apparatus; or (3) by removing a catarrhal or congested state of the orifice of 
the common bile-duct, or of the general extent of the larger bile-ducts; or (4) 
by removing from the intestine substances which had been passing therefrom 
into the portal vein and depressing the action of the hepatic cells; or (5) by 
stimulating the intestinal glands, and thus producing drainage of the portal 
system, whereby the " loaded " liver might possibly be relieved. Yet notwith- 
standing the inability of clinical observers to unravel this complicated web, and 
supply us with any definite statement, one of them* has felt inclined to think 
the results arrived at by Bennett's Committee of no value, because they proved 
by direct experiment that calomel does not in the dog stimulate the hepatic 
secreting apparatus. 

Seeing that calomel stimulates the intestinal glands in the dog as in man; 
seeing that mercury produces salivation, ulceration of gums, and other charac- 
teristic phenomena in the clog as in man, the obvious inference is that the 
reputed cholagogue action of calomel in the human subject is probably not 
owing to stimulation of the bile-secreting apparatus. And why should we, in 
the face of our experiments, believe the opposite until the clinical observer 
substitutes — for vague conjecture — definite proof of that opposite, by experi- 
menting in a case of biliary fistula in the human subject, when it happens that 
no bile enters the intestine, and where the amount secreted may be measured 
by collecting it as it flows from the fistula. 

* Vide Dr Moxon, " Hunterian Oration," 1877, " Medical Press and Circular," March 1877. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 253 

Our experiments therefore suggest that the cholagogue action of calomel in 
the human subject is to be sought for, not in any supposed power of stimulating 
the bile-secreting mechanism, but in some one or more of the last four modes 
of action above indicated. Calomel undoubtedly excites the intestinal glands, 
and for anything we know there may be something peculiar in the nature of its 
action thereon. For anything we know, it may also have some special influence 
on the mucous glands and mucous membrane generally of the larger bile-ducts, 
whereby a catarrhal condition of these ducts may be relieved and the pent-up 
bile thus permitted to escape. There is evidently still abundant room for 
conjecture, but our experiments plainly narrow its range, and thus contribute 
to the attainment of definite knowledge. The practical physician would, how- 
ever, do well to observe our discovery, that when a small dose of corrosive 
sublimate is combined with calomel, stimulation of the liver, as well as of the 
intestinal glands, is the result. He may probably find it of advantage to apply 
this combination in the case of man. 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 



1. In a curarised dog that has fasted eighteen hours, the secretion of bile 
is tolerably uniform during the first four or five hours after the commencement 
of the experiment, but falls slightly as a longer period elapses. Its composi- 
tion remains constant. 

2. Croton oil is a hepatic stimulant of very feeble power. The high place 
assigned to it by Rohrig was probably the result of his imperfect method of 
experiment. 

3. Podophyllin is a very powerful stimulant of the liver. During the 
increased secretion of bile, the percentage amount of the special bile-solids is 
diminished. If the dose be too large, the secretion of bile is not increased. It 
is a powerful intestinal irritant. 

4. Aloes in very large doses is a powerful hepatic stimulant. It renders 
the bile more watery, but at the same time increases the secretion of biliary 
matter by the liver. 

5. Rhubarb is a certain, though not a powerful, hepatic stimulant. The 
bile secreted under its influence has the normal composition. 

6. Senna is a hepatic stimulant of very feeble power. It renders the bile 
more watery. 

7. Colchicum in very large doses is a powerful stimulant of the liver and 
intestine. It renders the bile more watery, but increases the secretion of 
biliary matter proper. 

VOL. XXIX. PART T. 3 T 



254 . PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

8. Magnesium sulphate stimulates the intestinal glands, but not the 
liver. 

9. Castor oil stimulates the intestinal glands, but not the liver. 

10. Gamboge stimulates the intestinal glands, but not the liver. 

11. Ammonium chloride stimulates the intestinal glands, but not the 
liver. 

12. Scammony is a powerful intestinal but feeble hepatic stimulant. 

13. Euonyinin is a powerful hepatic but a feeble intestinal stimulant. 

14. Iridin is a powerful hepatic stimulant. It also stimulates the intestine, 
but not so powerfully as podophyllin. 

15. Leptandria is a hepatic stimulant of moderate power. It is a feeble 
intestinal stimulant. 

16. Sanguinarin is a powerful hepatic but a feeble intestinal stimulant. 

17. Ipecacuan is a powerful hepatic stimulant. It increases slightly the 
secretion of intestinal mucus ; but has no other apparent stimulant effect on the 
intestine. The bile secreted under the influence of ipecacuan has the normal 
composition. 

18 Colocynth is, in large doses, a powerful hepatic as well as intestinal 
stimulant. It renders the bile more watery, but increases the secretion of 
biliary matter. 

19. Jalap is a moderately powerful hepatic, and a powerful intestinal 
stimulant. 

20. Taraxacum is a very feeble stimulant of the liver. 

21. Dilute nitrohydrochloric acid is a hepatic stimulant of considerable 
power. 

23. Sodium chloride is a very feeble hepatic stimulant. 

23. Rochelle salt is a feeble hepatic, but a powerful intestinal stimulant. 

24. Sodium phosphate is a powerful stimulant of the liver and a moderately 
powerful stimulant of the intestine. 

25. Sodium sulphate is a moderately powerful stimulant of the liver and a 
powerful stimulant of the intestine. 

26. Potassium sulphate is a hepatic and intestinal stimulant of considerable 
power. Its action on the liver is, however, uncertain, probably owing to its 
sparing solubility. 

27. Sodium bicarbonate has scarcely any appreciable effect as a stimulant 
of the liver, even when given in very large doses. 

28. Potassium bicarbonate does not excite the liver unless it be given in 
very large doses. 

29. Potassium iodide has no notable effect on the biliary secretion. 

30. Calabar bean stimulates the liver, but not powerfully, unless it be given 
in very large doses. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 255 

31. Atropia sulphate antagonises the effect of Calabar bean on the liver, 
and thereby reduces the hypersecretion of bile produced by that substance. It 
does not, however, arrest the secretion of bile, and, when given alone, does not 
notably affect it. 

32. Menispermin does not stimulate the liver. It slightly stimulates the 
intestinal glands. 

33. Baptism is a hepatic and also an intestinal stimulant of considerable 
power. 

34. Phytolaccin is a powerful hepatic stimulant. It also slightly stimulates 
the intestinal glands. 

35. Hydrastin is a moderately powerful stimulant of the liver and a feeble 
stimulant of the intestine. 

36. Juglandin is a moderately powerful hepatic and a mild intestinal 
stimulant. 

37. Sodium benzoate is a powerful hepatic stimulant. It is not an 
intestinal stimulant. 

38. Ammonium benzoate stimulates the liver, but not quite so powerfully 
as the sodium salt of benzoic acid. It does not stimulate the intestinal glands. 

39. Benzoic acid stimulates the liver, but, owing to its insolubility, its 
action is less rapid and much less powerful than that of its alkaline salts. 

40. Sodium salicylate is a very powerful stimulant of the liver, but a very 
slight stimulant of the intestinal glands. 

41. Ammonium phosphate is a powerful stimulant of the liver. It does 
not stimulate the intestinal glands. 

42. Tannic acid does not affect the secretion of bile. 

43. Acetate of lead, in large doses, somewhat lessens the secretion of bile, 
probably by a direct action on the liver. 

44. Jaborandi is a very feeble hepatic stimulant. 

45. Sulphate of manganese does not excite the liver, but it is a powerful 
stimulant of the intestine. 

46. Morphia has no appreciable effect on the secretion of bile, and does not 
prevent the stimulating effect of such a substance as sodium salicylate. 

47. Hyoscyamus does not affect the biliary secretion to any noteworthy 
extent, and does not interfere with the stimulating effect of sodium salicylate. 

48. Pure diluted alcohol does not affect the biliary secretion. 

49. Calomel stimulates the intestinal glands, but not the liver. 

50. Mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) is a powerful hepatic, but a 
feeble intestinal stimulant. When mercuric chloride and calomel are ad- 
ministered together, both the liver and the intestinal glands are stimulated. 

51. The injection of 100 cc. (1543 grains) of water into the duodenum gives 
rise to only a trifling increase of the bile-secretion (Experiment 7). 



256 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

52. The injection of 3 cc. (46 - 2 grains) bile into duodenum does not affect 
the bile-secretion (Experiments 20, 21); 6 cc. (92'4 grains) increase the secretion 
slightly (Experiment 10). 

53. Purgation produced by purely intestinal stimulants, such as magnesium 
sulphate, gamboge, and castor oil, diminishes the secretion of bile. 

54. When a substance — e.g., podophyllin— which powerfully stimulates the 
intestine as well as the liver is given in too large a dose, the bile-secretion may 
never be increased (Experiment 9), and though it should be increased in the 
first instance, it is soon diminished as the excitement of the intestinal mucous 
membrane extends downwards and implicates a larger and larger number of its 
glands (Experiment 10). 

All the above conclusions are based on experiments performed on the dog, 
and have no reference to any observations made on the human subject. 

Although the hourly coefficients of secretion per kilogramme of body- weight 
before and after the administration of the principal hepatic stimulants have 
been already given in detail, it will facilitate a comparison of the effects of the 
different substances if the results be thrown together as in Table XXXV. 
As already explained, the coefficients of bile-secretion under the influence of 
hepatic stimulants cannot be regarded as an absolute index of the relative 
powers of the stimulants, even in the case of the dog, because, in some instances 
— e.g., those of aloes, podophyllin, colchicum, and physostigma — the doses were 
excessive. It would be unfair to compare the effects of such doses with those 
of moderate doses of other substances. And, as also has been previously 
stated, young dogs secrete, in proportion to their size, more bile than old dogs ; 
therefore, a higher coefficient is the rule in their case. We have, as far as 
possible, taken these points into consideration, and the summary of results, 
above given, contains the conclusions at which we have arrived. 



Table XXXV. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 

Table XXXV. 



257 











Secretion of Bile 




Substance Given. 




per Kilogramme 










of Body-weight 


Experi- 








per hour. 


ment. 
















Grains per 








Name. 


Total Dose in Grains. 


Kilogramme of 
Body-weight. 


Before. 


After. 










cc. 


cc. 


1 


J Normal secretion of bile during the 
( influence of small doses of curara, 


} ■;; 




0-35 








2 


>> >> >> 




. . . 


0-25 




3 


j) » » 




. . . 


015 




8 


Podophyllin, .... 


6, without bile 


0-9 


0-04 


0-47 


10 


Podophyllin, 


■ . . 


4, with bile 


0-23 


0-52 


1-01 


11 


Aloes, 


. 


60, without bile 


6-9 


0-34 


0-69 


12 


Aloes, 


. . . 


60, 


12-0 


0-26 


0-93 


13 


Rhubarb, . 


. . 


68, 


3-06 


0-17 


0-32 


16 


Colchicum, 


• . . 


60, 


2-5 


0-13 


0-45 


17 


Colchicum, 


. • 


60, 


2-5 


o-io 


0-20 


28 


Euonymin, 


. . . 


5, with bile 


0-26 


0-25 


0-47 


27 


Euonymin, 


. . 


o, „ 


0-21 


0-07 


0-46 


33 


Sanguinarin, 


. . 


1, 


0-05 


012 


0-30 


34 


Sanguinarin, 


. 


3, 


0-11 


016 


0-40 


29 


Iridin, 


. • . 


5, „ 


0-22 


0-22 


0-53 


30 


Iridin, 


. . • 


5, „ 


0-92 


016 


0-63 


32 


Leptandria, 


. . 


18, 


1-10 


0-08 


0-31 


31 


Leptandria, 


. . 


18, 


0-88 


0-19 


0-27 


36 


Ipecacuan, 


. 


60, 


2-2 


0-24 


0-55 


37 


Ipecacuan, 


. 


3> » 


0-49 


0-18 


0-38 


39 


Colocynth, 


. 


14, » 


0-53 


0-29 


0-45 


40 


Colocynth, 


. 


7, „ 


0-4 


0-16 


0-27 


41 


Jalap, 


• . . 


30, 


1-2 


0-16 


0-29 


42 


Jalap, 


. 


40, „ 


3-2 


0-17 


0-35 


44a 


Dilute Nitro-hydrochloric Acid, 


36*4, without bile 


2-0 


0-11 


0-39 


46a 


Rochelle Salt, .... 


463, with bile 


37-2 


0-23 


0-33 


47 


Sodium Phosphate, . 


201, without bile 


7-4 


0-27 


0-44 


48 


Sodium Sulphate, 


120, 


6-1 


o-io 


0-25 


48a 


Sodium Sulphate, 


508, with bile 


32-3 


0-25 


0-38 


49b 


Potassium Sulphate, 


232, without bile 


107 


0-32 


0-47 


53 


Extract of Physostigma, . 


2, with bile 


0-0074 


0-09 


0-36 


53a 


Extract of Physostigma, . 


2, „ 


0-0147 


0-13 


0-75 


55 


Baptism, ..... 


7, „ 


0-303 


0-23 


0-39 


57 


Baptisin, . 


. 


7, „ 


0-374 


0-12 


0-29 


58 


Phytolaccin, 


. . 


2, „ 


0-064 


0-144 


0-29 


59 


Phytolaccin, 


. 


2, „ 


0-104 


0-338 


047 


60 


Hydrastin, 


■ 


2, „ 


0-077 


0-23 


0-38 


61 


Hydrastin, 


. 


2, „ 


0-147 


0-09 


0-32 


62 


Juglandin, 


. 


J 5, „ 
1 10, „ 


0-236 
0-472 


o-io 

0-10 


0-28 
0-32 


63 


Sodium Benzoate, . 


20, without bile 


1-320 


0-22 


0-64 


64 


Ammonium Benzoate, 


20, 


0-737 


0-24 


0-54 


73 


Sodium Salicylate, . 


20, 


1-000 


0-17 


0-56 


54 


Sodium Salicylate, . 


25, 


1-550 


0-26 


0-66 


65 


Sodium Salicylate, . 


20, 


2-150 


0-32 


0-89 


78a 


Mercuric Chloride, . 


^, with bile 


0-0077 


017 


0-47 


78b 


Mercuric Chloride, . 


8» » 


0-0071 


0-20 


0-55 


78c 


fHgCP, 

IHgCl, 


2S> » 
1, „ 


0-005 \ 
0-101 j 


0-48 


0-72 


78d 


JHgCl 2 , 

IHgCl, 


2 0> » 
1, „ 


0-0027 1 
0-054 j 


0-22 


0-85 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



3 TJ 



258 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



Mode of Action of Hepatic Stimulants. 

Although we have definitely proved that a large number of substances 
stimulate the liver to secrete more bile, we do not profess to have absolutely- 
shown in what manner they do this. It may be asked — 

1. Do they excite the mucous membrane of the duodenum or other part of 
the small intestine, and thereby induce reflex excitement of the liver % One 
would be readily disposed to entertain this idea from the fact that stimulation 
of the oral mucous membrane so readily induces secretion in the salivary 
glands; yet we are obliged to reject the idea that this likewise holds true of 
the liver, because such substances as gamboge and magnesium sulphate power- 
fully irritate the intestinal mucous membrane, while they do not in the least 
increase the secretion of bile. On the other hand, such substances as ipecacuan, 
sodium benzoate, and ammonium benzoate powerfully excite the liver without 
inducing any notable excitement of the intestine. 

2. Do these substances stimulate the hepatic cells by merely increasing the 
stream of blood through the liver \ Whatever be the state of the hepatic 
vessels during increase of the biliary secretion, it is quite certain that increased 
secretion of bile does not necessarily follow dilatation of the intestinal capillaries ; 
the effect of which, if it be not carried to excess, may with reason be supposed 
to increase the stream of blood through the portal vein, and thence through the 
liver. But castor-oil greatly dilates the intestinal capillaries, yet the bile- 
secretion does not rise in the least. 

3. We therefore believe that the effect of hepatic stimulants is to be assigned 
to a direct action of their molecules upon the hepatic cells or their nerves. The 
effect of physostigma and atropia rather points to an action on the latter — in 
their instance, at all events — as has been already indicated (p. 210). But we 
do not think it advisable at present to pursue this difficult subject, which, as 
far as we can see, is of little importance compared with knowing what does and 
what does not stimulate the liver. 

It is particularly to be observed that all our experiments concern the influ- 
ence of substances on the bile-secreting mechanism. The nature of our method 
has forbidden any observations on the action of drugs on the bile-expelling 
mechanism. Seeing that the acid chyme, by irritating the duodenal mucous 
membrane, effects a reflex expulsion of bile, it may be that many substances 
which stimulate the duodenum have a similar effect. Yet we cannot but think 
that to bring about an expulsion of bile by muscular contraction of the gall- 
bladder and bile- ducts is, in all probability, a small thing when compared with 
increasing the secretion of bile. One might expect that such powerful intestinal 
irritants as magnesium sulphate and gamboge would be likely to bring about a 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 259 

reflex expulsion of bile; yet no one has attributed any cholagogue power to 
these. But, without attempting to reason out a question that can only be 
determined by experiment, we would merely add that we leave the investiga- 
tion of the action of drugs on the bile-expelling mechanism to those who care to 
enter upon such an inquiry. We are satisfied to have shown that every sub- 
stance supposed to be a cholagogue has, with the exception of calomel (p. 242) 
and magnesium sulphate (p. 164), the power of exciting the bile- secreting 
mechanism; and, as our estimate of their powers, from an observation of the 
bile- secretion only, so closely agrees with observations on the human subject, 
where actions on the bile-secreting and on the bile-expelling mechanisms cannot 
be distinguished from one another, we cannot but infer that surely their actions 
on the human subject must be chiefly on the bile-secreting mechanism. 

The term cholagogue is of necessity a vague one, and is applicable to any 
substance that increases the biliary flow, whether by augmenting bile-secretion 
or by exciting contraction in the walls of the bile-passages. We have, there- 
fore, applied the more definite term hepatic stimulant to those substances which 
we have proved to increase the secretion of bile. 



Hepatic Depressants. 

It cannot fail to strike the reader as a remarkable fact, that while, in the 
long list of drugs whose hepatic effects we have investigated, we have found so 
many that stimulate the liver, there is only one — acetate of lead (p. 226) — which 
appears to have a directly depressant effect. We have, however, found several 
drugs that have an indirectly depressant action; thus, when the intestinal glands 
are excited to secrete, there is an indirectly depressant effect on the liver, 
whereby the bile-secretion is lessened. This we have seen to happen when 
magnesium sulphate, castor-oil, gamboge, and calomel are given, and doubtless 
other purely intestinal irritants have a similar effect. We invariably observed 
that, while slight purgation — by a purely intestinal irritant — scarcely, if at all, 
depressed the secretion of bile, powerful purgation produced a very marked 
effect. Why is the action of the liver thus depressed ? In our experiments, 
we had to deal with fasting animals, whose intestinal canals contained neither 
bile nor food. Under such conditions, magnesium sulphate could not depress 
the bile-secretion by diminishing the absorption of substances that augment the 
formation of bile. Its depressant effect seems, therefore, attributable either to 
a drain from the portal blood of bile-forming substances, or to an excessive 
lowering of the blood-pressure in the liver, as in the system generally, by a large 
dilatation of intestinal and mesenteric vessels. But when such a purely intes- 
tinal stimulant as magnesium sulphate is given to an individual under ordinary 



260 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 

circumstances, it doubtless depresses the secretion of bile, not only in the 
manner just indicated, but also by hurrying out of the intestinal canal sub- 
stances which would otherwise have been absorbed and would have assisted in 
the formation of bile. Thus it cannot be doubted that, when the bile is pre- 
vented from entering the intestinal canal, less bile is secreted by the liver, and 
there is ample reason for believing that about -| ths of the sulphur daily secreted 
by the liver is reabsorbed from the intestinal canal by the portal vessels — in the 
form of some sulphur-containing substance derived from the decomposition of 
taurocholic acid — the sulphur-containing acid of the bile. And it may be that, 
in abnormal states of the intestinal contents, various deleterious matters map be 
absorbed, and hamper hepatic action. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose 
that a purely intestinal stimulant, such as magnesium sulphate, although it does 
not stimulate the liver, may nevertheless in some abnormal conditions exercise 
an important influence on that organ, by removing deleterious matters from the 
intestinal canal, and by draining the portal system. We believe, then, that by 
the discovery of the depressant effect on hepatic action of purely intestinal 
purgatives, we have furnished the physician with a fact which will not fail to 
be of service in rational therapeutics. 



Concluding Observations. 

In the introduction we pointed out what had been ascertained regarding the 
actions of drugs on the secretion of bile by our predecessors. We showed that, 
for want of a proper method of experiment, the definite knowledge arrived at 
was very meagre, and to some extent erroneous; and, if the statements in that 
introduction be compared with our summary of results, some idea may be 
formed of the extent of our labour, which we have striven to render as com- 
plete and as free from error as possible. We claim that, by means of a novel 
and precise method of investigation, we have been the first to place the whole 
subject of the physiological actions of drugs on the bile-secreting function of 
the liver upon a sound footing, and thus to lay a real foundation for the rational 
— that is, scientific — treatment of many diseased conditions of this important 
organ ; and it is gratifying to know that, in consequence of this research, many 
physicians have been led to use new remedies to which we have specially 
directed attention. We have indeed occasioned, by our experiments, a con- 
siderable amount of pain to a number of dogs ; but, considering that our dis- 
coveries are calculated to relieve much suffering, not only of men, but also of 
dogs, for all time to come, we believe that we have spared infinitely more 
suffering in the future than we have occasioned in the present. 

In conclusion, I have to tender my warm thanks to my former pupils, M. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 261 

Vignal and William J. Dodds, M.B., D.Sc, for their valuable assistance in 
the performance of the experiments, and for their company during the long and 
weary hours through which they daily extended. I have very cordially to 
thank the Scientific Grants Committee of the British Medical Association for 
having voted upwards of £200 from the funds of the Association to defray the 
very heavy expenses incurred for the materials for the research, and for their 
energetic and powerful support at a time when the clamour of blind ignorance 
and silly prejudice seriously menaced and almost arrested the progress of this 
research. Having personally devoted not less than 1400 hours of severe labour 
to the accomplishment of this work, and having (as, of course, every medical 
man thinks himself bound to do for the alleviation of suffering) communicated 
to all every fact calculated eventually to cure affections so common as those 
of the liver, it is, to say the least, ungrateful, that a certain section of the 
public should have rewarded our unselfish efforts to cure their hepatic 
derangements by a flood of abuse ; because, like most of our medical brethren, 
we believe that to be penny-wise and pound-foolish as regards pain is a 
policy as short-sighted, as narrow-minded, and as reprehensible here as else- 
where. Though profuse with their ingratitude, I doubt not that one and all of 
them will be very ready and eager to profit by the results of our labour ; for I 
suspect that most of them are scarcely willing to refuse all medical aid, and to 
thus push their logic to its practical issue. Desiring, as I think most of them do, 
to continue in receipt of all the medical assistance they can obtain, it may 
possibly satisfy their conscientious scruples to vainly attempt to make it appear 
that nothing worth knowing in medicine has been learned from experiments on 
animals. It is not difficult, by misrepresentation and by a multiplicity of 
words, to deceive a public ignorant of the machinery of life and of the pro- 
cesses by which its movements are studied and remedies found for its disorders ; 
but they cannot thus deceive any moderately well informed and right-minded 
medical practitioner. The discourtesy, misrepresentation, and injustice that 
we have suffered at the hands of those who should have acted otherwise, has 
not, however, induced us to prove false to the interests of suffering humanity. 
We are conscious of having faithfully done our utmost to advance the scientific 
treatment of diseases of the liver, and while steadily pursuing this great object 
we have been most careful to avoid the infliction of all pain that was not 
absolutely necessary. 



[References, 
vol. xxix. part i. 3 x 



262 PROFESSOR RUTHERFORD ON THE 



REFERENCES. 

1. H. Nasse : Commentatio de bilis quotidie a cane secreta copia et indole. Abstract in Canstatt's 

Jahresbericht, 1858, Heft. i. p. 155. 

2. Kolliker and Muller : Beitrag zur Lehre von der Gallen. Wiirzburg Verhandlungen, 1855. 

Band v. p. 231. 

3. Mosler : Untersucbungen iiber den Ubergang von S toff en aus dem Blute in die Galle. Virchow's 

Archiv, 1858, Band. xiii. p. 29. 

4. Scott : On the Influence of Mercurial Preparations on tbe Secretion of Bile. Beetle's Archives of 

Medicine, voL i. p. 209. 

5. Hughes Bennett : Report on tbe Action of Mercury on tbe Biliary Secretion. British Association 

Reports, 1868. 

6. Rohrig : Experimented Untersucbungen iiber die Pbysiologie der Gallenabsonderung. Strieker's 

Jahrbiicher, 1873. 

7. T. R. Fraser : Report on tbe Pbysiological Action of Medicinal Substances. Journal of Anatomy 

and Physiology, vol. v. p, 393. 

8. Garrod : Materia Medica, edited by Baxter, 4th ed. 1874. 

9.' 7 W. Stewart : On Chloride of Ammonium in the Treatment of Hepatic Disease. Philadelphia 
Medical Times, January 1878 ; also in British Medical Journal, 28th September 1878. 

10. Wood and Bache : United States Dispensatory. New York, 1869. 

11. H. C. Wood: A Treatise on Therapeutics. Philadelphia, 1874 

12. R. Christison : A Dispensatory. Edinburgh, 1848. 

13. W. Stephenson : On the Action and Uses of Phosphate of Soda in small doses. Edinburgh Medical 

Journal, 1867, xiii. p. 336. 

14. B.Keith: Handbook of Practice. New York, 1876. 

15. KIJhne and Hallwachs : Uber die Enstchung der Hippursaure nach dem Genusse von Benzoesaure. 

Virchow's Archiv, Band. xii. p. 386. 

16. Meissner and Shepard : Untersucbungen iiber das Enstehen der Hippursaure im thierischen 

Organismus. Hanover, 1856. 

17. Schmiedeberg and Bunge : t)ber die Bildung der Hippursaure. Archiv fur Experimcntelle 

Pathologic, Band. vi. p. 233. 

18. Husemann : Die Pflanzenstoffe. Berlin, 1871. 

19. Pareira : Materia Medica, 3rd ed. London, 1848-1853. 

20. Headland : The Actions of Medicines, 4th ed. Loudon, 1867. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF DRUGS ON THE SECRETION OF BILE. 263 



INDEX. 











PAGE 






PAGE 


Introduction, ...... 


133 


Action of Taraxacum, 


. 190 


Reasons for Uncertain Knowledge regarding 






Dilute Nitrohydrochloric Acid, 


. 190 


the Action of Drugs on the Liver, 


133 




Sodium Chloride, 


. 192 


The Methods of Therapeutical Research, 


134 




Rochelle Salt, 


. 193 


Value of a Precise Knowledge of the Actions 






Sodium Phosphate, 


. 195 


of Drugs, ...... 


135 




Sodium Sulphate, 


. 196 


Previous Investigations regarding Action of 






Potassium Sulphate, . 


. 198 


Drugs on Bile Secretion — . 


135 




Sodium Bicarbonate, . 


. 201 


Scott's Experiments, 


136 




Potassium Bicarbonate, 


. 202 


The Experiments of Bennett's Com- 






Potassium Iodide, 


. 203 


mittee, ..... 


136 




Calabar Bean, 


. 204 


Rohrig's Experiments, 


136 




Atropia Sulphate, 


. 208 


Method of Experiment in the present re- 






Menispermin, 


. 210 


search — ...... 


137 




Baptisin, .... 


. 212 


Normal Secretion of Bile in a Fasting 






Phytolaccin, 


. 213 


Dog curarised, .... 


141 




Hydrastin, 


216 


Composition of Bile thus secreted, . 


143 




Juglandin, 


218 


Secretion of Bile per Kilogramme of 






Benzoic Acid, . 


219 


Body-weight per hour, 


143 




Sodium Benzoate, 


220 


Act) 


on of Croton Oil, 




145 




Ammonium Benzoate, . 


221 




Podophyllin, 




147 




Sodium Salicylate, 


223 




Water, 






147 




Ammonium Phosphate, 


224 




Bile, . 






256 




Tannic Acid, . . . . 


224 




Aloes, 






154 




Acetate of Lead, 


226 




Rhubarb, . 






157 




Jaborandi, . 


228 




Senna, 






160 




Manganese Sulphate, . 


230 




Colchicum, 






161 




Morphia, . 


232 




Magnesium Sulphate, 






164 




Hyoscyamus, . . . . 


234 




Castor Oil, 






165 




Alcohol, . 


236 




Ammonium Chloride, 






167 




Calomel, . . . . . 


237 




Scammony, 






169 




Mercuric Chloride (Corrosive Sub- 






Euonymin, 






170 




limate), . . . . 


243 




Iridin, 






173 


General Summary of Results, 


253 




Leptandria, 






176 


General 


Table of Coefficients of Secre- 






Sanguinarin, 






178 


tioii 


l > 


257 




Ipecacuan, 






181 


Mode of Action of Hepatic Stimulants, 


258 




Colocynth, 






185 


Hepatic 


Depressants, . 


259 




Jalap, 






188 


Concluding Observations, . 


260 



ERRATUM. 



Page 259, line 7 from the top of page, for " Magnesium .sulphate (p. 164)," 
read "Sulphate of manganese (p. 230)." 



( 265 ) 



VI. — On Some New Bases of the Leucoline Series. Part II. By 
G. Carr Robinson, F.R.S.E., and W. L. Goodwin. 

(Read 19th May 1879.) 

In a former paper read before the Society, and published in the Society's 
"Transactions,"* on "Some New Bases of the C n H 2n _nN series," obtained 
from the " vitriol-tar," from the distillation of shale, evidence was given of the 
isolation of three bases of this series, in addition to the Leucoline, Iridoline, and 
Cryptidine of G. Williams. 

In this paper it was pointed out that the three new bases, C 12 H 13 N, G ]3 H 15 N, 
and C 14 H 17 N, were obtained by the fractional distillation of the mixed bases 
after treating alternately with caustic soda and sulphuric acid. In the first 
experiment, in which a comparatively small quantity of material was used, and 
where fractional distillation was continued to twenty-five times, the presence of 
these bases was indicated by the analysis of their chloroplatinates, in those 
fractions which from theoretic considerations might be expected to contain 
them ; e.g., Cryptidine, the last of G. Williams' series, was found by him to 
have a boiling-point of 274° C, whilst Iridoline and Leucoline had boiling- 
points of 256° C. and 238° C. respectively, showing a difference of 18° C. for each 
addition of CH 2 to the molecule. The next member in ascending the series 
would be expected to lie in fraction 290°-295° C, its theoretic boiling-point being 
292°C; accordingly, analysis of chloroplatinate from fraction 290°-295°C. showed 
2612 per cent, of platinum, corresponding with percentage of platinum required 
for chloroplatinate of new base Ci 2 H 13 N.t 

The quantity of bases in this first experiment being much too small to allow 
of any satisfactory examination of their fractions, a second and larger quantity 
was, after going through the same processes of purification, submitted to 
fractional distillation, and the corresponding fractions 290°-295°, 310°-315°, &c, 
examined. Here a curious anomaly in the boiling-points was observed : the 
three bases C 12 H 13 N, C 13 H 15 N, and C 14 H 17 N, were obtained ; but each was found 
in the fraction one step lower than was anticipated, i.e, in fractions 270°-275°, 
290°-295°, 310°-315° respectively, instead of in fractions 290°-295°, 310°-315°, 
and 325°-330°. The explanation offered was that in the first experiment twenty - 

* " Transactions Royal Society, Edinburgh," vol. xxviii. part ii. " On Some New Bases of the 
Leucoline Series." 

+ Trans. Royal Soc. Edin., vol. xxviii. pt. ii. page 563. 
VOL. XXIX. PART I. 3 Y 



20(5 G. CARR ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON 

five complete fractionations had been made, whilst in the second experiment only 
sixteen fractionations were made ; and it was the desire of more completely 
isolating the higher members of this series, and, if possible, ascertaining their 
true position in the series by longer continued fractional distillation, that has 
given rise to the present paper. 

In order to carry out this investigation, we were again kindly supplied by 
Messrs Gellatly and Thomson with a quantity of crude bases, about one 
gallon; these were purified as follows: — the crude bases, being a mixture 
chiefly of bases, tarry matter, and paraffin, were digested for several hours with 
dilute sulphuric acid, the insoluble portion separated by filtration, and the acid 
liquor neutralised with caustic soda ; the so-separated bases were again dis- 
solved in dilute sulphuric acid, again treated with caustic soda, and this process 
repeated other three times, when the mixture of bases was considered suffi- 
ciently pure to be distilled. After eight distillations, a large quantity of black 
tarry matter being left in the still from each operation, fractional distillation 
was commenced. 

Fractional, Distillation of the Mixed Bases. 

After twelve complete fractionations, fractions ranging from 250°C. to 
390° C. about 5 grms. of fraction 260°-270° C. was dissolved in strong nitric 
acid, the solution evaporated to dryness on water-bath, the residue treated with 
water, and to the aqueous solution, cooled in freezing mixture, platinum 
chloride added. The precipitated platinum salt was washed with ice-cold 
water, then with a mixture of alcohol and ether, dried over sulphuric acid and 
finally at 100° C. 

Analysis gave — 

I. 2 5 '5 2 per cent, platinum. 
II. 25-55 

Fractional distillation was then continued to twenty times and platinum 
salts prepared from fractions 270°-275° and from fraction 290°-295 c in same 
manner as from 2f)0°-270°. 

Analysis of platinum salt from fraction 270°-275° — 

I. 24 - 74 per cent, platinum. 
II. 24-63 

This fraction might be expected to contain Cryptidine, C u H n N, and as the 
chloroplatinate of that base, 2C n H n NHCl, PtCl 4 , requires 27*13 per cent, 
platinum, the small percentage of platinum was quite inexplicable, except on 
the assumption that during the process of evaporating with nitric acid a nitro- 
substitution compound had been formed. Assuming that one atom of hydrogen 



SOME NEW BASES OF THE LEUCOLINE SERIES. 267 

were replaced by (N0 2 ), we should have from cryptidine the body 
2CnH 10 (NO 2 )NHCl, PtCl 4 , which requires 2414 per cent, platinum. 

Similarly, the chloroplatinate from fraction 290°-295° showed 23*37 per cent, 
platinum, this being far too low for platinum salt of base Ci 2 H 13 N, that salt 
requiring 26*12 per cent, the presence of a nitro-compound was inferred from 
the fact that the percentage of platinum obtained agreed closely with the 
calculated quantity for the body having the formula 2C 12 H 12 (N0 2 )NHC1, PtCl 4 , 
this body requiring 23*34 per cent, platinum, found 23*37 per cent. 

In order to more completely separate the bases five more fractional distilla- 
tions were made, this making twenty-five fractionations in all, and involving- 
some six hundred distillations. 

Again a platinum salt was prepared from fraction 290°-295° by dissolving the 
base in nitric acid as on former occasions, this yielded 23*54 and 23*52 per cent, 
platinum, agreeing with the salt made after twenty fractionations, thus 
showing that the last five fractional distillations had not effected any further 
separation, and further strengthening the supposition that the bodies obtained 
by the action of nitric acid were nitro-compounds. The further examination of 
these bodies was not proceeded with at this stage, as we considered it more 
advisable to attempt the identification of the bases in the first instance without 
the use of nitric acid, employing only hydrochloric acid as the solvent. 

The method adopted for obtaining the chloroplatinates was therefore as 
follows : — About 3-5 grms. of the fraction under examination was dissolved in 
20-30 cc. of dilute hydrochloric acid and the solution boiled, when a small 
quantity of a black tarry substance separated ; this was filtered off, and the 
clear solution, diluted with five to six times its volume of water, was cooled in 
freezing mixture. To the diluted solution was added platinum chloride, the 
chloroplatinate precipitated as a fine granular yellow mass was collected on a 
filter washed several times with ice-cold water, then with a mixture of alcohol 
and ether, dried over sulphuric acid, and finally dried at 100° C. 

Examination of Fraction 270°-275°. 

Chloroplatinate prepared as above, 

0*2805 grms. gave 

0-0765 „ platinum = 27*27 per cent. 

This agrees with percentage of platinum demanded by chloroplatinate of 
cryptidine, bg. pt. 274° C, the formula for which 2CHHHNHC1, PtCl 4 , requires 
27*13 per cent., this being sufficient evidence of the presence of cryptidine, and 
also indicating that this time the increased number of fractional distillations to 
which the bases had been subjected had brought them up to their hypothetical 
boiling-points, the carbon and hydrogen in this salt was not determined. 



268 



G. CAKE ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON 



Examination of Fraction 290°-295°. 

Analysis of chloroplatinate — 

I. 0-198 grms. salt gave 

0*051 „ platinum = 2576 per cent, platinum. 



II. 


0164 


» 


salt gave 










0-04225 


» 


platinum 


= 25-77 


» 


jj 


III. 


0-31175 


» 


salt gave 










0-082 


» 


platinum 


= 26-30 


>> 


?j 


IV. 


0-2895 


>> 


salt gave 










0-40085 


>> 


C0 2 


= 37-76 


>} 


carbon. 




0-122 


» 


H 2 


= 4-49 


j) 


hydrogen. 


V. 


0-52525 


» 


salt gave 










0-72675 


>} 


C0 2 


= 37-70 


» 


carbon 




0-208 


» 


H 2 


= 4-37 


t> 


hydrogen. 


VI 


0-44725 


)> 


salt gave 










0-62275 


a 


C0 2 


= 37-75 


» 


carbon. 




0-17375 


>> 


H 2 


= 4-35 


>> 


hydrogen. 



These results agree with the percentage composition of chloroplatinate of 
first new base C 12 H 13 N, the formula for which 2Ci 2 H 13 NHCl, PtCl 4 , requires — 



Found. 





Calculated. 


I. 


II. 


hi. 


Carbon, . 


38-19 


37-76 


3770 


37-75 


Hydrogen, 


3-72 


4-49 


4-37 


431 


Platinum, 


26-12 









IV. 



25-76 

Examination of Fraction 305°-310°. 

Analysis of chloroplatinate — 

I. 0-216 grms. salt gave 

0-054 „ platinum = 25-00 per cent, platinum. 



V. 



25-77 



VI. 



26-30 



II. 0-2165 
0-054 



salt gave 
platinum = 24-94 



Examination of Fraction 310°- 315°. 

Analysis of chloroplatinate — 

I. 0'277 grms. salt gave 

0-07 „ platinum = 2527 per cent, platinum. 

11. 0-301 „ salt gave 

0076 „ platinum = 25 25 



SOME NEW BASES OF THE LEUCOLLNE SERIES. 269 

III. - 458 grms. salt gave 

0*1145 „ platinum = 25 '00 per cent, platinum. 

„ carbon. 
„ hydrogen. 

„ carbon, 
hydrogen. 

Both these fractions, 305°-310° and 310°-315°, therefore consist of the 
second new base, Ci 3 H ls N, the theoretical boiling-point of which is 310° C, the 
formula of its chloroplatinate 2C 13 H 15 NHC1, PtCl 4 , requiring — 

Found. 



IV. 


0-54275 


» 


salt gave 




0-77875 


j> 


C0 2 •= 39-47 




0-233 


» 


H 2 = 4-79 


V. 


0-42525 




salt gave 




0-62 


» 


C0 2 = 39-95 




018 


» 


H 2 = 4-70 



Calculated. 


I. 


II. 


39-89 


39-47 


39-95 


4-09 


4-79 


4-70 


25-19 


... 





III. IV V. 

Carbon, 

Hydrogen, 

Platinum, . . . 2519 ... 25-27 

Examination of Fraction 325°-330°. 

Analysis of chloroplatinate — 

I. 0*287 grms. salt gave 

0-0695 „ platinum = 24-21 per cent, platinum. 



II. 


0-183 


>> 


salt gave 






0-044 


)} 


platinum = 24 - 03 „ „ 


III. 


0-271 


)> 


salt gave 






0-066 


» 


platinum = 24'35 „ „ 


IV. 


0-388 


■>} 


salt gave 






0-5885 


)j 


C0 2 = 41-36 


, carbon. 




0-16 


.. 


H 2 = 4-56 


, hydrogen. 


V. 


0-2965 


„ 


salt gave 






0-4515 


» 


C0 2 = 41-51 


„ carbon. 




0-1205 


;> 


H 2 = 4-52 


hydrogen. 



These results show this fraction to consist of the third new base, C H H 17 N, 
the theoretical boiling-point of which is 328° C. The formula of its chloro- 
platinate 2C H H 17 NHC1, PtCl 4 , requiring — 



Found. 





Calculated. 


i. 


II. 1 


Carbon, 


41-48 


41-36 


41-51 


Hydrogen, 


4-44 


4-56 


4-52 


Platinum, 


24-37 




2' 


VOL. XXIX. PART I. 









III. IV. 



24-21 24-03 24-35 
3z 



270 G. CARR ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON 

Examination of Fraction 345°-350°. 
Analysis of chloroplatinate — 

I. 0*3695 grms. salt gave 

0-8725 „ platinum = 23*61 per cent, platinum. 



II. 


0-23025 „ 


salt gave 










0055 


platinum 


= 23-84 


t> 


» 


III. 


0-2825 „ 


salt gave 










0-4475 „ 


C0 2 


= 43-18 


» 


carbon. 




0-1135 „ 


H 2 


= 440 


>> 


hydrogen. 


IV. 


0-5685 „ 


salt gave 










0-896 


co 2 


= 42-99 


!> 


carbon. 




0-2295 „ 


H 2 


= 4-48 


» 


hydrogen. 



These analyses show the salt to be the chloroplatinate of the fourth new 
base, Ci 5 H 19 N, theoretical boiling-point 346° C. Its chloroplatinate has the 
formula 2C, 5 H li) NHCl, PtCl 4 , and composition — 

Found. 





Calculated. 


I. 


II. 


Carbon, . 


42-95 


42-99 


43-18 


Hydrogen, . 


4-53 


4-48 


4-40 


Platinum, 


23-50 







III. IV. 



23-61 23-84 



Examination of Fraction 360°-365 c 
Analysis of chloroplatinate — 

I. 0-2525 grms. salt gave 





0-058 


„ platinum 


= 22-96 per 


cent. 


platinum. 


II. 


0-288 


„ salt gave 










0-066 


„ platinum 


= 22-91 


jj 


?; 


III. 


0-414 


salt gave 










0-667 


» co 2 


= 43-96 


» 


carbon. 




0-186 


„ H 2 


= 4-97 


jy 


hydrogen. 


IV. 


0-435 


„ salt gave 










0-702 


„ co 2 


= 44-00 


;; 


carbon. 




0-199 


„ H 2 


= 5-08 


>? 


hydrogen. 



These analyses show this salt to be the chloroplatinate of the fifth new base, 
C 16 H 8 ,N, theoretical boiling-point 364° C. Its chloroplatinate has the formula 
2C Ifi H 21 NHCl, PtCt,, and composition — 

Found. 





Calculated. 


I. 


n. 


1 !arbon, . 


44-34 


43-96 


44-00 


Hydrogen, 


5-08 


4-97 


5-08 


Platinum, 


22-75 




. . . 



III. IV. 



22-96 22-91 



SOME NEW BASES OF THE LEUCOLINE SERIES. 271 

Fractions of higher boiling-points were not examined, one other within the 
series, viz., 380°-385°, was obtained (which would probably contain the base 
C 17 H 23 N) but only in very small quantity and containing paraffin; but from 
those fractions examined, viz., 290-295°, 305°-310°, and 310-315°, 325°-330°, 
345-350°, and 360°-365°, we have been able, by the analysis of the platinum 
salts, to separate and identify five new members of the series of Leucoline bases, 
viz., the base C 12 H 13 N from fraction 290°-295°, C 13 H 15 N from fractions 305°- 
310° and 310°-315°, C 14 H 17 N from fraction 325°-330°, C 15 H 19 N from fraction 
345°-350°, and C 16 H 21 N from fraction 360°-365°. Taking Leucoline, Iridoline, 
and Cryptidine with boiling-points 238°, 256°, and 274° respectively, it will be 
seen that the boiling-points of the five higher members of the series would be 
292°, 310°, 328°, 346°, and 364°: we have not been able to ascertain the actual 
boiling-points of these higher members of the series, but have shown that the 
fractions, within a range of 5° C, consist practically of such bases; and, as is 
seen from analyses of chloroplatinate from fractions 305°-310° and 310°-315°, 
also from other analyses not noted, the same base extends over a considerable 
range of temperature. 

In a former paper on these bases,"' wherein the identification of C 12 H 13 N, 
C 13 H 15 N, and C 14 C l7 N was recorded, an apparent anomaly in their boiling- 
points was observed ; the base C 12 H 13 N being found in fraction 270°-275° 
instead of in fraction 290°-295°, C 13 H 15 N in fraction 290°-295°, instead of 
fraction 310°-315°, &c, and the explanation was offered that fractional dis- 
tillation had not been pushed far enough, that were it continued at least 
twenty-five or thirty times, these three bases would be found in fractions 
290°-295°, &c. The present investigation has shown this to be the case, 
fractional distillation being continued to twenty-five times before the bases 
were submitted to examination, with the result already stated. 

It is necessary to mention that fractional distillation at these very high 
temperatures was effected by means of the high-range thermometers made by 
the late Dr Geissler of Bonn ; these thermometers are so constructed as to 
indicate temperatures up to 460° C. All distillations above 300° C. were made 
in the above manner, distillation being pushed as long as any distillate was 
produced, the limit to this being found to lie about 390° C, when a thick tarry 
residue was left in the flask. 

When recently distilled these bases are of a pale brown colour; they rapidly 
darken when exposed to the atmosphere, and even when enclosed in hermeti- 
cally sealed tubes the same darkening in colour goes on, but more slowly. 
They thicken and appear to become resinous when kept for some time in an 
imperfectly closed vessel, and, as the series is ascended, the more rapidly do 
they become resinous. 

* Trans. Eoyal Society, Edinburgh, vol. xxviii. part ii. p. 569. 



272 G. CARR ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON THE LEUCOLINE SERIES. 

The salts of these bases, if we except the lower members of the series, do not 
appear to crystallise. As already stated, the chloroplatinates are precipitated 
in the form of granular yellow masses, which under the microscope appear to 
consist of tufts of silky crystals, but we have hitherto completely failed to re- 
crystallise the precipitated chloroplatinate, as was effected by G. Williams 
with the platinum salt of cryptidine. 

We would suggest, that in order to distinguish these five bases from their 
isomers of the Chinoline series— Tetrahiroline, &c, they should be termed Tetra- 
coline, Pentacoline, &c, thus Williams' bases being Leucoline, Iridoline, and 
Cryptidine, the series will now consist of — 



Leucoline, . 


C 9 H 7 N 


Pentacoline, 


• C 13 H 15 N 


Iridoline, 


. C I0 H 9 N 


Hexacoline, 


C U H 17 N 


Cryptidine, . 


• C u H n N 


Heptacoline, 


• C 15 H 19 N 


Tetracoline, 


• C 12 H 13 N 


Octacoline, 


• C 16 H 21 N 



Action of Nitric Acid on these Bases. 

The study of the action of nitric acid on these five bases has not as yet 
yielded any very promising results. As was stated in an early part of this 
paper, we were led to believe from the analysis of the platinum salts prepared 
by evaporating the bases with strong nitric acid, that " nitro-compounds" were 
formed. At two stages of the fractional distillation — at the twentieth and the 
twenty-fifth — platinum salts were prepared from fraction 290°-295° by dissolv- 
ing the base in strong nitric acid, evaporating the solution on water-bath, 
treating the residue with water, and from this precipitating the platinum salt 
by addition of platinum chloride ; both salts yielded 23*37 per cent, platinum? 
this corresponding with the calculated percentage of platinum in substance 
having the formula 2C 12 H 11 (N0 2 )NHC1, PtCl 4 , but further examination did not 
bear out this theory, for the same platinum salt yielded on combustion — 



I. 


II. 


Carbon, . . . 39-42 


39-00 


Hydrogen, . . 4*5 


4-5 


3 formula requires only — 




Carbon, 


34*12 per cent. 


Hydrogen, 


3-08 „ 



It is apparent also from these analyses that the chloroplatinate prepared 
with nitric acid have not the same composition as those prepared with hydro- 
chloric acid. 



( 273 ) 



VII. — On some Neiv Bases of the Leucoline Series. Part III. — The Action of 
Iodide of Methyl on Tetracoline, Pentacoline, Hexacoline, Heptacoline, 
and Octacaline. By G. Carr Eobinson, F.R.S.E., and W. L. Goodwin. 

(Read 16th June 1879.) 

In the first paper read before this Society " On some New Bases of the 
Leucoline Series," and published in the Society's " Transactions,"* it was stated 
that amongst other methods proposed for separating the members of the series 
and identifying the higher bases, was the process of converting the mixed bases 
into methyl-iodide compounds by digesting them with the iodide at a high 
temperature, and separating by fractional crystallisation the bodies so produced. 
It was found, however, that repeated crystallisation of these bodies could not 
be effected without great risk of their decomposition. This process was, there- 
fore, abandoned in favour of fractional distillation. 

Subsequent investigation of these bases by the latter process — that of frac- 
tional distillation — yielded five new members of the series, viz. : — Tetracoline, 
C 12 H 13 N ; Pentacoline, C 13 H 15 N ; Hexacoline, C 14 H 17 N ; Heptacoline, 
C 15 H 19 N ; and Octacoline, C 16 H 21 N. These bases, as was shown by the 
analyses of their platinum salts, being obtained in a state of great purity. 

We are now enabled to lay before the Society the results arrived at by the 
study of the action of methyl-iodide on the pure bases. 

This inquiry has shown that these bases combine readily with methyl- 
iodide, that the bodies so produced can readily be obtained in a state of great 
purity, and that, owing to this circumstance, they can be examined more easily 
and expeditiously than the platinum salts of the bases. 

With Tetracoline, C 12 H 13 N, and Pentacoline, C 13 H 15 N, iodide of methyl 
unites at ordinary temperatures. On dissolving the base in the iodide and 
agitating the solution, yellow crystals of the iodide of methyl-tetracoline and of 
methyl-pentacoline appear in a few minutes. With Hexacoline, C 14 H 17 N, and 
the higher members, iodide of methyl only combines when digested for some 
time with the base at 100° C. 

When these bases are digested with iodide of methyl on the water-bath in 
a flask fitted with an inverted condenser, the methyl compound is quickly 
thrown down in a fine powdery condition and always of a green colour. By 
heating the solution of the base in methyl-iodide in sealed tubes, the salt is 
obtained in well-defined crystals, the yield is larger, and the colour of the salt 
varies with the different bases ; e.g., the iodide of methyl-tetracoline so obtained 

* " Transactions of Royal Society of Edinburgh," vo 1 . xxviii. part ii. 
VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 A 



274 



G. CARR ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON 



is pale yellow, that of methyl-pentacoline olive-green, of methyl octacoline 
brilliant orange, &c. 

These^bodies are sparingly soluble in cold, readily in hot, alcohol ; the 
solution exhibiting the fluorescence which is observed in the recently-distilled 
base itself. 

When pure, these iodides of methyl compounds show considerable stability ; 
decomposition, in the case of iodide of methyl-tetracoline, not taking place 
below 190° C. 

Action of Iodide of Methyl on Tetracoline, C 12 H 13 N. 

A portion of fraction 290°-295° C, consisting of the base tetracoline, C 12 H 13 N, 
was mixed with an excess of iodide of methyl (about 1 vol. base to 3 vols, 
iodide), and heated in a sealed tube in the water-bath for thirty minutes. On 
cooling, the semi-solid mass of yellow crystals was thrown on a filter, the excess 
of methyl-iodide filtered off, and the crystals, after being well washed with 
cold alcohol, in which they were very sparingly soluble, were dried at 100° C. 

Analysis showed these crystals to be the iodide of methyl-tetracoline, 



'12H13NCH3I. 








Analysis — 










I. 


04855 gnus, crystals dried at 100° C. gave — 






0-341 


, C0 2 = 50*13 per cent, carbon. 






0-097 , 


, H 2 0= 5 - 40 „ hydrogen. 




II. 


0-3745 


gave— 






0-69 


C0 2 = 50-20 per cent, carbon. 






0-189 


„ H 2 = 5-60 „ hydrogen. 




III. 


0-3035 


gave— 






0-226 


, Agl= 40-23 per cent, iodine. 



C 12 H 13 NCH 3 I , iodide of methyl-tetracoline, requires- 



Found 





Calculated 


r 

1. 


11. 


III. 


Carbon, 


49-84 


50-13 


50-20 




Hydrogen, 


5-11 


5-40 


5-60 




Iodine, 


40-58 






40-2J 



Chloroplatinate of Methyl-tetracoline. 

In order to obtain this substance, iodide of methyl-tetracoline prepared 
from fraction 285°-290° C. was dissolved in boiling alcohol. On cooling, a crop 
of minute pale-yellow crystals of the iodide was thrown down. The mother- 
liquor from these was treated with solution of silver nitrate, the iodide of silver 
filtered off, and the excess of silver thrown down by dilute hydrochloric acid. 



SOME NEW BASES OF THE LEUCOL1NE SEEIES. 275 

The filtered solution of the chloride of methyl-tetracoline was cooled in freezing 
mixture, and to it was then added platinum chloride, when the platinum 
salt was precipitated in a fine granular condition, this was washed with ice- 
cold water, then with alcohol and ether, and dried at 100° C. 
Analysis of platinum salt — 

I. 0'187 grms. salt gave — 

0-0465 „ platinum = 24 - 87 per cent, platinum. 
II. 0294 „ salt gave — 

- 0735 „ platinum = 25 - 00 per cent, platinum. 
III. and IV., a mean of the results of two combustions, gave — 
39"75 per cent, carbon. 

These analyses show the body to be the platinum salt of methyl-tetracoline, 
the formula of which, 2C 12 H 13 NCH 3 C1, PtCl 4 , requires — 



Found 



Calculated 



I. II. III. 

Carbon, . 39"89 39'75 

Hydrogen, . 4-09 ^aiyseT 

Platinum, . 25-19 ... 24-87 25-00 

It is apparent that the chloride of methyl-tetracoline, C 12 H 13 NCH 3 C1, is 
isomeric with the hydrochlorate of pentacoline, C 13 H 15 NHC1 . 

Owing to the very small quantity of material worked upon, we were unable 
to isolate the methyl base, the examination of whose properties would not 
improbably throw very considerable light on the constitution of this series. 

Action of Iodide of Methyl on Pentacoline, C 13 H 15 N. 

A portion of fraction 305°-310° C, consisting of the base pentacoline, 
C 13 H 15 N, was heated in a sealed tube with iodide of methyl in the water-bath, 
as in the case of tetracoline. The iodide of methyl-pentacoline was obtained 
in olive-green crystals ; these, washed with cold alcohol and dried at 100° C, 
gave on analysis — 

I. 0-26125 grms.crystals dried at 100° C. gave — 

0-489 „ C0 2 = 51-24 per cent, carbon. 

0-134 „ H 2 = 5-69 „ hydrogen. 

II. 0-1096 „ gave— 

0-2065 „ C0 2 = 51-37 per cent, carbon. 

0-055 „ H 2 6 = 5-5 „ hydrogen. 

III. 0-252 „ gave— 

0481 „ Agl = 38-80 per cent, iodine. 

IV. 0-315 „ gave— 

0-2255 „ Agl = 38-66 per cent, iodine. 



276 G. CAUR ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON 

These results agree with the formula of iodide of methyl^entacoline, 
C 13 H 1B KCH S I 

Found 
Calculated 



I. II. III. IV. 

Carbon, . 51'37 51-24 51-37 

Hydrogen, . 5-50 5-63 5-50 

Iodine, . 38-84 ... ... 38-80 38-66 

From fraction 310°-315 c C, also consisting of yentacoline, the iodide of methyl - 
pentacoline was prepared. The salt was obtained in olive-green crystals, these, 
dried at 100° C, gave on analysis — 



I. - 296 grms.gave — 

0-213 „ Agl = 38-82 per cent, iodine. 
IT. 0-248 „ gave— 

0-177 „ Agl = 38-57 per cent, iodine. 

The formula of the salt C 13 H 15 NCH 3 I, as already shown, requiring 38'84 per 
cent, iodine. 



Action of Iodide of Methyl on Hexmcoline, C 14 H l7 N. 

A portion effraction 325°-330° C, consisting of the base hexacoline, C U H 17 N, 
was heated in a sealed tube with iodide of methyl in the water-bath for thirty 
minutes. The iodide of methyl-hexacoline was obtained in lemon-yellow 
crystals ; these, washed with cold alcohol and dried at 100° C, gave on 

analysis — 

I. 0*2125 grins. crystals gave — 

0-4125 „ C0 2 = 52-96 per cent, carbon. 
0-107 „ H 2 = 5-58 „ hydrogen. 
II. 0-093 „ gave— 

0-0639 „ Agl = 37-12 per cent, iodine. 

These results agree with the formula of iodide of methyl -heocacolive, 
C 14 H 17 NCH 3 I . 

Found 

Calculated , 

I. 

Carbon, 

Hydrogen, 

Iodine, 



Calculated 


i. 


II. 


52-78 


52-96 




5-87 


5-88 




37-24 




37-1 



SOME NEW BASES OF THE LEUCOLINE SERIES. 277 



Action of Iodide of Methyl on Octacoline, C 16 H 21 N. 

A portion of fraction 355°-360° C, consisting presumably of the base octa- 
coline, C 13 H 21 N, for in a former investigation it was from fraction 360-65° C. 
that this base was obtained, was heated in a sealed tube with iodide of methyl 
in the water-bath for thirty minutes. On cooling, the iodide of methyl com- 
pound crystallised out in brilliant orange needles. The crystals were collected 
on a filter, well washed with cold alcohol, and dried at 100° C. 

Analysis of orange-coloured crystals dried at 100° C. : — 

I. 0-231 grms.gave — 

0-464 „ C0 2 = 54*89 per cent, carbon. 

0-1118 „ H 2 = 5-36 „ hydrogen. 

II. 0-116 „ gave— 

0-074 „ Agl = 34-39 per cent, iodine. 

III. 0-249 „ gave— 

0-1575 „ Agl = 34-18 per cent, iodine. 

These analyses show this salt to be the iodide of methyl-octacoline, 
C 16 H 21 NCH 3 I, the formula of which requires — 



Calculated 



Found 



I. II. III. 

Carbon, . 55-28 54-89 

Hydrogen, . 6-50 5*36 

Iodine, . 34-41 ... 34-39 34-18 

The deficiency in the percentage of hydrogen found is inexplicable, but 
from the carbon and iodine determinations agreeing so closely with the 
theoretical quantities, it is apparent that these crystals are the iodine of 
methyl-octacoline. The fraction from which they were prepared, 355°-360°, is, 
therefore, the same in composition as the one previously examined, 360°-365° C. ; 
bearing out the statement made in a former paper that amongst bodies of such 
high molecular weights and high boiling-points the same base is found in a 
state of considerable purity, extended over several fractions. In the present 
investigation tetracoline has been found in fractions 285°-290° and 290°-295° C, 
its theoretical boiling-point being 292° C; likewise pentacoline was found in 
fractions 305°-310° and 310°-315°, its theoretical boiling-point being 310° C; 
and lastly, octacoline was found in fractions 355°-360° and 360°-365°, its theo- 
retical boiling-point being 364° C. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 B 



27$ G, CARR ROBINSON AND W. L. GOODWIN ON 



Action of strong Nitric Acid on these Bases. 

When these bases are dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, and the solution 
is boiled with the addition of a few drops of dilute nitric acid, the only 
apparent effect the latter has is that of a purifying nature, by causing the 
separation of a small quantity of a black tarry substance. This was observed 
by Geeville Williams, and was mentioned by him as a means of purifying 
Cryptidine.* 

When the bases are treated with strong nitric acid an intensely purple 
solution is obtained, and if this solution be evaporated on the water-bath a 
sticky resinous mass remains. The resinous mass, when digested with water, 
is dissolved only to a very small extent, yielding a solution which, when treated 
with dilute hydrochloric acid and platinum chloride, gives a platinum salt 
showing percentage of platinum agreeing with that required t for a nitro- 
substitution body. Further examination into that portion of the resinous mass 
insoluble in water has led us to regard it as the nitrate of the base. A quantity 
of tetracoline was dissolved in strong nitric acid, and the solution evaporated 
on the water-bath ; the resinous mass was digested with three successive 
quantities of water, and the insoluble portion dried at 100° C. A brittle 
amber-coloured resinous substance, readily soluble in alcohol, was obtained. 

Analysis gave the following : — 

I. - 226 grins, gave — 

O509 „ C0 2 = 61-41 per cent, carbon. 
0-12 „ H 2 0= 5-89 „ hydrogen. 
II. 0-2105 „ gave— 

0'4755 „ C0 2 = 61 - 60 per cent, carbon. 
0-112 „ H 2 = 5-89 ., hydrogen. 

These analyses would show the resin to be the nitrate of tetracoline, 
C 12 H 13 N.HN0 3 , which requires — 

Found 





Calculated 


T. 


II. 


Carbon, 


61-54 


61-41 


61-60 


Hydrogen, 


5-98 


5-89 


5-89 


Nitrogen, 


11-96 


... 





In the first paper on this research \ the extreme difficulty experienced in 

* "Transactions R.S.E.," voL xxi. p. 401. 

f " Some New Bases of the Leucoline Series," part ii., Transactions R.S.E,, vol xxix. part i. 

J " Transactions R.S.E.," vol. xxviii. part ii., " On some New Bases of the Leucoline Series." 



I 



SOME NEW BASES OF THE LEUCOLINE SERIES. 279 

obtaining crystalline salts from the mixed bases was noted ; '"' the double 
chlorides of platinum, gold, cadmium, mercury, lead, and zinc were tried, but 
without success, only resinous sticky masses being obtained." With the pure 
and isolated bases we have since been able to get crystalline salts. Crystals, 
nearly one-eighth of an inch in length, of the double chloride of mercury and 
teiracoline, were prepared by adding solution of mercuric chloride to solution of 
chloride of tetracoline, and dissolving in hot water the sticky globules that are 
produced, on cooling white transparent crystals of the double chloride 
appear. 

When solution of chloride of cadmium is added to solution of chloride of 
tetracoline a white precipitate of the double chloride comes down. If now the 
contents of the tube be agitated, the precipitate settles on the sides in sticky 
globules of a dark purple colour, which allow of the liquid to be poured oft 
and the globules washed. After some days tufts of minute silky crystals shoot 
from and cover the dark globules. Examination of these showed them to be 
the double chloride of cadmium and tetracoline. 

Pentacoline and the higher bases do not appear to form crystalline salts 
with these metals. 



(■ 281 ) 



VIII. — On the Transmission of Sound by Loose Electrical Contact. 
By James Blyth, M.A. 

(Read 27th July 1879). 

In a paper published in the Transactions of this Society for Session 1877-78, 
I described an experiment which showed, that if a moderately strong current, 
such as that from four or five Bunsen cells, be led through two jam-pots filled 
with fragments of carbon, and if any sound be uttered strongly in the one jam- 
pot it will be reproduced distinctly, although faintly, in the other. In this 
experiment it has been found that the fragments of carbon may be replaced by 
any kind of loose contact, such as microphones, or a handful of screw-nails put 
into each jam-pot, or vibrating springs beating against metallic stops, or nails 
laid across each other in log-hut fashion, and that in each case an effect similar in 
kind, although it may be differing greatly in degree, is produced. Hence it 
may be almost laid down as a general experimental result, that if an electric 
circuit conveying a tolerably strong current contain two places of loose contact, 
A and B, and if any sound be produced loud enough at A a similar sound will 
be heard proceeding from B. 

To all appearance this phenomenon can only arise from the altered resist- 
ance produced at A by the sound waves, and it becomes a problem to explain 
how this altered resistance at A so affects the materials in contact at B as to 
make them give forth waves which convey a similar sound to the ear. No 
satisfactory solution of this problem has as yet been given, and it was in hopes 
of getting some information on the subject that I made the following experiments. 

Experiment 1. — Four strong Bunsen cells were included in the circuit, and 
the loose contacts A and B placed in different rooms, so that the sound uttered 
at A could not be directly heard at B. (Throughout we shall understand by 
A the sending, and B the receiving station.) In order to make the alteration of 
resistance at A as great as possible, an actual make-and-break was there inserted. 
A toothed wheel driven round against a spring or any one of the ordinary loud- 
sounding automatic kinds would do ; but what served my purpose best in this 
experiment was made in the following way : — One of the terminal wires of the 
circuit was firmly attached to a tin can and the other to a common round file. 
A hole was then pierced through the bottom of the can at its centre, and the 
file driven backwards and forwards in the hole as if for the purpose of making 
it larger. At the receiving end B a precisely similar can and file were used, 
and the file allowed to rest lightly in the hole. Every to-and-fro rasp of the file 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4C 



282 MR JAMES BLYTH ON TRANSMISSION OF 

at A was then distinctly heard at B, even when the can was at some distance 
from the ear. The same sound was heard when the file at A was laid against 
any part of the can, but most loudly when it happened to be against a corner or 
other sharp edge. It was remarkable also, that the sound was heard distinctly 
even when the file did not touch the can at all, but was merely laid against the 
wire attached to it, so as to complete the electric circuit without including the 
can in it. It would seem from this that some mechanical tremor is set up at 
the loose contact of the file with the wire which is transmitted along the wire 
to the can. As a variety of this experiment, I removed the can from the wire, 
and substituted in its place a poker, having the circuit wire firmly attached to 
its point. When the other end of the poker was put to the ear, and the file 
applied to the poker at any point, the sound of the distant rasping was distinctly 
heard. The same was the case when a long brass tube was substituted for the 
poker, all which very strongly suggests the idea of a mechanical tremor trans- 
mitted through the metal from the point of loose contact. 

Experiment 2. — In this experiment a common automatic make-and-break, 
consisting of a vibrating spring worked by a small electro-magnet, was intro- 
duced into the circuit at A, and a similar spring, only without the electro-magnet, 
at B. At B the sound of the vibrations of the springs at A was so distinctly 
heard, as to at once suggest the idea that the spring at B was itself vibrating. 
However, I was unable to detect any such vibration, either with the aid of a 
microscope, or by attaching a small polished bead to the spring and observing 
in it the reflection of a light. Still it would be rash, I think, to assert that such 
vibrations were not present, and it is possible that, by more refined experimental 
means, they may yet be made manifest. It was very noticeable in this experi- 
ment that the sound at B got less and less loud as the pressure on the vibrating 
spring was increased, until it ceased altogether when the contact was made 
perfectly tight. 

Experiment 3. — The sound from the poker in Experiment 1 was so like 
that produced by the Trevelyan rocker, that it immediately suggested the em- 
ployment of that apparatus as the loose contact at B. For this purpose the 
current was led through the lead block, the rocker, and a brass plate, on which 
the ball at the end of the rocker rested. When this was done, and the make- 
and-break set agoing at A, a distinct sound was heard at B, suggesting very 
strongly the idea that the rocker was in actual vibratory motion. To test this 
in some measure, I heated the rocker and laid it on the lead block, when two 
sounds were distinctly heard, one due to the make-and-break, and the other to 
the heat effect. The one did not seem in the least to interfere with the other. 
Still farther to test the idea of actual vibration, it occurred to me to try if one 
rocker could not be made to act as the make-and-break to agitate the other. 
For this purpose two precisely similar rockers were taken, consisting of two 



SOUND BY LOOSE ELECTRICAL CONTACT. 283 

long flat files. These were put edgewise on the lead blocks, with their tails 
resting on the edges of three-cornered files. The current was sent through the 
rockers by means of these lead blocks and three-cornered files. One of these 
rockers was placed at A along with the automatic make-and-break, while the 
other was placed at B. An arrangement was provided whereby the make-and- 
break could be at any moment shunted out of the circuit without interrupting 
the current. The make-and-break was then started, and having ascertained 
that the rockers at A and B were both sounding, the make-and-break was 
shunted off in hopes of hearing A and B still continuing to sound from the one 
acting as make-and-break to the other. These hopes, however, were doomed 
to disappointment, as, after many trials, I failed to hear any sound after the 
shunt was made. 

Experiment 4. — Being still not satisfied that there was not an actual vibra- 
tion at B in these experiments, I determined to test for it in another way. 
This time I took a tin can and riveted into the centre of its bottom a pointed 
piece of steel wire. The can was fixed to a wooden board, and an arrangement 
made whereby another pointed piece of steel wire could be moved up opposite 
to the former piece, and as close to it as might be desired. The current was 
now led through the can and these pieces of steel, and the make-and-break 
started as usual, when very minute to-and-fro vibrations of the can were observ- 
able, especially when the steel points were not pressing hard against each other 
but loosely in contact, so that little sparks could be seen between them. To 
make perfectly certain of this observation, I hope to repeat the experiment with 
still greater care. 

From this experiment, notwithstanding the negative evidence of the others, 
it seems not unlikely that when a strong interrupted current is sent through a 
circuit where there is a loose contact, more or less of an actual separation of 
the surfaces there takes place, so as to make something of a make-and-break 
similar to the original make-and-break which causes the interrupted current. 
Should this suggestion be established, it will follow that it is something of the 
same kind, but only differing in degree, which sends the undulatory currents 
which transmit musical sounds and articulate speech from any form of micro- 
phone transmitter to a similar form of microphone receiver. 

As to the cause or causes of this separation of the surface at the loose con- 
tact B, or of whatever agitation else it may be which gives forth the sound, it 
is impossible in the present state of knowledge to speak with confidence. I am 
inclined, however, to look for one cause at least in that produced by the cur- 
rent at the loose contact. There the resistance and, in consequence, the rise 
of temperature produced by the current is greatest, and an effect similar to 
the Trevelyan rocker will be set up, although immensely smaller in amount. 

Experiment 5. — This experiment has reference to the sounds heard in a 



284 MR JAMES BLYTH ON THE TRANSMISSION OF SOUND. 

telephone by means of a microphone transmitter. It is well known that these 
can be heard with a very weak battery in the circuit, and even with no battery 
at all, provided the points of the microphone carbon be a little moist. I find that 
sounds can be heard in the telephone without a battery, and with the carbons 
apparently quite dry, if we rub the carbons hard together. This rubbing is 
distinctly heard, and it seems that it must arise in part at least from thermo- 
electric currents produced by the friction. That such are produced is readily 
shown by attaching two wires to the terminals of a Thomson's reflecting gal- 
vanometer, and to the ends of these wires any two conducting substances. 
When these substances are rubbed against each other the movements of the 
spot of light clearly indicate the production of currents. I have roughly tested 
these currents, and find that they are stronger in proportion as the metals 
rubbed are wider apart on the theremo-electric scale ; but I have found no two 
substances, even of the same kind, which do not give them slightly. It is just 
possible, however, that such currents may not be wholly thermo-electric, but 
that some may be due, as I mentioned in a recent paper to the Society, to the 
currents suggested by Sir William Thomson as the cause of friction. 



( 285 ) 



IX. — The Solar Spectrum in 1877-1878, with some practical idea of its 
probable temperature of Origination. By Piazzi Smyth, F.R.S.E., and 
Astronomer Royal for Scotland. (Plate II.). 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

285-287 

287-291 

291-336 

337 

338-340 



Part I. — Of the instruments employed and the range of Spectrum observed. . 

II. — Of a temperature deduction touching the photospheric surface of the Sun, . 
III. — The whole Solar Spectrum observations, ...... 

IV. — Accompanying Meteorological Journal, ...... 

V. — Numerical steps in Spectroscopy according to temperature, .... 

Appendix. — Professor S. P. Langley's recent American observations on the temperature of the Sun's 

photospheric surface, ......... 341-342 

Part I. 

Although the Spectrum whose linear record is now presented to the Royal 
Society, Edinburgh, is unfortunately not so perfect as it might have been with 
better apparatus (but which I did not possess) — yet it represents the labour 
and expense connected with two voyages in 1877-1878 to Portugal ; and many 
weeks work there in both years, with the sun in a more favourable position for 
observing really solar, and not telluric, or atmospheric, phenomena, than is 
ever, at any time, obtainable in Great Britain."" 

In fact, it purports to be a spectrum of the sun at an average altitude of 
about 70°, with everything from the ultra red, to the ultra violet, end, — 
so far as that is amenable to the human eye and glass transmission in an 
experimental apparatus ;t where prism trains of dispersions from 10° to 50° 
(between A and H), were employed ; magnifying powers from 10 to 20; aper- 

* I should here most thankfully acknowledge, seeing that the work was thereby so greatly 
facilitated, the extremely liberal and generous conduct of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. of Liverpool ; 
who, four times over, kindly and safely conveyed all the large packages of scientific instruments, free 
of expense, in one or another of their several magnificent steam-ships of 4000 tons burthen. These 
fine vessels start every month on their grandly oceauic voyages to South America via the Straits of 
Magellaen, taking Lisbon in their way; and form an almost luxurious, at the same time that they are 
both a speedy and yet admirably economical, method of passing and repassing between cloudy Britain, 
and its favourite little, historic Ally in the clear and sunny South. 

Among those to whom my thanks are more particularly due, I trust to be excused for mentioning 
Captain Hamilton of the Aconcagua, Captain Graves of the Cotopaxi, Chief Officer Friend of the 
Liguria, Captain Hayes of the Valparaiso ; and though last, by no means least, Mr Sanderson, the 
courteous Secretary of the Company, and Reginald Harrison, Esq., the active and ever watchful 
Medical Officer of Liverpool's most extensive and busy Port. 

t Though the apparatus was put together at home, the several important parts of it were furnished 
by, and are altogether due to, the professional skill of M. Salleron, 24 Rue Pavee au Marais, Paris ; and 
Mr Adam Hilger, 192 Tottenham Court Road, London. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 D 



286 PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH O^ 

tures to prisms, and lenses, from TO to 2*25 inches wide : the length of the 
collimator being 31 inches ; and that of the telescope rather more. 

The Sun's light was brought to the instrument by a heliostat mirror and lens 
of long focus, worked by endless screws and managed very steadily for me 
during the whole of the observations in both years by Mrs Piazzi Smyth. 
Generally speaking too, all the apparatus, though its fittings were rough, 
answered well within its limits of power ; excepting only this anomaly, 
that between E and F, from some cause I have not yet been able to 
ascertain, the telescope would not focus accurately ; or rather it had two 
foci thereabouts, and neither of them sharp, no matter how fine the slit was 
made, or how carefully the prisms were re-adjusted to position of Minimum 
Deviation for precisely the part of the spectrum there concerned ; while a very 
fine slit, when out of focus, makes some puzzling lines of its own ; and may 
have occasionally increased unduly the number of the thinner ones noted for 
the Sun. 

Again after passing G, and more especially after passing little h, the con- 
tinuous spectrum's light was too faint for good observation. This is indeed a 
region to be recorded by photography rather than the eye ; and it is being so 
tabulated in a magnificent manner by Mr Rutherfurd (New York), Mr Lockyer 
(London), Dr Henry Draper (New York), M. Cornu (Paris), and many other 
most able savants. So that for full accuracy, number of lines, and extent of 
spectral range into the ultra-violet, and more especially the fluorescent regions, 
their works should of course be referred to. But without presuming to com- 
pare with them in any degree, I trust there was no objection to my recording 
for the violet, as I had done already for the red, end of the spectrum, exactly 
where both lines, and continuous spectrum light ceased to be visible to the eye ; 
especially as I made rather a point of abolishing the use of coloured glasses, so 
generally used by other observers, to prevent false glare in the field of view, by 
employing more or less of preliminary prism- separating power instead, with 
several unexceptionable advantages. 

All this however has merely to do with the ways and means, which may be 
various with different scientists, towards obtaining one and the same end ; viz., 
procuring a continuous record of an eye-observed and glass-transmitted solar 
spectrum ; with, if possible, some improvement or extension over anything of 
the same kind yet made public. Now the documents to be competed with are 
not very numerous. In fact, the only published Solar spectrum that has any 
claim towards being both large, accurate, complete, and registered on an absolute 
or universal scale, is the map by the late admirable Professor Angstrom, of Upsala, 
worthily called his " Normal Solar Spectrum," and referred to now by savants 
of all countries. It is about 137 inches long, and contains the places and 
physiognomies of about 1400 lines. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM IN 1877-1878. 287 

But, strange to say, Angstrom's map has not got Nature's red beginning of 
the Spectrum at all ; though too that beginning contains the grandest group of 
lines throughout the solar spectrum's whole extent, viz., the colossal band and 
series of great A. And again, all the latter end of his map, throughout its violet 
and lavender regions, is not only miserably cramped by the untoward qualities 
of the Wave-length scale adopted by him, — but is very imperfectly rendered 
therein, or thereupon, through the failure of his " grating " to show that part of 
the spectrum well. To such an extent was this the case, that although I could 
improve little or nothing upon his grand map in the orange and citron regions, 
and in fact did not see the lines there so clear, strong and black as he has often 
engraved them, — yet in the violet regions the lines appeared to me so very much 
clearer, blacker, stronger, and both more numerous and more spread out than 
in his edition of them, that it was on that account often embarrassingly difficult 
to identify his few, thin, contracted lines and groups, amongst crowds of grander 
lines, all of them far more notable. 

Hence, if it be asked, in what may the present spectrum document hope to 
benefit existing knowledge — I beg, with all deference to the labours of others 
with which I may be, up to the present time, unacquainted, to answer 
thus — 

(1st) In supplying to Angstrom's Normal Solar Spectrum its proper and 
natural head-piece at the Red-end ; including not only " great A," but certain 
other lines beyond it, seldom seen by any one. 

(2d) In adding to it a large number of very observable lines and groups of 
lines throughout the indigo, violet, lavender, and gray Spectral regions ; 
increasing Angstrom's total number of lines from 1400, to 2000, nearly. 

(3d) In recording all the lines on a scale, equally absolute with Wave-lengths, 
but more naturally suited for spectral phenomena; because both increasing its 
numbers in the direction of increase of refrangibility, instead of against it ; and 
giving also, on a scale of equal parts, 4 times as much standing room to 
lines at the violet end, as when cramped up by the Wave-length method. 

(4th) In furnishing an account from direct observations of the whole Solar 
Spectrum for a more recent date than any of the larger maps now before the 
public, viz., for the years 1877-8 ; it still being a question in science whether the 
Solar radiations alter in quality with time ; and if so, in what manner and to 
what degree. 

Part II. 

With the above remark I might close this introduction to the present 
spectrum, but for one feature which came out so strongly day after day, as the 
observations proceeded, that it formed at last the chief and abiding impression 



288 PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 

on the mind of him who was privileged through so many weeks to contemplate 
the scientific glory and mysterious physical complexity of the light of an almost 
Zenith Sun, with a degree of instrumental power not yet possessed by many 
persons in the world. 

This feature was, the absolutely greater number of lines on approaching the 
violet end of the spectrum. Beginning at the opposite or red end, there were 
often there large spaces without any lines at all. Spaces where you seemed to 
be looking into unfathomable ocean depths of nothing but pure, elemental scarlet 
light ; and not even the thinnest spider's thread of a line was floating on their 
surface anywhere. But in further advance along the spectrum, first in the 
citron, and then in the green, the lines were evidently more numerous and often 
thicker ; and in the glaucous region more abundant still. While after passing 
F, a new feature began to appear ; for amongst the other and stronger lines, 
faint visions of graduated bands and groups of markings from the extreme 
distance almost floated into view like ghosts, and became at length so numerous 
as almost to dispute standing room with one another. 

Continually too, with every further advance towards the violet, these 
graduated bands of close fine lines became more and more pronounced, occa- 
sionally including some decidedly strong lines ; while amongst them again were 
not unfrequent specimens of perfectly gigantic size ; and this too although I 
was continually decreasing the dispersive power of the spectroscope (after 
having passed the spectrum's most luminous portion), to half, or a third, or even 
a fourth only of what it was before.* 

Now there are many very thick lines in that other grand Solar Spectrum 
Map of the world in the present age, viz., Professor Kirchoff's ; but somehow, 
I was never much impressed with their being a great deal more than a mere 
stretching out by a new hand, not Kirchoff's own, of the exaggerated length of 
the violet in all uncorrected prism representations. But here, in these observa- 
tions in Portugal, what with the heat of the atmosphere, and the blinding 
light outside the house, and the magnificent action of the prisms with large aper- 
tures and powerful dispersions, causing one to travel slowly, and most carefully, 
making micrometer observations all the time, over immense angular distances, 
from one resplendent colour region of inimitable purity and ravishing beauty to 
another, there was first of all a reality of impression conveyed, respecting the 
awful supernal temperatures of those celestial fires ; fires containing not only so 
much red and yellow, but such sublime blue and surpassing violet radiations ; 
plunged into whose higher degrees, therefore, anything earthly would be utterly 
dissipated and vanish ; and then it was exactly in the very culminating regions 

'' This was in fact adapting each part to our Wave-number Scale ; for, without such reduction, a 
prism formed spectrum is nearly sixteen times longer in the violet, than it is in the red, region, as 
compared with a diffraction spectrum. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM IN 1877-1878. 289 

of those violet-hot furnaces that the more gigantic, as well as the numerous 
thinner lines, and all of them sharp-edged and well-defined, appeared with 
almost a personality, in their most marked plrysiognomies, about them ; and 
were found continually multiplying with every further advance in the direction 
of greater refrangibility. This continual increase in the number of the lines 
almost reminded one, beginning at the red-end of the spectrum, of the few and 
far between individuals, you see by rail-road side when travelling through wild 
hills and Caledonian moors ; and then as you go on through the spectrum 
colours, the lines increase, just as the human figures do when you approach the 
house-covered suburbs of London. While finally the spectral scenes of closely 
standing ranks behind ranks of lines between little h and great H, is like the 
crowds of passengers in Cheapside itself. And further, when at last all light 
itself fails and there is no more spectrum to be seen by the human eye 
through glass lenses, — you feel that you have not passed beyond, or even 
arrived at, by any means the last, or the least, or the most closely packed 
of those peculiar existencies, but are more probably left in the very thick 
of their legions still. 

Then how important in appreciating, or rather merely approximating to, 
the temperature of the Sun, the study of the mere statistical arrangement of the 
lines in its spectrum must be ; if, indeed we can depend on the chemical 
elements being similar there, on the whole, to Avhat they are on the earth ! 
So at least I thought on that magnificently practical occasion ; knowing 
well what is already so often remarked among spectroscopists, that in chemical 
investigations so long as we confine ourselves to the temperature of lamp-flame, 
the observable spectral lines are chiefly in the red, and only 2 or 3 of them 
are identifiable with solar lines ; while when we introduce the higher 
temperature of the electric spark, an immediate increase of lines in the green 
and blue is noticed, and a far greater number of solar correspondences 
obtained. 

Having therefore collected about 5000 spectroscopic observations from 
various sources, and reduced them all to one and the same absolute scale 
of Wave-number, I have sub-divided them into the following six steps of 
temperature. 

Step 1. Lowest temperature, much below freezing. This being afforded 
by the telluric lines in the day-light sky spectrum, when a ray of day-light from 
beyond traverses a long stratum of the earth's absorbing atmosphere in the 
upper regions. The data here are only 116 in number, and are partly taken 
from Angstrom's solar chart, and partly from my own observations. 

Step. 2. Ordinary vital temperature, say 68° F. This has been presented 
by the absorption spectra of glasses and liquids printed by the Royal Society, 
Edinburgh, in my paper of last year ; the data being 719 in number. 
VOL. xxix. part i. 4 E 



290 PROFESSOR PIAZZT SMYTH ON 

Step. 3. Lamp-flame temperatures ; these are taken mainly from M. 
Lecoq de Boisbaudran's admirable observations, discussed and arranged for 
this purpose by myself, and offer 370 data. 

Step. 4. Electric sparks 1 inch long ; for this at present I have only 
one series of measures ; but that is of a rather collective order ; being my own 
observations of air in an end-on gas-vacuum tube ; its data being 221 in number, 
as published by the Royal Scottish Society of Arts in their Transactions for 
1878-79. 

Step 5. Electric sparks 2 inches long ; these are taken also from M. de 
Boisbaudran's admirable series of apparently all the simple substances known 
in chemistry as being easily amenable to the heating effect of the above spark. 
The data are 1048 in number. 

Step 6. Electric sparks of 6 inches and more long ; and very much further 
raised in temperature by the use of condenser and Leyden-jar apparatus. This 
is an extensive series of all the known chemical elements, as experimented on 
by Thalen, Angstrom, Bunsen, Kirchoff, Plucker, Huggins, and others, and 
probably represents the highest temperature yet attained artificially. The 
data here are 2685 in number. 

These several collections are exhibited in their numerical arrangement 
through the spectrum in Part IV., and graphically in the plate appended, with 
the effect of showing that for every increase of temperature, the maximum of 
spectroscopic phenomena is found farther and farther removed from the red, 
and towards the violet ; so that — 

Step 1 has its maximum in about "W.N. 39,000 
Step 2 „ „ 41,000 

Step 3 „ „ 47,000 

Step 4 „ „ 49,000 

Step 5 „ „ 49,000, and 

Step 6 ., „ 51,000. 

Now therefore conies the question, as to what is the similar spectrum place 
of the maximum of Solar Activity as exhibited by the number, size, and position 
of its lines ? 

If we take Angstrom's Normal Solar Spectrum, then according to the 
numerical columns in Part IV., the maximum of its 1410 lines (treated as the 
other steps are, so as to give double weight to thick and intense lines over thin 
and faint ones), occurs at 55,000 of the Solar Spectrum scale. But as I have 
already indicated that the violet end of the Natural Solar Spectrum is cribbed 
and confined most lamentably in that map, I take my own Lisbon solar spectrum 
with 2016 lines, and can state according to the numbers also in Part IV., and 
the last figure in the plate, that its maximum is rather in 61,000 of "W. N. 
spectrum place ; and that it ought even to have, though unseen by man through 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM IN 1877-1878. 291 

glass, about as much more length still in that ultra violet direction ; just as 
indeed, the fluorescent observers have already discovered with their peculiar 
apparatus. 

Wherefore what a result, we have hereby now obtained. Not free, I must 
confess, from innumerable little causes of discrepance, and uncertainty from varia- 
tion of details of instruments and modes of observing, between one spectroscopist 
and another ; but invested with a remarkable breadth of common-sense appre- 
ciation of a something all important, about what the public would call degrees 
of heat. And which, though not yet capable of being employed very positively 
for science itself, may at least and at once induce many scientific men to be 
more cautious in future as to what heating methods they should strive to employ, 
and be careful to define and record the temperature results thereby attained, 
whenever they compare spectroscopically, terrestrial chemical elements in incan- 
descence, with the Solar elements in a similar condition. For, by how much the 
deflagrating temperatures of the most powerful electric sparks yet prepared by 
man, exceed the lower than freezing temperatures of the upper air, — by just 
about as much, and even a little more too, is the former exceeding high 
temperature surpassed by the almost unspeakably still higher temperature of 
the surface of the Sun, inch for inch, within its own domain. 



Part III. 

THE SOLAR SPECTRUM ITSELF 

at the date 1877-1878. 

This is a complete spectrum from one end to the other of everything visible 
to the eye through glass lenses and prisms, under dispersion powers of 33° 
(A to H) at the red, down to 10° (A to H) at the violet or lavender end ; 
and with magnifying powers of 10 to 20 on the telescope of inspection; the 
light being reflected to the slit occasionally by a silver-on-glass reflector, but 
more generally by a glass plate quick-silvered on the back. 

Hence this spectrum necessarily terminates a little beyond the H lines, and 
has no pretence of competing with metallic reflections, quartz lenses, fluorescent 
eye-pieces and photographic registrations, for their capacities in the more 
refrangible regions. It is simply an eye record of the luminous phenomena 
which are capable of being transmitted through glass. 

On the other hand it is peculiarly a spectrum of solar lines with the least 
possible telluric admixture, as the observations were made at Lisbon, in June 
and July, and always near the middle of the day when the sun had an altitude 
of nearly 70°. It is also a peculiar record of solar spectrum colours, as direct 



•202 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



and pure as the narrowest slit, the elimination of reflections of adjacent 
portions of the spectrum from the sides of the prisms, and the non-employment 
generally of any coloured glass screens could make it. 

The spectroscope was an experimental one prepared by myself. 





J 




Appear- 




PLACE- 






Differences. 


Colour of tin 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Frnunhofcr Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


ance by 
graph icul 
compara- 
tive 

symbol. 


Micrometer 
Heading. 

Kcv. 


DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 


Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Tlialen, Ac. 


Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 






<3 

S3 

H 


1 












Spectrum. 







M 3 


3 




At Lisbon in 1877, July ; and in part 








The four 










revised there in June 1878. Time 








first places 

within 
parentheses 
are from a 

grating 

photograjih 

by Capt. 

W. de W. 












of observation generally near Noon, 


















when altitude of sun = 70° nearly, 


















and thickness of atmosphere looked 


















through = 1 '06 (a Zenith-atmo- 


















sphere being assumed = 1 '00). This 
first portion was observed with 










(Tempo- 
rary Con- 








the Aurora Spectroscope. Disper- 










clusions 








sion = sometimes 14°, sometimes 33° 








Abney, 
R.E., F.R.S. 




only, up 








from A to H, mag. power of tele- 










to great 








scope =10. 












A.) 








Light of Continuous Spectrum of Sun 




















begins at Ultra-Red end of Spec- 




















trum, at or near to, 






48-296 






27 800 






Ultra - 


First line observed, a dark line on said 




. 












1460 


Red. 


continuous spectrum, 


2 


| 


49-721 


(29 260) 




29 260 








A strong line, called X, . 


4 


1 


50144 


(29 680) 


Unknown, 
but appar- 
ently Solar 


29 680 




420 
150 














rather than 


















Telluric. 










A fine, i.e. thin, line, 


l 


1 


50-333 


(29 830) 




29 830 








Ultra-Red ends and Crimson-Red 
















650 




begins, more or less, approximately. 












(30 000) 








A fine line, ..... 


l 


I 


51-000 






30 480 








Haze intervenes and accompanies the 
















120 




next three lines, .... 


0-5 
















Fine line, 


1 


I ' 


51-132 






30 600 




80 
40 


Crimson- 


Fine line, 


1 


I 


51-203 






30 680 




Red. 


Fine line, 


1 


1 


51-258 






30 720 






Very strong line Y, ) 
first side of, f 
middle of, ( 
second side of, ) 


9 


1 


51386 
51403 


(30 860) 


Chemical 
origin un- 


30 840 
30 860 


20 
10 


120 






51413 




known, but 
apparently 


30 870 


































Solar rather 






110 














than Telluric. 










Band of lines, whereof line 1, . 


3 


1 


51-527 






30 980 








line 2, . 


2 


1 


51-601 






31 030 




50 




line 3, . 


1 


1 


51-674 






31 090 




60 




line 4, 


1 


1 


51-740 






31 150 




60 




line 5, . 


1 


1 


51-808 






31 210 


i 


60 


Crimson- 


Very faint line, supposed to be the Z 
















690 


Red. 


of low Sun spectra, 


1 


1 


52-624 




Probably 
Telluric. 


31 900 




870 




N.B. — When any of the above 1 


ines, Z ex 


cepted, ai 


e seen at all (in the high-sun spectrum), they are us 


ually 




seen very black ; an effect in part pr 


obably di 


e to the 


ultra -faintness of the background of continuous spec 


;rum 




they are projected upon ; and, in pari 


, to their 


being no 


; telluric, but solar lines; so that instead of being sec 


n at 




their faintest, as the former are, the 


f are seei 


l. if not a 


ctually at their strongest, at least exceedingly strong, 


and 




stronger beyond comparison than ackn 


owledged 


telluric li 


nes, such as B and «, in a high-sun spectrum, throu 


gh a 




minimum thickness of terrestrial atm 


isphere : 


iroper ca 


e being of course always taken by the observer to pre 


vent 




false glare of brighter parts of the spec 


trum ente 


ring the i 


ield with these lines. 





THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



293 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Crimson- 
Red. 



Crimson- 
Red. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunnofer Line. 



A probable fine line, 
Another probable fine line, 
Excessively faint and fine line, . 

r Very faint thin line, 
Another, ..... 
Another, ..... 
A stronger line, 
A stronger line, ... 

Stronger and blacker, 

Strong, clean and black, . 
Strong, sharp and black, . 

Very strong, black, thick 
and sharp, 

Stronger, blacker, thicker, 
Very strong, black, sharp 

edged, 

The same: haze between 

the lines, .... 

The same ; do. do- 
Strongest of the whole : 
do. do. 

Rather fainter : do. do. 

Still fainter : do. do. 
_ Fainter still, and thinner : do. . 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



53-730 
53-900 
54-018 

54-086 
54-093 
54-129 
54-163 
54-196 
54-227 

54-256 
54-283 

54308 
54331 

54353 

54374 

54394 

54413 

54431 

54-447 
54-461 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Unknown, 
but probably 

Solar rather 
than Telluric. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



32 770 

32 890 

32 990 

33 027 
33 053 
33 083 
33 104 
33 135 
33 165 

33 180 
33 198 

33 214 
33 240 

33 255 

33 272 

33 281 

33 295 

33 306 

33 318 
33 330 



Differences. 






120 

100 

37 



The above 1 7 lines, exquisitely graduated, sharp, clean, and strangely black, like admirably engraved lines on 
a copper plate filled in with black printing ink, form the preliminary band before great A. Origin in chemistry 
unknown. 



The first of a grand bundle of close 
lines, with haze between, 



Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 
Seventh, 



do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



of 



do. 

do. . • 

do. . 

do. . 

do. . 
near middle 
bundle, 

An eighth, probable, 
Ninth, probable, . 

Tenth, or last, .... 

A pale space, but probably of far finer 
lines intervenes, thus 
and then — 

First side of a thick, dark 

line, 

I Second side of do. . 



2 


1 


3 


1 


4 


1 


4 


J 


5 
5 


1 


6 

t 


1 

t 


i 


? 


5 


1 


2 




8 


l! 



54-481 
54-492 
54503 
54 515 
54 528 
54541 

54551 
54578 



54607 
54 621 



33402 



Unknown, 
but probably 

Solar rather 
than Telluric. 



33 360 




33 370 




33 380 




33 385 




33 392 




33 400 




33 408 




33 430 




33 470 
33 480 


10 



10 

10 

5 

7 



22 



40 



20 



The above 12 entries form the great A line itself, the colossus of all the Solar spectrum lines, and its chemical 
origin unknown. 



A. fine, i.e., thin, line, 
Very fine line, haze to right, 

Finest line, 
Suspected finest line, 
Do. do. 



Do. 
Do. 



do. 
do. 





1 

07 


1 


54-670 
54-760 




0-2 

o-i 
o-i 


1 


55-041 
55-110 

55-210 




o-i 

1 


1 


55-292 
55-409 



33 500 
33 570 

33 770 
33 820 
33 895 

33 960 

34 100 



70 

200 

50 
75 

65 

140 
20 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4f 



294 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH OX 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Crimson- 
Red. 



1,'F.h. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed, 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Suspects d finest line, 
Rather stronger line, 
Fine line, 
Fine line, . 
Hazy line, 

Suspicion of a line, 
Fine line, . 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Stronger hazy line, 
Do. do. 



Stronger and clearer line, 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Fainter line, 

First faint line of a band, 
Second stronger, 
Third strongest, 
Single line, 



First and strongest line of a band, 
j Second rather weaker, 
Another still weaker, 
Last, weakest of all, 

Strong line of a band, 

Weaker line, 

Last and weakest line, 

Single line, strong, . 

Very faint Line, 
Fine line, 
Stronger line, . 
Very faint double line, 
I Fine line, 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
1 

0-5 

1 
1 
2 

1 

2- 
15 
1- 
1- 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 

compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I ill 



il'l 



III 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



55 
55 
55 
55 
55 

55 
56 
56 
56 
56 

56 
56 

56 

56 
56 
56 

56 
56 
56 

56 

56 
56 
56 
56 

56 
56 
56 

56 

56 
56 
56 
56 
56 



516 
658 
703 
745 
873 

912 
016 
049 
136 
170 

238 
288 

344 

394 
433 
446 

496 
516 
541 
576 

611 
623 
640 
658 

701 
721 
746 

784 

801 
851 
866 
914 
922 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



34 722 



35 036 



35 152 



Chemical-origiir 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <fcc. 



Telluric 
water- 
vapour. 



Telluric 
water- 
vapour. 



Telluric 
water- 
vapour. 



Telluric 

water- 
vapour. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMISKR- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



34 120 
34 220 
34 250 
34 283 
34 410 

34 490 
34 500 
34 560 
34 570 
34 600 

34 650 
34 690 

34 722 

34 760 
34 787 
34 795 

34 832 
34 847 
34 864 
34 890 

34 913 

34 924 
34 933 
34 947 

34 980 

34 992 

35 009 

35 036 

35 050 
35 084 
35 093 
35 129 
35 132 



Differences. 



So 



100 
30 
33 

127 
80 

10 
60 
10 
30 
50 

40 
32 

38 

27 

8 

37 

15 
17 
26 
23 

11 

9 

14 

33 

12 
17 



14 

34 
9 

36 
3 

27 



The above bracketed lines, 34 722 to 35 132 W.-N. , constitute the preliminary band, before the little a band ; it is 
apparently composed of water-vapour lines, and increases in number and thickness of lines egregiously with a low 
Sun and in warm, damp weather. 



CRIMSON-RED, as the colour of the continuous spectrum, ends at 35,000 ; and BED begins. 

Fine line, . 
Fine line, . 
Fine line, . 



Fine line, . 
Stronger line, . 
Fine line, . 
Fine line, . 

Strongest line yet, 
Fine line, . 



Faintest line of a bandelet, 
Stronger of do. 
Strongest of do. 

Centre of a clear space, 

( Strongest line of a bandelet, 

Second strongest, . 
( Last and wealcest, . 







1 


i 


56 


960 






1 


i 


56 


984 






1 


i 


57 


036 






1 


i 


57 


084 






1-5 


1 


57 


098 






1 


i 


57 


110 






1 


i 


57 


123 






3 


1 


57 


142 






1 


i 


57 


158 






0-5 


iilll 

1 ) 


57 


182 






07 


57 


204 






1-5 


57 


214 










57 


233 






2- 


iW 


57 


253 






1-5 


57 


262 






0-7 


57 


288 



35 252 



35 339 



Telluric 
watery 
vapour. 



Telluric 
watery 
vapour. 



Telluric 
watery 
vapour. 



35 159 
35 178 
35 212 




35 243 
35 252 
35 261 
35 270 




35 280 
35 292 




35 308 
35 322 
35 329 




35 342 




35 346 
35 363 
35 380 





19 
34 
31 



10 

12 
16 

14 
7 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



295 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



RED. 



RED. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Frauenhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Strong line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, . 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



2- 

17 

1 

1 

1 

1 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Heading. 



Rev. 



57-323 
57-350 
57-366 
57-381 
57-395 
57-413 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



35 46S 



Chemical-origin- 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Telluric 
watery 
vapour. 



Concluded 

WAV1C- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE. pel- 
British Inch. 



35 405 
35 422 
35 433 
35 446 
35 455 
35 468 



Differences. 



17 
11 
13 
9 
13 
30 



The above bracketed lines, 35 243 to 35 468 W.-N., form the band of little a itself ; a terrestrial water- vapour 
group, of which the lines increase so in both number and blackness, with a low Sun and in warm, moist weather, as 
to make the whole band one black club, excepting the light chink in the middle ; though that may also be blocked 
at last. In this condition the so-called little a, and its preliminary band, look gigantic even as compared with great 
A and its preliminary band ; though with a high Sun, great A is the grandest and blackest line in the whole spectrum. 



From this point begin the observations of 1878, at Campolide, near Lisbon, 


with a Solar Spectroscope, 


3 prisms. 


Dispersion = 28°, A to H ; and a telescope with mag. -power = 20. Date = June 2. 


. Time = 9h. 


50m. A.M. The Red 


colour of Continuous Spectrum is a glorious background for the delineation of the black spectral 


lines. 


Suspicion of fine line or band, . 


0-2 




12-087 






35 498 




11 

18 
14 
27 
24 


Do. graduating to left, . 


0-2 




12-127 






35 509 




Suspected fine line, .... 


0-2 


i 


12-181 






35 527 




Fine line certain, .... 


1- 


, 1 


12-228 


35 541 


? 


35 541 




Suspected fine line, .... 


0-3 




12-296 






35 568 




Do. do 


0-3 




12-355 






35 592 




35 

44 

57 
3 


Very fine line, ..... 


0-6 


1 ' 


12-450 






35 627 




Fine line, ..... 


1-0 


1 


12-560 






35 671 




Suspected fine line, .... 


0-5 




12-700 






35 728 




Do. do 


0-5 




12-708 






35 731 




19 
80 
34 

32 

32 
15 

4 


Do. do 


0-4 




12-756 






35 750 




Do. do 


0-5 




12-950 






35 830 




Do. do 


0-4 




13-035 






35 864 




Finest line, ..... 


0'6 


1 


13-118 






35 896 




Do 


1-0 


I 


13-198 






35 928 




Suspected fine line, .... 


05 




13-239 






35 943 




Do. do 


0-5 




13242 






35 947 




53 


Do. do 


0-5 




13-380 






36 000 




Fine line, double — 1st line, 


0-7 


'ihi! 


13-482 ) 




Telluric 


I 36 038 ) 


8 


38 


2d line, 


0-7 


13-504 \ 


36 039 


watery 


\ 36 046 ( 














vapour. 






32 


Suspected fine line, .... 


0-5 




13-590 






36 078 




27 


Fine line, double — 1st line, 


0-8 


',N 


13-661 


36 108 




36 105 ) 


11 




2nd line, 


0-6 


13-693 


36 118 




36 116 \ 


8 
30 


Suspected fine line, .... 


0-4 




13-720 






36 124 




Very certain, plain double line, but 
hazy — 1st line, .... 


2 


ai I .,..,. 


( 13-823 


36 152 


Telluric 
watery 


36 154 ) 


22 




2nd line, .... 


2 


;!; \ :l: :l: 


j 13-880 


36 171 


36 176 \ 














vapour. 






34 


Strongest line yet, but hazy, 


3 


III!! 


13-963 


36 214 




36 210 




22 


Fine line, hazy, .... 


1 


:i: 


14-030 


36 240 




36 236 




27 


Strong line of a band, but hazy, 


3 


i:|:: 


14-115 


36 265 




36 263 




41 


Less strong line, also hazy, 


2 


II: 


14-200 


36 292 


Telluric 


36 304 




20 


Less strong still, .... 


1 


II: 


14-270 


36 321 


watery 


36 324 




24 


Less still, 


0-8 




14-350 


36 343 


vapour. 


36 348 




12 


Very faint and close, 


0-3 




14-380 


36 362 




36 360 




36 


Hazy band, graduating down to right 

hand — beginning, .... 

end of, ... . 


J, 


-| 


14-487 
14-534 


36 396 




36 396 
36 414 

36 437 


18 


23 

17 
19 


Suspected fine line, .... 


0-5 




14-600 


36 437 




36 454 




Do. do 


0-5 




14 632 












Fine line, double, sharp — 1st line, . 


0-7 


1 I II J 


14-673 


36 471 




36 473 ) 


4 




2nd line, . 


0-7 


if "i 


14-687 






36 477 \ 


21 



29G 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of tin- 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 



RED. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Stronger fine line, double, sharp — 
1st line, 
2nd line, 

Stronger line, clean and sharp, . 
Fine line of band, 

Do. do. ... 

Do. stronger, 
Stronger still, fine and sharp, . 

Fine line, .... 

Do 

Do 

Stronger fine line and sharp, 
Fine line, .... 

Stronger line, .... 
The step line before B's preliminary 
band, ...... 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1-0 

1-0 

2 

1 

1-5 

1-5 

3 

0-6 

0-6 

07 

2 

0-5 

1-0 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



735 
756 

800 
835 
876 
910 
930 

958 
975 
000 
022 
054 
103 



15-176 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 

Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



36 523 



36 565 



36 603 



36 663 



Chemical-origin- 
dara from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Telluric. 



Telluric. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



36 498 
36 502 

36 523 
36 532 
36 548 
36 560 
36 566 

36 578 
36 582 
36 596 
36 604 
36 618 
36 636 

36 663 



Differences. 






21 

9 

16 
12 

6 

12 

4 
14 

8 

14 
18 
27 



Here begin the grand bands of fine lines before the great B line, of which we made three independent sets of observations 
on June 15 and 19, near Noon a.m., and P.M., with dispersions varying from 28° up to 50° (between A and H). The following 
Wave-number places are a mean of the whole. 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

ot black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE of 
every line. 



Differences 
of pairs. 



WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE of 
single lines, 
and Centres 
of doubles. 



Differences. 



liED. 



The step line repeated, 
Very faint line, 

Preliminary band begins. 

First pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 



Second pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 



Third pair— 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. . 



Fourth pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 



Fifth pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 



Sixth pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. . 



Seventh pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do, 



Eighth pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 



Ninth pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 



2'0 

o-i 



0-5 
05 

0-7 
0-7 

1-0 
1-0 

1-5 
1-5 

1-8 
1-8 

2-0 

2-0 

2-5 
2-5 

2-5 
2-5 

2-0 
2-0 



ii 



36 663 
36 679 



36 691 
36 694 

36 717 

36 721 

36 7-h! 
:J6 747 

36 767 
36 773 

36 792 
36 798 

36 814 
36 821 

36 835 
36 841 

36 855 
36 860 

36 874 
36 879 



36 663 



36 692 



36 719 



36 744 



36 770 



36 795 



36 817 



36 838 



36 858 



36 876 



31 

27 

25 

26 

25 

22 

21 

20 

18 
16 



Telluric lines. 



Telluric lines, 

supposed of 

dry gas. 



Telluric lines, 

supposed of 

dry gas. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



297 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



WAVE- 

NtJMBER- 
PLACE of 
every line. 



Differences 
of pairs. 



WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE of 
single lines, 
and Centres 
of doubles. 



Differences. 



RED. 



Tenth pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. . 

Eleventh line, single, 



1-5 
1-5 

1-0 



36 891 
36 894 

36 907 



36 862 



36 907 



15 



The above concludes the "preliminary" band of Great B, and the double lines are eminently sharp, clear, well- 
defined both within and without, having no haze whatever about them. 



Next begins the so-called " attached" band of Great B. 

First pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 

Second pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 

Third pair — 1st component line, 
2nd do. do. 

Fourth pair, or single line ? 
Fifth do. do. ? 

Sixth do. do. ? 

A strong certain single line, 
Another like it, 
Another rather fainter, 

Great B line, begins with a bundle 

of fine lines — 1st edge whereof, 
2nd do. 
A pale space intervenes, shaded by 

apparently infinitely fine, close 

lines, ..... 
A strong terminal line, ... 2 36 990 



0-3 


\H 


0-3 


0-5 


',!,»! 


0-5 


0-8 


'ii'1 


0-8 


1-0 


1 


10 


1 


0-8 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-0 


1 


1-5 


1 


1' 




2 


1 



36 924 
36 928 


36 934 
36 937 


36 942 
36 944 


36 949 
36 954 
36 958 
36 962 
36 968 
36 975 


36 982 

36 984 



36 926 



36 936 



36 943 

36 949 
36 954 
36 958 
36 962 
36 968 
36 975 

36 982 

36 984 



36 990 



10 



Telluric lines, 

supposed of 

dry gas. 



The above terminates the whole of the very beautiful arrangement of great B and its bands ; supposed to be due to telluric 
influence, because it thickens when the sun is low in the sky, but the particular element, or combination of elements to which it is 
due, is not yet known. All the lines from 36 692 to 36 990 blacken immensely as the Sun goes down. 

The beauty of the compound and rythmical structure of the lines is much enhanced by the magnificent full and perfect red on 
which they are depicted when the Sun is high, and no false glare from other parts of the spectrum enters the field of view. 

With W.-N. 37 000 the Red of the Continuous Spectrum verges towards a scarlet-red, more or less, partly depending on the 
brightness of the light. 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 



Scarlet- 
Red. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Suspected fine line, 

Dc. do. 
Certain fine line, 

Suspected fine line, 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 

Certain fine line, 
Suspected fine line, 
Certain fine line, 
Suspected fine line, 

Certain very fine line, 
Certain fine line, 
Very fine line, . 



0-3 
0-3 
1-0 

0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 

1-5 
0-5 

1-0 
0-5 

1-0 
1-6 
10 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



765 
782 
834 
862 
920 

050 
160 
328 
426 

913 

992 
268 



PLACE- 






Differences. 


DATA, 


Chemical-origin- 


Concluded 










from 


data from 


WAVE- 


•3 


» 


Angstrom's 


Angstrom, 


NUMBER- 


2 S 




Grating Nor- 


Thalen, <&c. 


PLACE, per 


ss 


§ 


mal Solar 




British Inch. 


ss,g 




Spectrum. 






S M 


a 






37 013 




19 
11 






37 032 




37 043 




37 043 












41 






37 084 






8 

21 

21 






37 093 








37 101 








37 122 








37 143 












49 


37 195 




37 192 




50 
66 
35 


37 247 




37 242 








37 308 








37 343 












183 






37 526 




27 
85 
44 


37 553 




37 553 








37 638 





VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4 G 



298 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 
Continuous 

Spectrum at 
the Place. 



Scarlet- 
Red. 



Scarlet- 
Red. 



< 'ranee. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 
of black, or 

thickness 
of line. 



Suspected fine line, . 
Do. do. 

Fine line, 

Do 

Strongest line yet, but sharp and 

Fine line, 

Suspected fine line, . 



lean 



Stronger than previous strongest, or 
"Half-way line" between BandC, 

Suspected line, .... 
Do. do 

Strong line, ..... 
Do. 

Strong line, and rather thick, pro 
bably double, 

Fine line, .... 

Suspected fine line, . 
Suspected narrow band, 
Double line, sharp and thin — 

1st component, . 

2nd do. ... 

Fine line, .... 

Suspected faint band, 
Certain fine line, 
Suspected fine line, . 
Certain fine line, 

Haze on left of C line, 

Left side of thick C line, 
Centre of C line, . 
Right side of C line, 

Haze on right of C line, 



0-4 
0-4 

1-0 

1-0 

2-5 

1- 

0-5 



0-5 
0-5 
1-5 
1-5 




1 


1 



5 

10 

5 

o 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-orignx 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



11-407 
11-465 

11-667 
11-740 
11-813 
12-005 
12-143 

12-463 

12-570 
12-645 
12-704 
13-037 

13-200 

13-638 
13-734 
13-830 

13-906 
13-928 

14-037 

14-130 
14-252 
14-305 
14-355 

14-450 

14 473 
14 490 

14-508 



37 764 

37 816 
37 898 



38 040 



Calcium. 
Calcium. 



38 116 
38 238 


38 291 


38 465 


38 502 


| 38 530 | 


38 570 


38 600 
38 640 


38 678 


38 706 



Iron. 



Tell, water 
vapour. 

Iron. 



Hydrogen. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



37 682 
37 700 

37 764 
37 789 
37 816 
37 892 

37 940 

38 040 

38 073 
38 100 
38 116 
38 240 

38 291 

38 459 
38 486 
38 504 

38 528 
38 536 

38 570 

38 600 
38 639 
38 654 
38 672 

38 697 
38 702 
38 706 
38 709 

38 716 



Differences. 






The haze, dark and ugly looking about C, or Scarlet Hydrogen, may tend to show that the 
disturbed state. Otherwise the Scarlet-red of the continuous spectrum hereabouts is brilliant in 



\-' 



18 

64 

25 
27 

76 
48 

100 

33 

27 

16 

124 

51 

168 



■•7 
18 

24 



34 

30 

39 
15 

18 

25 

5 



7 
34 






Solar hydrogen is in a 
the extreme. 



Very fine line, . 

Do. do. . 

Do. do. . 

Stronger fine line, 
Fine lino, 

Very fine line, . 

Do. do. . 
Fine line, 

Do. 



Very fine line, 



Very fine line, . 
Fine line and hazy, 

Certain line line, 





1-5 




14-610 




1-5 


. 


14-660 




1-5 




14-728 




2-5 


1 


14-775 




1-8 


1 


14-S18 




1- 




14-995 




1- 




15-018 




1-5 


i 


15-112 




1-5 




15-180 


lerhaps double, . 


1-5 


ill 


15-275 


and sharp, 


2- 


1 


15-325 


• 


1- 


1 


15-356 



38 806 
38 816 

38 882 



38 981 



Tell, water 
vapour. 

Iron. 

Tell, water 

vapour. 



Tell, water 
vapour. 



(SCARLET colour ends, ORANGE begins hereabouts.) 



Band, probably of 5 or) Bc g innin S> • 
6 very close lines. { End of Band> 



1- 
1- 
1-5 

1- 

1- 



I 



15-404 
15-480 
15-660 
15-695 

15-77:1 



39 010 

39 088 
39 115 

39 135 



Calcium. 

Barium. 

Tell, water 

Calcium. 



9 June 21, Oh. 15m. Reset Prisms to Min. Dev. lor Part. 



Rand repeated 



1st line of 5 or 6, 
last line of do., 



i- m 
i- II 



10-447 
10-510 



39 105 
39 135 



Tell, watery 
vapour, &c. 



38 750 
38 765 

38 790 
38 806 
38 816 

38 880 
38 888 
38 919 
38 939 
38 968 
38 983 

38 987 



39 010 
39 032 
39 093 
39 112 

39 135 



39 104 
39 134 



15 

25 

16 
10 

29 

15 

23 



23 



30 



lfi 






THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



299 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



1st and strongest 

line, . 
last, and weakest, . 



Double in Angstrom, 



Very fine line, . 

Veiy fine line, . 

Fine band gra- 
duating down 
to right hand 

Single fine line, 

Stronger line. 
Faint line, 
Faint line, 
Suspected line, 
Strong line, 



Suspected line, .... 
Certain line, but faint and hazy, 
Strong line, hazy and faint, 
Still stronger line and sharvjer, . 

Hazy band suspected, 

Fine sharp line, 

Double line, very sharp, 1st component 

2d do. 
Fine line suspected, . 
Very fine, or thin, line, 

Stronger line, .... 
Do. do 

Strongest line yet, . 

Strong line, .... 
An important group for identification 



Fine band suspected, 
Fine line suspected, 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Very thin line, . 
Certain fine line, 

Do. do. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Heading. 



10-565 
10-620 

10-690 
10-712 
10-755 

10-820 
10-885 
10-928 
10-955 
11 045 

11-090 
11-154 
11-290 
11-473 

11-584 
11-635 
11-796 
11-828 
11-878 
11-917 

11-976 
12-040 
12185 

12-305 



•460 
•554 
•740 
■820 
•890 
•957 
■027 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



39 178 



39 231 



39 306 



39 383 
39 450 



39 500 



39 621 

39 692 

39 734 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <fcc. 



Iron. 

Iron and 
Calcium. 



Calcium. 
Calcium. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 
N UMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



39 149 
39 160 

39 182 
39 190 
39 202 

39 228 
39 252 
39 264 
39 274 
39 303 

39 320 
39 341 
39 386 
39 452 

39 488 
39 500 
39 563 
39 574 
39 590 
39 603 

39 623 

39 648 

39 694 

39 735 



39 788 
39 819 
39 880 
39 905 
39 930 
39 950 
39 975 



Differences. 



11 



11 
22 

12 

6 

24 
12 
10 
29 

17 

21 
45 
66 

26 

12 
63 

16 
13 

20 

25 

46 
41 

53 

31 
61 
25 
25 
20 
25 
49 



ORANGE colour ends here, and AMBER begins. 



In the Solar spectroscope, when glare is prevented by a preliminary prism, rather than by coloured glass, 
beauty and transparency of the amber colour of this part of the spectrum is something most exquisite to behold. 



the 



Very thin line, . 
Do. do. J . 

Fine line, 1st of three, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Suspected fine line, . 
Very fine line, . 
Fine line certain, 



Last edge of band beginning to left, 
Line, hazy, 
Suspected line, 

Do. do. . 
Fine and sharp double line- 

lst component, . 

2nd do. 
Fainter, wider double line- 

lst component, . 

2nd component, 

Suspected fine line, . 
Do. do. 

Certain fine line, 





2 
2 


1 
1 


13-182 
13-235 




3 
3 
3 


I'M 


13-339 
13-383 
13-420 




0-5 

r 

1-5 


i 

i 
i 


13-510 
13-560 
13-667 




I- 

1- 

0-5 

0-5 


■1: = 

1 
1 


13-750 
13-810 
13-895 
13-973 




2* 

2" 


Mi'l 


14-048 I 
14-065 \ 




1-5 
1-5 


'il"l 


14-104 
14-140 




0-5 
0-5 
1-5 


i 
1 


14-186 
14-250 
14-288 



40 086 



40 207 



40 311 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 

Iron, &c. 
Iron. 



Iron, &e. 



Iron. 

2 



40 024 
40 040 

40 070 
40 086 
40 099 

40 129 
40 145 
40 178 

40 206 
40 230 
40 259 
40 286 

40 310 
40 318 

40 332 
40 340 

40 350 
40 378 
40 390 



16 
30 



30 

16 
33 

28 

24 
29 

27 

24 



14 



10 

28 
12 
33 



300 



PROFESSOR PIAZZ1 SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Amber. 



Amber 



Object observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 
of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Faintest haze band — 1st edge, . 

2nd edge, 
Stronger haze band — 1st edge, . 

2nd edge, . 
Still stronger, but narrow haze band- 

lst edge, . 

2nd edge, . 



0-3 
3 
0-5 

0-5 

1-0 
1-0 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



14-400 
14-470 
14-505 | 
14-532 \ 

14 565 
14590 



40 464 



Chemical -origin' 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thai™, <fcc. 



Telluric. 
Telluric, 

Telluric. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch, 



40 423 
40 440 
40 453 
40 460 



Differences. 



*a 



140 469, 
"(40 480 ' 



13 



The above three bands constitute the a band in the high Sun spectrum. They are there, the most delicate trace 
imaginable, like three faint touches of water-colour laid on an engraving with a small crow-quill camel' s-hair pencil. 
This <X band is telluric of course, blackens exceedingly, terrifically, spreading at the same time redward, towards sunset, 
and in dry weather as much as wet. Its constituent or originating gas is not certainly known. 



T") June 22, 1878. Prisms = Nos. 6, 8, and 4. Dispersion = 28°. 
admirable. lOh. 30m. a.m. re-commenced with the a band. 

a Band : 1st and faintest portion — 
1st side, 
2nd do. 
2nd and stronger — 1st side, 
2nd do. 
3rd and strongest — 1st side, 
2nd do. 



Re-arranged prisms for space C to D. Definition 



Sharp line, 

Fine line suspected, . . . . 
Clear and sharp line, 

A graduated Solar group — 

1st line, thin, 

2nd line, double, A, 

Do. do. B, 

3rd, strong, . 

4th, stronger, 

5th, stronger, 



Double line — 1st faint, 

2nd stronger, 
Very faint double — 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Very faint but sharp single line, 
Very faint but sharp double — 

1st component, 



2nd do. 



Strong double- 
Suspected line, 
Do. do. 

Strong fine line, 



Very fine line, . 
Fine line, 
Stronger fine line, 



■1st line, 
2nd line, 



stronger, 



Very fine line, .... 
Fine line, .... 

Strongest line this morning 
perhaps double, . 



Fine line, 






i ted fine 


line, 


Do. 


do. 




Fine line, 






Do. 






Do. 






Do. 






Do. 







2 

0-5 

2-5 



0-7 

1 

1 

2 
2 
3 

1 
2-5 

0-5 
0-5 

1- 

r 

i 



8-714 
8-737 
8-765 
8-790 
8 815 
8 838 

8-943 

8-983 
9-036 



9-100 
9-147 
9-160 
9-190 
9-230 
9-262 

9-354 
9-374 
9-417 
9-426 

9-483 

9-525 
9-545 

9-635 
9-667 
9-735 
9-793 
9-873 

9-918 
9-945 
9-980 

10-132 
10-215 

10 393 

10-459 
10-490 
10-553 

10-610 
10-670 
10-704 
10-745 
10-793 



40 464 



40 546 



40 625 



40 669 



Telluric. 



Telluric. 
Telluric. 



Iron. 



Titanium. 

Titanium. 
Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



40 772 



41029 



Iron. 



Titanium. 



Titanium. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 

Nickel. 

Iron. 



40 427 
40 434 
40 446 
40 455 
(40 466 
(40 474 

40 512 
40 526 
40 546 



40 572 
40 586 
40 593 
40 602 
40 618 
40 627 

40 654 
40 669 
40 674 
40 687 

40 712 

40 726 
40 733 

40 765 

40 774 
40 799 
40 820 
40 848 

40 863 

40 872 
40 883 

40 937 

40 966 

41028 

41 052 
41 065 

41 088 

41 106 
41 129 
41 140 
41 152 
41 168 



15 



12 



32 

25 
21 
28 

16 

9 
11 

54 

29 

62 

24 

18 
23 

18 

28 

11 
12 
16 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



301 









Appear- 




PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 




Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMISER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 


Differences. 


Colour of the 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunuofer Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 

symbol. 


Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 


Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 


•3 
■§■■§ 

5 o 


o 
o 
1 












Spectrum. 






S a 


5 




Exquisitely fine close double — 




















1st component, 
2nd do. 


1-5 
1-5 


M'l 


10-813 
10-824 


| 41 177 


Calcium. 


1 41 176 
j 41 178 


2 






Very faint, wider double— 
















16 




1st component, 


0-7 


\H 


10-866 






41 194 


8 






2nd do. 


0-7 


10-890 






41 202 




Amber. 


Fine line, ..... 


1-5 


1 


10-923 




2 


41 213 




11 
13 




Strong clear line, .... 


2-5 


1 


10-951 


41 223 


Calcium. 


41 226 








Very faint close double — 
















3 




1st component, 


0-5 


M-l 


10-962 






41 229 


9 






2nd do. 


0-5 


10970 






41 231 




19 




Fine line, ..... 


1-0 


i 


11-030 




Sodium. 


41 250 




18 




Stronger line, 


2- 


i 


11-080 






41 268 




4 




Clear line, 


1-3 


i 


11-093 




Sodium. 


41 272 




16 




Do. do 


1-5 


i 


11-145 




Iron. 


41 288 




18 

10 
20 
24 




Do. do. . 


1- 


i 


11-198 






41 306 






Strong line, . . ' . 


2- 


i 


11-225 




Iron. 


41 316 






Very fine line, . . . . • 


10 


i 


11-280 






41 336 






Strong clear line, .... 


3- 


i 


11-352 


41 360 


Barium. 


41 360 




28 




Strong double : 1st and weaker, 


1 


r .M 


11-434 


41 388 


Iron. 


41 388 


8 




2nd and stronger, 


2 


11-457 


41 394 


Iron. 


41 396 


35 
30 
21 

12 

19 
21 
35 
19 




Finest of lines, ..... 


0-5 


i 


11-550 






41 431 






Do. do 


0-7 


i 


11-630 




Titanium. 


41 461 






Suspected line, 


0-5 




11-690 






41 482 






Strong clear line 


2-5 


i 


11-741 




Calcium. 


41 494 






Finest of lines, ..... 


1- 


i 


11-795 






41 513 






Fine line, ...... 


1-5 




11-855 




Nickel. 


41 534 






Very finest of lines 


0-8 


. 


11-954 




Barium. 


41 569 






Fine line, ...... 


1-2 


i 


12-015 




Nickel. 


41 588 






Strong fine line ; single in Angstrom ; 
















33 




double here : 1st, .... 
2nd, 


1-5 
1-5 


\i"S 


12-110 
12-128 


| 41 624 


Caicium. 


| 41 621 

j 41 624 


3 


44 

20 

17 
14 
21 




Very finest of lines, .... 


0-7 




12-245 






41 668 






Do. do 


07 


, 


12-305 






41 688 






Do. do 


0-5 




12-350 






41 705 






Do. do 


0-6 


. 


12-393 




Titanium. 


41 719 






Do., and double : 1st component, . 


0-5 


M-l 


12-465 






41 740 


5 




2nd do., 


0-5 


12-485 






41 745 


8 

11 

8 

17 




Suspected line, 


0-3 




12-515 






41 753 






Fine line 


0-8 


i 


12-555 




Titanium. 


41 764 






Suspected line, ..... 


0-5 




12-574 






41 772 






Fine line, double : 1st component, . 


0-8 


'li'-ii 


12-623 






41 789 


2 




2nd do., stronger, 


1-5 


12 634 


41 790 


Iron. 


41 791 


89 




Clear fine single line, 


1-0 


i 


12-890 


41 880 


Iron and 


41 880 
















Titanium. 






16 




Suspicion of fine line, 


0-5 


. 


12-942 






41 896 




39 

83 

122 




Fine clean line, .... 


1-3 


i 


13-083 




Iron. 


41 935 • 






Very fine line, 


1-1 


i 


13-385 






42 018 






Fine and sharp, .... 


1- 




13-708 




Iron. 


42 140 




Amber. 


















25 




Strong, fine, and sharp, . 


2 - 


i 


13-776 


42 167 


Iron. 


42 165 




15 




Do., do 


2- 


i 


13 823 






42 180 




8 
12 




Stronger and sharp, .... 


3- 


i 


13864 


42 185 


Manganese. 


42 188 






Fine line and sharp, .... 


1-5 


i 


13-932 


42 198 


Iron. 


42 200 




25 




Do. do 


1- 


i 


13-998 




Manganese. 


42 225 




9 




Very fine line, 


0-5 


i 


14-027 




Manganese. 


42 234 




23 




Fine and close double, perhaps triple — 


















1st, 


1-5 


i ) ( 


14-100 




Manganese. 


42 257 


4 






2nd, 


1- 


i n. 


14-110 






42 261 


5 






3rd, ? 


0-3 


■ 


14-124 






42 266 




34 


VOl 


.. XXIX. PART I. 














4i 


[ 



302 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 









Appear- 




PLACE- 






Differences. 


Colour (if the 

mucins 

Spectrum at 
the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


ance by 
graphical 

compara- 
tive 
symbol. 


Micrometer 
Heading. 

Eev. 


DATA. 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 


Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 


Concluded 
WAVE 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 




•9 

ir. {/' 

So 


i 

o 

c 
s 












Spectrum. 






a u 


5 




Fine line. This not in Angstrom, 




















and his two adjacent Iron lines not 




















here, ...... 


1-5 


1 


14-225 




2 


42 300 




44 
11 




Very fine line, ..... 


1- 


1 


14343 






42 344 




Amber. 


Suspected fine line, .... 


0-5 




14-378 




Telluric water 


42 355 
















vapour. 






27 




Suspected line or lines, 


0-5 


1 


14-457 






42 382 




48 

18 
6 

56 
9 

51 

13 

70 

q 




A fine line certain, .... 


1-5 


1 


14-590 




Iron. 


42 430 






Do. do. .... 


1-3 


1 


14-644 




Iron. 


42 448 






Do. do. .... 


1-3 


1 


14-668 




Iron. 


42 454 






Do. do. .... 
Do. do. .... 


1-3 
1-3 


'll»i 


14-816 
14-848 


| 42 512 


Iron. 


J 42 510 
j 42 519 






Very finest of lines, .... 


1- 


1 


15-008 


42 571 


Iron. 


42 570 






Do. do. .... 


1- 


1 


15-045 




Titanium. 


42 583 






Fine line, 


1-5 


I 


15-235 




2 


42 653 






Do 


1-5 


1 


15-263 


42 662 


Titanium. 


42 662 




8 




Suspected line, .... 


0-5 




15-304 




Telluric 


42 670 
















watery vap. 






12 




Fine line, possibly double, 


0-7 


I 


15-353 






42 682 




8 
12 

10 

7 

10 

18 
3 




Fine line, ..... 


0-5 




15-384 






42 690 






Fine clear double, 1st line, 
2nd do. 


1-4 
2-0 


'll''l 


15-440 
15-455 


I 42 699 


Iron. 


( 42 702 
( 42 705 


3 




Very faintest of lines, 


0-5 


■ 


15-485 




Telluric 


42 715 






Do. do 


0-5 


■ 


15-510 




watery vap. 


42 722 






Suspected thin band, 


0-5 


- 


15-546 






42 732 






Fine line, ..... 


1- 


1 


15-600 




telluric 


42 750 
















watery vapour 


















and chief 




















"Rain-band'" 




















lines. 










Finest of lines, . . . . 


0-7 


1 


15-618 






42 753 




5 




Do. do 


1-0 


1 


15-630 






42 758 






Suspected fine line, .... 


0-5 


, 


15-650 






42 763 




J 

39 

20 




Certain fine line, .... 


1-3 


1 


15 778 




Iron. 


42 802 






Very fine line, ..... 


1- 


1 


15-840 




Telluric 


42 822 
















watery vap. 






9 




Fine line, ..... 


1-4 


1 


15-878 




Iron. 


42 831 








Fine line ; space between this and 
















18 




last line shaded, .... 


1- 


1 


15-924 




Iron. 


42 849 




28 
11 




Very fine line, probably double. 


0-4 


, 


16-015 






42 877 






Very fine line, . . . . 1 ' 


1 


16-048 




Telluric water 


42 888 














vapour. 






18 


Amber. 


Very fine triple line, 1st palest, 
2nd line, 


0-5 
0-8 


\!,i 


16-108 
16126 




Telluric watei 


42 906 
42 913 


7 
6 






3rd darkest, 


1-2 


i 1 1 


16-143 




vapour. 


42 919 


15 




Finest possible line, .... 


1- 


i 


16-190 




Telluric water 


42 934 
















vapour. 






8 




Do. do 


1- 


i 


16-214 






42 942 




10 
8 

21 




Strong line 


3- 


1 


16-248 


42 953 


Iron. 


42 952 






Finest of lines, ..... 


1- 


I 


16-274 






42 960 






Excessively fine line, double ? . 


0-7 


li 


16-343 




Telluric water 


42 981 
















vapour. 






7 




1 cessively fine line, 


0-5 


i 


16-365 






42 988 




12 




AMBER colour ends here, and YELLOW be{ 


fins. 










The large number of excessively thin, and g 


.'nerally u 


nimportant 


lines encountered hereabo 


uts is probably due to 




faint traces of the rain-band lines, just visible, a 


though tl 


ic Sun is 70 


' high 




Fellow. 


Excessively thin band suspected, 


0-6 


|S 


16-400 






43 000 




]« 


Certain fine line, .... 


1-3 


I 


16-458 




Iron. 


43 016 




14 




Thinnest and finest line, . 


T 


i 


16-500 






43 030 




18 




Fine line, ..... 


r 


1 


16-560 




Telluric 

watery vap. 


43 048 




9 






THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 



303 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Very line double : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, .... 
Suspected fine, . 

D 1 line ; first side of it, . 
second side, 

Very clear line and sharp, 
Fainter line, but sharp, 

D 2 line ; first side of it, . 
second side, 

Suspected faint line or band, 
Certain fine sharp line, 
Suspected fine line (reset prisms), 
Do. do. 

Suspected band, 
Suspected fine line, . 

Suspected band, 
Suspected line, 

Suspicion of a line, . 
Certain very fine line, 
Suspicion of a line, . 
Fine line, clean and sharp, 

Suspicion of a band, . 
Fine line, .... 
Strongest line hereabouts, 
Excessively fine line, 

Very thin but wide double ; 1st line, 
2nd line, 

Excessively fine line, certain, 
Finest possible line, . 
Strong fine line, 
Thin faint band, . . 

Very thin but certain fine line, . 
Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Beginning of band fading to right, 
Another band fading to right, 
Very fine line, . 

Beginning of a faint band, 
End of same, fading away, 



Line painfully thin, . 
Do. do. . 

Narrow band ; beginning, 

end, . 
Single very fine line, 

Very faint band, 
Fine line, . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Suspicion of a line, . 



Double, strong ; 1st component, 
Do. 2nd 



Observations end at lh. 15m. p.m. 
d June 24, 1878. Prisms 6, 8, and 4 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



07 
07 

1-5 

0-3 

10 

3- 

r 



10 

o 
l 












1 



1 



1 

3 

1 

1 
1 

1 



] 



1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 








1 



1 
1 
1 



3 

2 



Micrometer 
Heading. 



16592 
16-608 
16-637 
16-658 

16 688 
16 697 

16-764 
16-795 

16 830 
16 840 



926 
976 

845 
870 

900 
948 

985 
010 

183 
220 
243 
327 

360 
402 
456 
486 

543 

585 

690 
075 
488 
517 

664 
732 
763 

797 
946 
068 

128 
133 

208 
225 
280 
315 
370 

412 
558 
583 
640 
720 



14-872 
14-890 



PLACE 
DATA. 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



43 086 



43 130 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



43 368 



43 404 



43 675 



44 082 



Titanium. 



Sodium. 

Nickel. 

Telluric water 

vapour. 

Sodium. 



Iron. 

Telluric water 
vapour. 

Telluric water 
vapour. 



Iron. 

Iron. 

Calcium. 



Barium. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 



Copper. 

Barium. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



43-057 ) 
43-060 \ 
43 067 
43 072 

43 085 
43 088 

43 110 
43 120 

43 130 
43 134 

43 161 

43 179 

43 198 

43 208 

43 220 
43 237 

43 251 
43 260 

43 326 
43 338 
43 344 
43 368 

43 380 
43 394 
43 405 
43 416 

43 432 
43 443 

43 471 
43 573 
43 675 
43 682 

43 724 
43 744 
43 750 

43 762 
43 808 
43 843 

43 860 
43 862 

43 882 
43 889 
43 905 
43 918 
43 931 

43 947 

43 990 

44 000 
44 020 
44 040 

44 082 
44 088 



Differences. 



11 



13 



5 
13 



22 
10 
10 



18 
19 
10 

22 

17 

14 

9 

66 

12 

6 

24 

12 

14 
11 
11 

16 



102 

102 

7 

42 

20 
6 

12 

46 
35 

17 
2 

20 

7 
16 

13 
16 

43 



10 
20 
20 

42 



Dispersion A to H = 28°. lOh. 15m. a.m. 



304 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 









Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 




PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 




Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 


Differences. 


Colour of tile 
Continuous 

Spectrum at 
the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
1 rami hotel' Line. 


Intensity 
of black, oi 

thickness 
of line. 


Micrometer 
Heading. 

Rev. 


Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, tStc. 


■3 . 

is 


3 

O 

a 

CD 












Spectrum. 






M Q 


5 


Yellow. 


Last double repeated ; 1st component, 
2nd, 


3 

2 


'ii"l 


11-759 . 
11-774 


j 44 082 


Iron. 


1 44 082 
j 44 088 


6 


12 




Suspicion of a line, .... 


0-5 


■ 


11-820 






44 100 




28 
15 

8 

5 
9 




Fine line, 


1-0 


1 


11-918 






44 128 






Stronger line, 


2-6 


1 


11-970 




Iron. 


44 143 






Fine line, ..... 


1-0 


1 


11-993 






44 151 






Fine line, ..... 


1-5 


1 


12-018 






44 156 






Thin line, 


1-2 


1 


12-050 






44 165 






















27 




Faint band or group ; beginning, 


0-3 


! - \ 


12-143 






44 192 


18 






end, 


3 


$ = 1 


12-175 






44 200 


22 

80 
41 
69 
19 




Thin line, 


ro 


i 


12-315 






44 242 






Strong line, .....' 


2' 


I 


12-598 


44 322 


Iron. 


44 322 






Fine line, ..... 


r 


i 


12-730 




? 


44 363 






Stronger line, ..... 


1-5 


I 


12-974 




Iron. 


44 432 






Do. do 


1-4 


I 


13-043 




Titanium and 


44 451 
















Iron. 






7 




Fine line, ..... 


1- 


i 


13-065 






44 458 




19 
4 

15 
6 

20 




Faint, and perhaps double, 


1- 


ii 


13-132 






44 477 






Stronger line, 


1-5 


i 


13-155 




Iron. 


44 481 






Strongest line hereabouts, 


3- 


I 


13-202 


44 496 


Iron. 


44 496 






Fine line, 


1-3 


i 


13233 






44 502 






Double line; 1st component, 


3- 


MM 


13-298 




Iron. 


44 522 


f _ 




2nd 


1-5 


13-318 




? 


44 529 


i 


14 

19 
24 
23 

5 
24 

6 

18 

15 
16 

11 




Fine line, 


0-8 


i 


13-365 






44 543 






Strong line, 


2- 


1 


13-430 




Iron. 


44 562 




Yellow. 


Faint line, 


1- 


i 


13-533 




? 


44 586 






Fine line, ..... 


1- 


i 


13-614 






44 609 






Do 


1- 


i 


13-645 




N 


44 614 






Do 


0-8 


i 


13-706 






44 638 






Do 


1- 


i 


13-734 




Titanium. 


44 644 






Strongest line so far, 


2 


1 


13-794 




Sodium. 


44 662 






Strong line, ..... 


1-4 


1 


13-845 




Iron. 


44 677 






Fine line, 


1-2 


i 


13-902 




? 


44 693 






Strong, close double ; 1st component, 


3- 


'■hi 


13-947 


| 44' 707 ' 


Iron and 


J 44 704 


6 




(Single in Angstrom) ; 2nd, 


3- 


13-961 


Sodium. 


(44 710 


24 

24 
45 

7 

10 




Fine line, 


1- 


i 


14-052 




Iron. 


44 734 






Stronger line, ..... 


1-5 


I 


14-150 




Titanium. 


44 758 






Fine line (Not in Angstrom), . 


1- 


i 


14-323 






44 803 






Do (Not in Angstrom), . 


1- 


i 


14-353 






44 810 






Faint group ; beginning, . 


05 


I »l 


14-385 






44 820 


6 




end, 


0-5 


14-408 






44 826 


11 

11 
12 

30 




Fine line 


1-3 


i 


14-447 




? 


44 837 






Do 


1-3 


i 


14-488 




? 


44 848 






Perhaps a close double, 


1-3 


ii 


14-530 




Titanium. 


44 860 






Triple line ; 1st component, 


3 


> ). 


14-647 


) 


Iron. 


( 44 890 
\ 44 892 
( 44 898 


p 




(1 & 2 single in Angst.) 2nd component, 


2 


if Ii 


14-655 


}U 893 


Iron. 


g 






8rd, 


1 


i ) 


14675 




? 
























18 




Faint band ; beginning, . 


1-5 


! : - ) 


14740 




Iron. 


44 916 


6 







middle, 


1 




14-755 






44 922 






end 


0-5 


i 1 


14-790 






44 931 


19 




Excessively fine line 


0-6 


i 


14-865 






44 950 




12 




Do. do. ... 


07 


i 


14-903 






44 962 




33 

14 




Do. do. 


0-6 


i 


1.V013 






44 995 






YELLOW Colour ends here: C1TRC 


>N begins. 









THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



305 



CITRON. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Band of lines — beginning, 

end 
Sharp line, 
Hazy line, 
Fine line, 
Sharp line, 



Strong double line : 1st component, . 
2nd component, 
(Stronger of the two in Angstrom) 
Fine line, ..... 

Do. 

Do. 

Strong double line ; 1st component, . 
(Faint and single in Angstrom) 

2nd component, 

Band (a single excessively strong line 
in Angstrom) — 

begins with a double line, 
suspicion of a line, 
end of band, . 

Strong and sharp line, 

Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Strong line, 

Suspicion of a line, . 

Sharp line, 

Faint and hazy line, 

Strong line, 

Sharp line, 

Very strong and sharp, 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



2 

07 
07 
07 



1-5 
1-0 
3 



1-3 
0-8 
1- 

03 

1- 

0-6 

1-3 

1-2 

3- 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



II 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



I 



15-062 
15-125 
15-187 
15-229 
15-265 
15-315 
15-372 

15-653 

15-677 
15764 
15-785 
15-805 
15-832 

15-873 



15-918 
15-930 
15-950 

16-308 

16-360 
16-403 
16-453 

16-490 

16-575 
16-607 
16-650 
16-715 

16-757 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



45 167 



45 238 



45 341 



45 376 



45 409 



45 455 



Chemical-origin 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Titanium. 
Iron. 

? 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron? 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron and 
calcium. 
Calcium. 

Iron and 
calcium. 



Calcium. 

Iron. 
Calcium. 
Calcium. 



Concluded 


WaVE- 


NUMBER- 


PLACE, pei- 


Britisb. Inch. 


45 009 


45 027 


45 043 


45 056 


45 066 


45 080 


45 097 


45 167 


45 173 


45 197 


45 202 


45 207 


45 216 


45 227 


45 238 


45 240 


45 248 


45 340 


45 351 


45 363 


45 376 


45 387 


45 408 


45 416 


45 425 


45 443 


45 454 



Differences. 



16 



n 



18 

13 
10 
14 

17 

70 



24 
5 
5 



11 



92 

11 

12 
13 

11 
21 



18 
11 



At llh. a.m. shortened focus of collimator, readjusted prisms, and used blue glass, and silver-on-glass mirror, in 
place of the usual quick-silvered glass, as a temporary experiment. The image of the Sun thereby was exquisitely 
single, and optically good, but the lines in the spectroscope were not better, perhaps not so good, which I attributed 
chiefly to the silver-on-glass mirror being rather smaller than the other. 



Strong sharp line repeated, 
Fine line, ..... 
Strong line, .... 
Finer line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Strong line, .... 
Fine line, .... 

Decided line, .... 

Strongest line hereabouts, 

Strong line, .... 
Fine line, ..... 

Strong line 

Double line, strong : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



Decided line, 
Clear line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, . 
Faint band, 



Double line : 1st component, . 

2nd do. 
Strong ! line (but only a fine line, 

1st component of a very faint 

double, in Angstrom), . 



3 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2- 

1-- 

2 

4 

3 

1 
2 
2 

2 



1-3 

1-3 
3 
1 
0-5 

1-5 
1-5 



II 



8-196 
8-222 
8-257 
8-312 
8-357 
8-395 
8-500 

8-580 

8 667 

8 760 
8-825 
8-868 
8-925 
8-950 

9-022 
9-080 
9175 
9-208 
9-418 

9-500 
9-533 



9750 



45 455 
45 473 



45 586 

45 611 



45 728 



45 820 
45 825 



Calcium. 

Iron. 
Iron. 

Calcium. 
Iron. 

Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 

Titanium. 
? 

Iron. 



Iron. 



? 
Iron. 



45 455 
45 462 




45 471 




45 487 




45 500 




45 512 




45 538 




45 560 




45 582 




45 609 




45 627 




45 640 




45 659 


8 


45 667 


45 689 




45 708 




45 730 




45 741 




45 800 




45 820 


10 


45 830 


45 893 





16 
13 
12 
26 

22 
22 
27 
18 
13 
19 

22 

19 
22 
11 
59 

20 



63 

7 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4 I 



306 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



CITRON. 



CITRON. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Kraunhofer Line. 



Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Strong line and clear, 

Last line repeated after new focussing 

Strong line and clear, 

Strong line, .... 

Do. .... 

Do. .... 

Fine line, ..... 
Do. .... 

Do. .... 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Strong line, .... 
Fine line (very faint in Angstrom), 

Very fine line, .... 
Strong sharp line, 

Do. do. 

Faint band, .... 

Very faint band, 

(A Titanium line at Wave-number 

place 46 290 in Angstrom not here) 

Unequal double : stronger member. 

(Not in Angstrom) : fainter, 

Fine line, .... 

Fine double : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Close triple line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Fine double line : 1st component, 
(Single in Angstrom and thin), 2nd do 

Unequal double line : 1st weaker, 

2nd stronger, 
Very close double or multiple line, 

Distinct strong line, 

Close double : 1st component, . 
(Much stronger in Angst.), 2nd do. 



Strong line, 
Fine line, 

Faintest hand, beginning, 
end, 

Strong line, 

I i He double : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Very strong line, 



Strong line, preceded by faint hand, 
Fine Gne and clear, . 
Do. do. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
1 
1 
3 
3 

1 
1 
3 
2 

1 
3 
3 
1 

0-5 



2 
1 

1 

1-5 

1-5 

1 
1 

2-0 
2-0 
2-0 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
o 

1 



1-5 
1-5 

2 

1 

0-3 

0-3 

3 

1 
1 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



hi 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



I M 



I 



= 5 

= 



IJ 



9774 
9-838 
9-955 



983 
030 
073 
170 

256 
344 
425 
470 
493 

557 
608 
658 
687 

778 
819 
937 
055 



11-160 



233 
257 

387 
448 
465 

543 
565 

594 
604 
613 



11 685 
11-723 

11-792 
11-802 

11-897 
11-922 
12-018 

12 262 

12-555 
12-565 

12-623 
12-736 
12-890 
12-907 

12-958 

13 000 
13-010 

13104 

13-305 
13-408 
13-440 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



45 951 



45 951 



46 083 



46 174 
46 214 



46 497 



46 562 

46 636 



46 651 



46 785 

46 831 



Iron. 
Magnesium. 



Magnesium. 
Iron. 



Barium. 

Titanium. 
Titanium. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Titanium. 

Nickel. 



Titanium. 
? 
i 

Titanium. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron and 
Titanium. 

Iron. 

Iron. 

.1 ion. 

Iron. 

Titanium. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMUER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch 



45 900 
45 918 
45 952 



45 952 
45 966 

45 976 

46 002 

46 021 
46 045 
46 066 
46 080 
46 086 

46 103 
46 119 
46 134 
46 142 

46 166 
46 176 
46 213 
46 247 

46 279 



46 301 
46 309 

46 348 
46 366 
46 372 

46 395 
46 401 

46 408 
46 413 
46 415 

46 433 
46 445 
46 464 
46 466 

46 492 
46 497 
46 516 

46 562 

46 636 
46 639 

46 652 
46 685 
46 728 
46 733 

46 746 
46 757 
46 760 

46 784 

46 831 
46 860 
46 872 



Differences. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 



307 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Fine line, ..... 
Do. 

Strong line, ..... 
Faintest band, ..... 

Strong double : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, ..... 
Do 

Very strong double— 

1st component, 

2nd do. 

Citron colour ends here. 
Green colour begins here. 

Strong line, 
Very fine line, . 
Fine line, 

Very strong line, 

Fine line, 
Strong line, 

Do. 
Fine line, 
Clear line, 

A single, solitary line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 

Do. 

Fine line, . 

Very strong line, 

Close double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Single line, .... 
Faint double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Strong line, 
Fine line, .... 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
1 
2 
0-5 

2-5 
2-5 
1 



4 
4 



Appear- 
ance by 

graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



1- 
2- 
2- 
1- 
1-5 

3 
1 
1 
1 



3 

l'f 

2- 
1- 

1- 

2 

1 



Then ensues a markedly blank portion of spectrum. 

Clear line, 

Hazy line, 

Sharp line, 

Do. 



Faint band : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Clear double : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, 

Do 

Do 



Strong line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 

Do. 



Strong double line 



1st component 
2nd do. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



13-490 
13-555 
13615 
13674 

13-753 
13-790 
13-810 
13-866 

13 925 
13980 



14-100 
14-130 
14-176 

14 217 

14-305 
14-360 
14-425 
14-455 
14-495 

14-710 
14-778 
14-840 
14-907 

15-030 

15-107 
15-158 
15-170 

15-250 
15327 
15-345 
15-422 
15465 





2 
2 
2 
2 


1 

1 

1 


15-762 
15-893 
15-940 
16-020 




I 1 




I 16-105 
| 16-122 




2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
i 


16-193 
16-243 
16-325 
16363 
16-430 




2 
1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 

1 


16-510 
16-557 
16-610 
16-640 


lent, . 


3 


'il"l 


16668 




3 


16 683 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



46 952 



46 993 

47 007 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <fcc. 



47 183 



47 291 
47 305 



47 450 



47 571 



47 674 
47 680 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Chromium. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 

Iron. 

Titanium. 

Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 

Iron. 

? 

Iron. 



Cobalt. 
Calcium. 



Cobalt. 

Iron. 
Titanium. 

Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Concluded 
WAVE 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



46 886 

46 900 
46 914 
46 926 

46 949 

46 958 

46 966 

46 978 

46 992 

47 008 



47 038 
47 045 
47 056 

47 063 

47 086 
47 099 
47 113 
47 122 
47 132 

47 183 

47 202 
47 221 
47 236 

47 271 

47 290 
47 302 
47 306 

47 326 
47 345 
47 352 
47 370 
47 381 



47 450 
47 484 
47 497 
47 520 

47 543 
47 548 

j 47 567 

( 47 580 

47 597 

47 607 

47 623 

47 641 
47 650 
47 663 
47 669 

47 676 

47 681 



16 



13 



14 
14 
12 

23 



12 
14 



30 

7 
11 

7 

23 

13 

14 

9 

10 

51 

19 
19 
15 

35 

19 
12 

20 
19 

18 
11 

69 



34 
13 
23 

23 



19 

17 
10 
16 

18 

9 

13 

6 

7 



lh. 10m. p.m. Sun cut off by stove-pipe. Mem. — Focus-tube of collimator is now pushed close in ; and focus- 
tube of telescope is in middle of its range. 

$ June 25, 1878. Prisms 6, 8, and 4 : Dispersion; 
lOh. 30m. a.m. 



:28° 



308 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of tlie 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 



GREEN. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunliofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Very strong double line— 
1st component, 

2nd do. 

Exquisitely fine double line — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 



Strong line, 
Fine double line 



1st component, 
2nd do. 



Strong line, the 1474 Kirchoff, or the 

Solar Corona, line, in conjunction 

with an Iron line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 

Do. 
Very fine line, . 
Clear line, 

Strong line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 
Strong line, 
Clear line, 

Group — 

1st is double or treble and hazy, 
2nd, single and sharp, 
3rd, do. do. 

Fine line, . . . . . 

Do. 

Do. 

Clear line, 

Band of fine lines followed by a 
strong line — 

1st component, . 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 

4th do. and chief, 



Clear line, 
Fine double line 



1st component, 
2nd do. 



Strong double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Clear line, .... 

The Great E line— 

1st component, . 

2nd do. 

Haze follows above, Fine line, . 

Second pair of E lines— 
1st component, 
2nd clo. 

Third pair of E lines : 1st component, 

(Not in Angstr.) fine intercalated line, 

2nd component, 

Last pair of E lines : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 

Very fine line, ..... 



4 

4 

1 
1 

3 

1 
1 



3-5 

1 

1 

1 

0-7 

1-2 

3 
1 
1 
3 



48 
4 8 

37 
0-5 
37 

2-5 
2-5 

0-5 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 

compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I 'III 



v, 



II 

H 

$ " i 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



8 485 
8496 

8-564 
8-595 

8-643 
8-716 
8-748 



910 
970 
020 
040 
123 
207 



253 
304 
367 
447 
504 



9-608 
9-640 
9-667 

9-718 
9-765 
9-814 
9-967 



105 
128 
144 

214 
275 
292 

445 
480 
556 



10 675 
10 707 

10-750 



10 817 
10 855 

10-918 
10-932 
10-954 

10-995 
11013 

11055 



PLACE 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



47 674 
47 680 



47 710 



47 778 



47 951 



48 081 



48 146 

48 199 
48 209 



48 234 
48 239 

48 245 

48 256 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron and 
Helium ? 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Titanium. 



Copper. 
Iron. 



Iron. 

Iron. 
Cobalt. 

Unknown. 
Iron. 



Calcium and 
Iron. 
Iron. 

Cobalt. 



Iron & Cobalt 
Calcium. 

Calcium. 

Iron. 

Calcium. 
Calcium. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 

NUMBEK- 

PLACE, per 

British Inch. 



47 674 
47 678 

47 693 
47 700 

47 710 
47 729 
47 737 



47 779 
47 793 
47 805 
47 810 
47 829 
47 850 

47 860 
47 873 
47 887 
47 906 
47 920 



47 944 
47 951 
47 958 

47 973 

47 985 

47 997 

48 036 



48 068 
48 073 
48 078 
48 082 



48 


097 


48 


108 


48 


111 


48 


142 


48 


148 


48 


170 



48 200 
48 210 

48 220 



48 234 
48 239 

48 247 
48 250 
48 256 

48 265 
48 269 

48 279 



Differences. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



309 









Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 




PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 


Chemical-origin- 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 


Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE. per 
British Inch. 


Differences. 


Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed, 
Fraunhofer Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 


•3 

^2 


0) 
B 












Spectrum. 








a 




Fine line, ...... 


1-5 


1 


11-160 






48 304 




9 
14 

7 

14 
15 

14 




Do . 


1 


1 


11-200 






48 313 






Do 


1 


1 


11-255 






48 327 






Strong line, ..... 


3 


1 


11-288 




Manganese. 


48 334 






Fine line, . . . . • . 


2 


1 


11-347 




Iron. 


48 348 






Do. 


2 


1 


11-404 




Iron. 


48 363 






Fine double line : 1st component, 


1 


/I"! 


11-465 




Iron. 


( 48 377 


5 




2nd do. 


1 


11-483 




( 48 382 


12 
14 




Very fine line, 


1 


l 


11-533 






48 394 






Strong double line : 1st component, . 


2 


i'!«l 


11-594 




Iron. 


t 48 408 


7 




(This pair faint in Angstrom), 2nd do. 


2 


11-624 




? 


j 48 415 


28 




Fine double line : 1st component, 


1 


',!»! 


11-744 




Iron. 


I 48 443 


3 




2nd do. 


1 


11-754 




j 48 446 


10 
25 




Sharp and single line, 


3 


1 


11-795 






48 456 








2 


1 


11-900 






48 481 






llh. 30m. a.m. 
















23 




Single line, ..... 


1-5 


I 


11-997 






48 504 




9 

7 




Very fine line, 


1 


i 


12-032 






48 513 






Clear double line : 1st component, 


2 


r ,|n| 


12-068 




Cobalt. 


I 48 520 
\ 48 529 


9 




2nd do. 


2 


12-104 




Manganese. 


17 

25 
15 




Strong hazy line, .... 


3 


ill; 


12-172 


48 545 


Iron. 


48 546 






Strong line, 


2 


1 


12-303 




Iron. 


48 571 






Fine line, ...... 


1 


i 


12-372 






48 586 






Strong double or treble — 
















9 


GREEN. 


1st component, . 


3 


I'M 


12-426 


| 48 597 


Iron. 


\ 48 595 


3 






(Single in Angstrom), 2nd do. 


3 


12-440 


j 48 598 


10 

5 

9 
18 

21 

6 
16 

4 

10 

12 
45 
19 




Fine line, 


1 


i 


12-480 




Titanium. 


48 608 






Very fine line, ..... 


0-7 


i 


12-505 




Titanium. 


48 613 






Fine line and clear, .... 


1-2 




12-540 






48 622 






Thicker line (not in Angstrom), 


1-5 


I 


12-622 






48 640 






Faint band, ..... 


0-5 


= 


12-710 






48 661 






Very faint band, .... 


0-3 


f"- 


12-730 






48 667 






Faint hazy line, .... 


1- 


... 


12-797 




Copper. 


48 683 






Stronger line, 


1-5 


' 1 


12-827 




Iron. 


48 687 






Faint line, ..... 


1- 


i 


12-868 




Iron. 


48 697 






Stronger line, ..... 


1-3 


1 


12-920 




Iron. 


48 709 






Faint line, 


0-8 


l 


13-110 




Titanium. 


48 754 






Strong line, 


3- 


1 


13-192 


48 773 


Chromium 


48 773 
















and Iron. 










Reset Telescope. 




















Last line repeated, .... 


3 


1 


5-468 


48 773 


Chromium 
and Iron. 


48 773 




21 




Sharp line, 


1-5 


1 


5-565 


48 794 


Chromium. 


48 794 




14 




Do. 


2- 


1 


5-632 


48 808 


Chromium 


48 808 
















and Iron. 






20 




Do. 


2- 


1 


5-724 


48 828 


Iron. 


48 828 




16 
15 




Fine line, ..... 


1 


i 


5-803 






48 844 






Triple line : 1st component, 


2 


i ) ( 


5-867 






48 859 


9 

2 




2nd do. 


0-5 


• Ml 


5-902 






48 868 






3rd do. 


2 


i \ I 


5-914 




Iron. 


48 870 






Band of most exquisitely graduated 




















lines, clean and sharp, and ending 
















3 




with a strong line — 




















1st component, 


0-5 


■ ^ 


( 5-926 
j 5-940 






48 873 




2 
8 
5 
5 




2nd do. 


1-0 


i 




Manganese. 


48 875 






3rd do. 


1-5 


J 


J 5-973 




Manganese. 


48 883 






4th do. 


2- 


6-000 




Manganese. 


48 888 






5th and chief. 


4- 


i > 


*• 6 022 




Iron. 


48 893 




17 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4k 



310 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of t he 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black. Ot 
thickness 
of line. 



GREEN. 



Fine Hue, ...... 

Sharp double line : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 

Sharp but unequal pair : 1st component 

2nd do. 
Sharp fine line, .... 

h 1 line, little more than cloud — 
1st edge of its nebulosity, 

1st edge of its line, faint 

but thick, • 
2nd edge of said line, 

2nd edge of the nebulosity, 



Sharp fine line, 
Sharp stronger line, 
Sharp line, 

Do. 

Do. 
Sharp fine line, 



h 2 line, cloudy exceedingly — 
1st edge of its nebulosity, 

1st edge of its line, faint 
but thick, . . . . 

2nd edge of do. . 

2nd edge of nebulosity, 

Line of blacker matter (not so in 

Angstrom), .... 
Eine line, .... 

& 8 , strong clear line, 

b\ hazy, broad, and faint— 
1st edge, 

2nd do. 

Sharp line, .... 

Do. ... 

Very fine line, .... 

Strong line, .... 
Fine line, .... 

Very fine line, .... 
Strong line (very faint in Angstrom) 
Fine line, .... 

Double line : 1st component, . 

2nd do. 
Double line : 1st component, . 

2nd do. 

Strong line, .... 
Very fine line, .... 
Very thin double : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Strong close double : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, ...... 

Strong hazy line 

Re-focussed Telescope. 

Same hazy line, . . . . 

Sharp double line : 1st component, . 

2nd do. 
Fine line, 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



0-8 
1-5 
1-5 

3 
1-5 

1 



0-5 

7 
7 

0-5 

1 

1-5 

0-8 

1- 

1- 

07 



0-5 

6 

6 

0-5 



4 
4 

1-2 

1- 
0-5 

2 
1 

0-5 
1-3 

r 

1-4 
1-4 
1-5 
1-5 

2 

0-8 
0-6 
0-6 

2-5 
2-5 
1 
3 



3 

1 
1 
0-7 



I s 



i\ 



Micrometer 
Heading. 



Hev. 



L 

J 



6-100 
6-128 
6-167 

6-283 
6-312 
6-410 



6-485 

6 5071 

6 5281 

6-556 

6-604 
6-659 
6-712 
6-780 
6-814 
6-928 



6-945 

6966 

6982 

7-000 



7-018 
7-047 

7127 

7188 

7-214 

7-247 
7-287 
7-323 

7-430 
7-573 
7-670 
7716 
7-743 

7-792 
7-830 
7-885 
7-924 

8-038 
8-116 

8-177 
8-190 

8-273 
8-285 
8-332 

8-440 



•460 
■558 
•574 
■635 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
.Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



49 004 



Iron. \ 
Iron. ( 

Calcium. 

Titanium. 

Iron. 



49 107 



49 142 
49 159 

49 210 



49 426 



49 438 



Magnesium 

Iron. 

Nickel. 

Magnesium 
Iron. 



Iron and 
Nickel. 

Magnesium 

Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Nickel. 
Sodium. 



Sodium. 
Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 

Nickel. 



Nickel. 
Iron. 



Nickel. 



Differences. 



Con eluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



48 910 

48 917 
48 925 

48 952 
48 958 
48 979 



48 996 

49 002 
49 005 

49 011 

49 022 
49 035 
49 047 
49 064 
49 072 
49 097 



49 102 

49 106 
49 110 

49 114 



49 118 
49 124 

49 142 



49 158 

49 163 

49 171 

49 180 

49 188 

49 212 

49 233 

49 262 

49 270 

49 277 

49 288 

49 296 

49 307 

49 315 

49 340 

49 356 

49 370 

49 373 

49 391 

49 393 

49 404 

49 426 



49 426 
49 440 
49 443 
49 457 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



311 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhefer Line. 



Strong line ; 
Very fine line, 
Fine line, 
Hazy line, 
Sharp line, 

Fine line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 



Do 1 | 9-264 

Do 07 i 9-322 

Do 1 | 9-557 

Double line : 1st component, . . 1'5 I 1 m J 9 - 793 

2nd do. . . 1-5 |J ( 9-832 

Strong line, hazy, .... 2 : ( : 9-920 

Great change of focus in the spectrum hereabouts ; the telescov 

Last line repeated, with new focus, 
Fine line, 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 

Strong line, 
Finer line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Stronger line, 

Fine line, 
Do. 
Do. 

Strong line, 
Ultra faint band, begins faintly, 
ends sharply, 

Very faint double line — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Strong and sharp double line — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 



Fine line, .... 

Strong and sharp line, 

Sharp line, .... 

Do. . . 
Close double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



2 

0-5 
1 
1 
1 

07 
1-5 
0-7 
1-5 
0-8 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



2 

1-3 

3 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

3 

0-3 

1 



0-7 
0-7 
1 

3 
3 

1 
2 

1-5 
1-5 

1 
1 



724 
780 
823 
920 
998 

059 
103 
117 
167 
195 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &e. 



49 650 

49 734 



Iron. 

Iron. 

Titanium. 

Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 

Titanium. 

Nickel. 

Iron. 

? 

Iron. 



Concluded 


Diffe 




WAVE- 


•3 


NUMBER- 


— £ 


PLACE. per 


X ^ 


British Inch. 


54 8 




S w 


49 476 




49 488 




49 498 




49 518 




49 534 




49 547 




49 557 




49 559 




49 570 




49 576 




49 590 




49 603 




49 653 




49 706 


10 


49 716 


49 733 





067 
164 
233 
300 
406 



ie focusses now close to one end of its tube range 
49 734 



450 
480 
517 
572 
600 

717 
810 
834 
893 
964 



11-008 



054 
068 
140 

215 
255 

303 
373 

404 
445 
472 
486 



49 813 
49 820 



49 898 



50 004 



Iron. 
Copper. 



Nickel. 
Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 



GREEN colour ends here, and GLAUCOUS colour begins. 



Strong line, ..... 
Fine line, ..... 

Very strong line (not so strong in 
Angstrom), ..... 
Unequal double line : 1st component, 

2nd „ 
Strong line, . . . . . 

Fine line, 

Unequal double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 



11-620 
11-668 

11-704 

11-800 
11-832 
11-983 
12-068 
12-188 
12-190 



50 152 



? 
Iron. 



Nickel 
and 
Iron. 



Iron '* 

Iron. 

Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron and 

Titanium. 



49 734 
49 756 
49 768 
49 782 
49 803 

49 812 
49 818 
49 823 
49 835 
49 840 

49 863 
49 883 
49 889 
49 898 
49 912 
49 921 



49 931 
49 933 
49 936 

49 963 
49 972 

49 981 

49 994 

50 000 
50 008 
50 013 
50 016 



50 042 
50 053 

50 059 
50 077 
50 083 
50 112 
50 129 
50 151 
50 152 



1 



12 
10 
20 
16 
13 

10 
2 

11 
6 

14 

13 
50 
53 

17 



22 
12 
14 
21 



6 

5 

12 

5 

23 

20 
6 
9 

14 



10 

3 

27 



13 
6 



26 

11 

6 

18 

29 

17 
22 



lh. 15m. p.m., Stove-pipe cuts off Sun. 

lOh. 30m. a.m., £ June 26, 1878. 

Bad definition. Set and re-set the prisms several times for this part of the spectrum, but without improving the 
definition. Pi,emoved the blue glass, and again adjusted prisms for space between E and F. At llh. a.m., found 
definition good. 



312 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Glaucous. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
li iiucnhofcr Line. 



Intensity 
of black, or 

thickness 
of line. 



Last double line repeated — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 

Suspected hazy line, 



Strong line. 
Fine line, 

Do. 

Do. 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 



:1 



Blank region 
in Angstrom. 



:J 



Fine line, 

Very strong double line — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 



A group of line lines — 

Probably a waters lst comt 
sy°up, I 2nd 'do. 
] [ 3rd do. 
l J 4th do. 



vapour 
Bald to be strong 
in summer and 
in a low Sun. 



Fine line, 

Strong line, 

A triplet : 1st and faintest, 

2nd strong, 

3rd do. 



An even triplet — 

Probably a Tel- ) 1st component, 
luric water- > 2nd do. 
vapour group. ) 3rd do. 

An inclined triplet : 1st and smallest, 
2nd and middle, 
3rd and strongest, 

Fine line, 

Do. 

A triplet : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. strongest, 

Re-focussed. 

Last, or 3rd of triplet, repeated, 
Fine line, ..... 

Stronger line, ..... 

A faint and uneven triplet — 

1st component, . 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Fine line, 

A strong but uneven dotibb — 

1 st component, 
2nd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

< iroup of fine lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4 th do. 



3 
1 
1-5 



07 
1-0 
07 

0-8 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I<" 1 



Micrometer 

Heading. 



Rev. 



l'i" 1 



I ill 



'.I"! 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



7-380 
7-398 
7-534 

7-605 
7-687 
7-755 
7-780 
7-834 
7-877 
7-916 

7-945 

7-970 
8-050 



090 
105 
125 
134 

252 
300 
383 
396 
434 



489 
523 
567 

654 
675 

705 

895 
957 

020 
028 
060 



9-083 
9-156 
9-190 



9-283 
9313 
9-340 
9-425 



9-504 
9-540 
9-613 

9-670 

9-698 

9-713 
9-724 
9-732 
9-744 



50 152 



Iron and 
Titanium. 



Iron. 



50 382 
50 393 



50 620 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron and 

perhaps 

Tell, water- 

vap. group. 

Iron. 

Calcium. 
Iron. 



Probably a 
Tell, water- 
vap. group. 

Titanium. 

Titanium. 

Nickel. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Unknown. J 
Nickel. ( 



Iron and 
Titanium. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE. per 
British Inch. 



50 150 

50 154 
50 186 

50 201 
50 220 
50 237 
50 242 
50 254 
50 263 
50 273 

50 280 

50 286 
50 303 



50 312 
50 317 
50 319 
50 322 

50 350 
50 362 
50 381 
50 383 
50 392 



50 403 
50 411 
50 420 

50 440 
50 444 
50 450 

50 490 
50 503 

50 518 
50 519 
50 527 



50 527 
50 543 
50 550 



50 572 
50 578 
50 584 
50 603 



50 621 
50 628 
50 643 

50 655 
50 660 

50 664 

50 667 
50 668 
50 670 



Differences. 



« 






17 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



313 









Appear- 




PLACE- 






Differences. 


Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 

symbol. 


Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 


DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 


Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <fec. 


Concluded 
WAVE- 

N UMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 






*3 . 
11 


o 

a 
3 












Spectrum. 






£ G 


5 




Strong line, ..... 


3 


1 


9-800 


50 681 


Iron. 


50 681 








Fine line, ...... 


1 


1 


9-848 






50 694 




13 
8 




Sharp side of a faint band, 


1 


M 


9-883 






50 702 


11 




Vanishing side of do. ... 


0-2 


9-928 






50 713 


21 




Strong line, ..... 


2 


i 


10-008 




Iron and 


50 734 
















Titanium. 






13 




Strong double : 1st component, 
2nd do. 


2 

2 


Mj'S 


10-060 

10-083 


| 50 748 


Iron. 


( 50 747 
j 50 751 


4 


19 

10 

11 

6 

9 

7 

11 
14 
13 




Faint haze from last line ends here, . 


0-2 




10-170 






50 770 






Fine line, 


1 


i 


10224 




Iron. 


50 780 






Strong line, ..... 


1-5 


1 


10-278 






50 791 






Very fine line, ..... 


0-5 


i 


10-307 






50 797 






Fine line, ...... 


1- 


i 


10-350 






50 806 






Fine double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 


1- 
1- 


Mi'i 


10-389 
10-406 




Titanium. 


50 813 
50 817 


4 




Very fine line, 


0-4 


i 


10-457 






50 828 






Fine line, 


1 


i 


10-522 






50 842 






Do 


1 


i 


10-589 






50 855 






















15 




Faint band of lines : 1st and strongest, 


2 - 


1 \ 


( 10-660 




Iron. 


( 50 870 


3 
3 
3 






2nd strongest, . 


1- 


i ( 1 . 


) 10-680 




? 


) 50 873 






3rd do. 


0-7 




) 10-690 




? 


) 50 876 






4th and weakest, 


0-5 


• ) 


( 10-710 




? 


( 50 879 


17 

21 

11 




Strong line, 


2 


1 


10-798 




Iron. 


50 896 






Do. 


1-5 


1 


10-898 




Iron. 


50 917 






Fine line, ..... 


1 


i 


10-950 






50 928 






Strong line or lines 


2 


|or|| 


11-070 


( 


Iron. 
Nickel, 


50 951 




23 
12 




Do. do 


2 


lor || 


11-124 


50 963 j 


Sodium, and 
Titanium. 


( 50 963 

J 




6 




Fine line, 


1 


1 


11-160 


( 


Nickel, 


50 969 
) 




7 


Glaucous. 


Haze between last line and this one, . 


f» 




11-200 




Sodium, and 


} 50 976 




6 












( 


Titanium. 


) 






Fine line, ..... 


1 


1 


11-243 


( 


Nickel, 


50 982 
) 




12 




Strong line, 


2 


1 


11-317 


! 


Sodium, and 

Titanium. 

Nickel, 


\ 50 994 

) 




14 




Do. 


2 


1 


11-400 


1 


Sodium, and 
Titanium. 


[ 51 008 




9 




Fine line, ..... 




| 


11-462 




Iron. 


51 017 








Do 




| 


11-532 






51 028 




11 

7 
7 




Do. 




| 


11-578 






51 035 






Do. 




1 


11-620 






51 042 






Strong line 




I 


11-687 




? 


51 053 




11 

15 

5 




Fine line, ..... 




1 


11-778 






51 068 






Triplet of fine lines : 1st component, 




>) < 


11-810 






( 51 073 


2 
3 




2nd do. . 




1 Mill 


11-820 






\ 51 075 






3rd do. . 




if ( 


11-840 




Iron. 


(51 078 


9 




Fine double line : 1st component, 




,'i"l 


11-895 




Iron. 


} 51 087 
( 51 094 


7 




2nd do. 




11-936 






15 

9 

19 

105 




Strong line 




1 


12-028 




Iron. 


51 109 






Fine line, ..... 


1-5 


1 


12-088 




Iron. 


51 118 






Very fine line, ..... 




i 


12-207 






51 137 






These three lines were apparently 
omitted by accident, and are taken 


)4 

V 1 

\ 2 


1 






Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 


51 153 

51 165 
51 190 






from a subsequent re-examination 
of the spectrum, .... 


1 












"Little c ; '' a very strong but 




















hazy line (strong and clear line 




•p 
















in Angstrom), .... 


4 


111! 


12 470 


51 242 


Iron. 


51 242 








The telescope's focus about here is very troub 


esome. "When the a' 


}ove thick iron line is seer 


l single, the small 


one 




is seen sharp at focussing- tube's 15th division ; 


but at the 25th they 


are blurred ; and at the 35 


th they become s 


larp 




again, but with the thick iron line notably doubl 


ed by bad focus. 








I 


Reset all the prisms for F. 










VOT 


. XXIX. PART I. 














4 L 





314 



PROFESSOK PIAZZ1 SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
Spectrum at 
the Place. 



Glaucous. 



Glaucous. 



Object observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraimhofer Line. 



"Little c," line repeated, 
hazy ana strong : 1st side, 

(Stroug and clear line in Angstrom) — 
2nd side, 



Fine line, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Faint and unequal double line — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 

A doubly graduated group of lines — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 
5th do. 

Fine line, .... 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
2 

1 
0-5 



0-5 
1-0 
1-2 
1-0 
0-5 

1 
3 
3 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I'.l 



U|| 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



9 345 
9 380 

9-510 
9-585 
9-610 
9-732 

9-905 
9 914 

10-086 
10-118 



( 10-220 
I 10-245 
-{ 10-260 
I 10-297 
L 10-342 

10-425 
10-516 
10-555 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



51242 



51 485 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <fcc. 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 

i 



Iron. 



Iron and ? 



Nickel. 

Barium aud 

Iron. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



51 238 

51 245 

51 273 
51 288 
51 293 
51 318 

51 353 

51 360 

51 392 
51 398 



(51 420 
51 426 
-I 51 429 
I 51 436 
1.51 446 

51 463 

51 482 
51 490 



Differences. 



*3 



28 

15 

5 

25 

35 



32 



22 



17 
19 



More trouble with the focus of telescope. Changed silver-on-glass mirror, re-adjusted prisms, but found no benefit 
to the faulty definition. Tried simple glass magnifier for quartz eye-piece, but still no benefit ; for still, best focus for 
a thick line is not the best focus for a thin one ; and there seem to be two foci, about 07 inch apart on the telescope 
focus-tube ! 

The present amount of Dispersion by prisms 6, 8, and 4 = 28° from A to H ; and though found very suitable in the 
red and yellow, may be too much in the green and blue, which we are now working in ; we shall therefore now try 
prisms 6 and 8 alone, with Dispersion from A to H = 21°. 

Thursday, June 27, 1878. 
9h. 30m. a.m. 



Last double line repeated — 

1st component, . 

2nd do. 

Fine line, 

Strong line, . . . 

Faint resolvable band : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Stronger line, .... 
Strong thick line, 
Fine line, .... 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Re-set the Prisms. 

Last double line repeated — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 

Hazy line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Faint hazy band : beginning, . 
end, 

Fine line, 

Do 

Strong double : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



3 
3 
1 

2 


i 
1 


1 
1 
1 


I'H 


1- 
1-5 
3- 
1- 


i: 


3 
3 


i'l»l 


3 
3 

1-5 

1-5 


LU 

i 


j 0-7 

1 
1 
2 
2 


i 

i 1 ! ■ ! 



923 
956 
006 
074 

165 

180 
204 

265 
302 
336 

408 

485 
565 



555 
616 
645 
696 

813 

840 
904 
920 
955 

960 



51 485 



51 629 
51 644 



51 629 
51 644 



Barium and 
Iron. 

Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Nickel. 



Iron. 



51 480 

51 490 

51 503 

51 520 

51 543 
51 548 
51 554 



51 


570 


51 


579 


51 


587 


51 


606 


51 


628 


51 


644 



51 


629 


51 


644 


51 


650 


51 


663 


51 


694 


51 


700 


51 


718 


51 


721 


51 


730 


51 


733 



10 



16 



16 



13 
17 

23 



16 

9 

8 

19 

22 



6 
13 

31 
18 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



315 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Very fine line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Strong and sharp double line — 
1st component, 



2nd do. 



Fine line, 
Strong line, 

Do. 
Very fine line, 
Fine line, 
Do. 



Very strong double : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Clear double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Wide double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



lOh. 30m. a.m., white cirri and cirrostrati cover all the skv 



Band of fine lines : 1st component, 
(Not in Angstrom), 2nd do. 

3rd do. 

4th do. 



Strong sharp line, 
Do. do. . 

Do. do. . 
Fine line, 

Do. . 

Do. . 
Hazy fine line, 



Strong line (not in Angstrom ; pro 

bably by error of engraving), 
Very strong double line — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 



Fine line, 

do. 
Very fine line, 

Fine line, 
Do. 

Sharp line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 
Very fine line, 
Strong line, 



Haze begins, . 

The Great P line : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Its haze ends, 

Sharp and black line, 
Faint haze, .... 
Hazy line, .... 

Hazy group : 1st component, . 

2nd and chief compt. 

3rd component, . 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
1 
0-5 



2 
2 

1 

2 

2 

07 

1 

1-5 

3 
3 

1-5 
1-5 

1- 

r 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



II 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



993 
060 
104 

167 

183 
242 

357 
388 
535 
545 
646 
678 

738 
772 

835 

855 

913 
946 



1 
1 
1 


■!} 


r 

llll \ 


1 


i J i 


2 


i 


2 


i 


3 


1 


1 


i 


1 


i 


1 


i 


1 


II: 


2 


1 


3 
3 


'.!'■! 


1 


i 


1 


i 


0-5 


i 


1 


i 


1 


i 


1-5 


1 


1 


I 


1 


i 


07 


i 


2 


I 


0-5 






10 


) II 


II i 


10 


1 II 


ii ' 


0-5 






3 


1 


0-5 




1-5 


... 


1 


1 i r 


3 


1 HIM 


1 


, J 





10965 
10-978 
10-990 
11-004 

11-060 
11-117 

11-288 
11-357 
11-382 
11-398 
11-425 



11-498 



11-554 
11-590 



610 
640 
667 

720 

738 
796 
825 
860 
876 
905 



11-977 

11990 
12010 

12 032 

12 064 
12-095 
12-160 
12-216 
12-240 
12-267 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



51-932 
51-940 



Chemical-origin- 


Concluded 


data from 




WAVE- 


Angstrom 




NUMBER- 


Tlialen, &c 




PLACE. per 
British Inch. 






51 


740 


Iron. 




51 


758 






51 


769 






51 786 


2 


i 


51 793 


Iron. 


51 


806 






51 


835 


Barium. 




51 


843 






51 


881 






51 


883 






51 


908 






51 


917 


Iron. 


1 


51 


932 


Iron. 


51 


940 


? 


! 


51 


957 


Iron. 


51 


962 


Iron. 


1 


51 


978 


Iron. 


51 


985 



52-021 



52-075 



52140 
52-148 



52254 



52-265 



52-312 



Titanium. (. 



Iron. 



Calcium. 



Nickel. 

Iron. 
Iron. 



Cobalt. 

Nickel. 

Iron. 



Hydrogen 



Iron. 



Nickel. 



Differences. 



■3 



13 



51 990 


4 
3 
4 


51 994 


51 997 


52 001 


52 015 


15 


52 030 


52 075 




52 093 




52 098 




52 102 




52 109 




52 127 




52 141 


8 


52 149 


52 155 




52 163 




52 170 




52 183 




52 187 




52 203 




52 211 




52 220 




52 224 




52 232 




52 248 




52 252 




52 254 




52 260 




52 267 




52 274 




52 292 




52 306 


6 


52 312 


52 319 


/ 



18 
11 

17 

7 

29 

8 
38 

2 
25 

9 
15 

17 

16 

5 



14 

45 

18 
5 
4 
7 

18 
14 



t 

13 

4 
16 

8 
9 
4 
8 

16 

4 

6 

7 

7 
18 
14 



316 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum :it 

the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 

compara- 
tive 
symbol. 






PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 


Chcmical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 


Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 


Difference's. 


Micrometer 

Reading. 

Rev. 


' t3 » 


4 

6 
c 

£ 




Faint haze band, .... 
Double line : 1st component, 

2nd component, . 


0-5 

1 

1 


'.M 


12-304 
12-370 
12-420 






( 52 325 
\ 52 346 
( 52 358 


12 


21 

24 

7 




Fine line, 

Do. 


1 
1 


i 
i 


12-515 
12-542 




Calcium. 


52 382 
52 389 






Sharp Strong line {not in Ang- 
strom's map), .... 


4 


1 


12-570 






52 397 




8 

9 

20 

15 

10 
5 

7 

11 

8 
6 

11 

26 

16 
17 

18 

20 

17 

10 
17 




Fine line, ..... 
Do 


1 
1 


i 
i 


12-610 
12-687 






52 406 
52 426 






Fine line, ..... 

Do 

Do 

Very fine line, ..... 


1 
1 
1 
0-8 


i 
i 
i 


12-747 
12-786 
12-805 
12-837 




Iron. 


52 441 
52 451 
52 456 
52 463 






Strong and sharp line, ) Very faint 
Do. do. > triplet here 
Do. do. ) in Angstr. 


II 


1 

1 
1 


12-878 
12 905 
12-935 




Cobalt. 


52 474 
52 482 
52 488 






Strong line, 

Very fine double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, ..... 
Clear line, 


1-5 

0-6 

0-6 

1 

1-5 


■.}■} 

i 

i 


12975 
13-080 
13-088 
13-147 
13-224 




Iron, j 
Iron. 


52 499 
52 525 
52 527 
52 543 
52 560 


2 




Fine line, 

Strong double line : 1st component, . 
(Single in Angstr.) 2nd do. 


1 
2 
2 


m'i 


13-296 
13-380 
13-393 


| 52 600 


Nickel. 
Nickel. 1 
Nickel. \ 


52 578 
52 598 
52 602 


4 


Glaucous. 


Strong line, ..... 
Fine line, ..... 
Hazy line, ..... 


13 

1 

1 


1 

1 


13-460 
13-497 
13-564 






52 619 
52 629 
52 646 






Strong, unequal double line — 
1st component, 

Angstr?) | 2nd and greater do. 


2 

4 


'il"j 


13-614) 

13638 j 


52 664 


Manganese. < 


52 658 
52 664 


6 


12 

10 




Fine line, . . . . , 


1 


i 


13-678 






52 674 




16 

6 
11 
13 

17 

6 

7 
9 
4 
3 

19 




Fine line, ..... 

Do. 

Do. 

Strong line, 


l 
l 
l 

2 


i 
i 
i 

i 


13 
13 
13 
13 


744 
776 
823 
884 




1 


52 690 
52 696 
52 707 
52 720 






Very fine line, . . . . s 
Do. do 

Fine line, ..... 

Stronger line 

Fine line, 

Do. 


0-7 

07 

V 

1-5 

1-3 

1- 


i 

i 
i 

i 


13 
13 
14 
14 
14 
14 


965 
990 
030 
068 
080 
131 






52 737 
52 743 
52 750 
52 759 
52 763 
52 776 






Strong line 

Fine line, ..... 
Stronger line, ..... 

Fine line, 

Strong line, 

Fine line, ..... 


2 

1 

1-3 

1- 

2 

1 


i 
i 

i 
i 


14 
14 
14 
14- 
14 
14 


204 
286 
333 
375 
460 
560 




Calcium. 

Titanium. 
Iron. 


52 795 
52 816 
52 827 
52 838 
52 860 
52 887 




21 
11 
11 
22 
27 

24 
8 

13 

26 

43 1 
13 ! 
18 




Faint double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 


1 
1 


M'i 


14 

14 


655 
661 




Iron. 


52 911 
52 913 


2 




Faint double line : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 


1 

1 


M-i 


14 
14 


693 
708 




i 


52 921 
52 924 


3 




Faint hazy line, .... 

Fine line, 

Hazy line, 

Fine line, 


1 
1 
1-3 

1 


:■: 

i 

:i; 

i 


14 
14 
15 
15 


755 
855 
027 

077 


53 005 


Iron. 
Cobalt. 


52 937 

52 962 

53 005 
53 018 





THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



317 

















Appear- 
ance by 
gi'aphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 


Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 


PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 


Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 


Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 


Differences. 


Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 


Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 


■8 5 


S 




Group of sharp lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd & strongest, 


1 
1 

2 


;■(-! 


15-146 
15-160 
15-185 




Iron. ( 


53 036 
53 039 
53 046 


3 

7 


12 
12 

33 

38 




Fine line, ..... 
Hazy band : beginning, 

end, .... 


1 
1 

0-3 


i 


15-235 

15-287 
15-305 




Nickel. J 
Nickel. ( 


53 058 
53 070 
53 076 


6 




Very strong and sharp line, 


4 


i 


15446 


53 109 


Manganese. 


53 109 






Fine line, 
Do. 






l 
l 


i 

i 


15-604 
15-636 




Cobalt. 


53 147 
53 154 




7 
34 




Hazy band : beginning, 
end, 






l 

3 


\,\ 


15-773 
15-797 




I 


53 188 
53 199 


11 


27 

12 
18 
16 
21 

7 

17 

19 

12 

4 

19 

13 

7 

10 

11 




Strong sharp line, 
Line hazy to right, 
Fine line, 
Stronger line, . 
Fine line, 








3 

2 

1 

1-5 

1 


i 

I::! 

1 

1 
1 


15-938 
15-990 
16-070 
16-140 
16-223 




Iron. 
Iron. 


53 226 
53 238 
53 256 
53 272 
53 293 






Double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Clear line, 




1 
1 
1-5 


',!;! 


16-256 
16-280 
16-357 




! 


53 300 
53 306 
53 323 


6 




Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Very fine line, . 
Fine line, 
Very fine line, . 
Fine line, 








3 

1 

0-5 
1-3 
0-5 

1 


1 

i 

i 
i 


16-424 
16-472 
16-490 
16-573 
16-628 
16-660 


53 342 


Manganese. 
Manganese. 

Titanium. 
Titanium. 


53 342 
53 354 
53 358 
53 377 
53 390 
53 397 




51aucous. 


Group of lines : 1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 
Very fine line, ..... 


1-3 
1 
1 
0-5 


■:n 


16-702 

16-728 
16-737 
16-786 




Nickel. ( 
Nickel. •] 


53 407 
53 412 
53 415 
53 426 


5 
3 




Notable and strong line, 


4 


i 


16 820 


53 433 


Manganese. 


53 433 




/ 

19 

8 

15 
19 

26 

17 

18 

14 
15 




Faint double line : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 


l 

l 


\U\ 


16-898 
16-915 




i 


53 452 
53 456 


4 




Fine line, ..... 
Faint hazy and perhaps double line, . 
Very fine line (strong in Angstrom), . 


l 
l 
0-7 


1 

:i: 


16-952 
17-017 
17-096 




? 


53 464 
53 479 
53 498 






Clear line, 
Fine line, 
Finer line, 




1-5 
1-3 

0-8 


i 

i 


17-205 
17-275 
17-353 




Iron. 
Titanium. 


53 524 
53 541 
53 559 






Triple group : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 




2 

1 
2 


[i*'i 


17-415 
17-443 
17-475 




Iron. 

't 

? ' 


53 573 
53 580 
53 587 


7 
7 




Fine line, 

Triple group : 1st component, 
2nd and chief, 
3rd component, 




1 

1 
3 
1 




17-538 
17-617 
17-650 
17-690 




Iron. < 


53 602 
53 620 
53 628 
53 638 


8 
10 


18 
28 




Clear line, 
Fine line. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 








1 


1 
1 
1 


5 

8 


i 


17-810 
17-858 
17-906 
17-945 
17-980 




Titanium. 

Iron. 
Manganese. 


53 666 
53 677 
53 688 
53 697 
53 705 




11 

11 

9 

8 

17 

23 
11 
12 




Clear line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Very fine line, . 
Do. 








1-5 

2 

1 

0-7 

0-4 


i 
i 


18-050 
18-104 
18-163 
18-258 
18-304 




? 
Iron. 


53 722 
53 735 
53 748 
53 771 
53 782 





VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4 M 



318 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
rum »t 
the Place. 



Glaucous. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Strong double Hue : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 

Very line line, ..... 
Wide double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, 

Very strong line and hazy, 

Haze extends thus far, . 

Group of lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 
5th do. 

Fine line, .... 

Do 

Do 

Strongest line hereabouts, 

Fine line 

Do 

Hazy line, .... 

Sharp line, .... 
Do. .... 

Double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Very fine line, .... 

Fine line sharp, 

Hazy line, .... 

Do. .... 

Strong line (from 54 050 to 54 240 

all is vacant in Angstrom, except 

ing this line), 

Perhaps double line, . 
Fine line, .... 

Hazy line, .... 

Sharp line, 

Sharp line, .... 
Rather hazy group : 1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 
Hazy band, .... 

Do. .... 

Group of lines : 1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 
Fine line, .... 

Hazy band, .... 
Shinp double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, .... 

Sharp double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 



Intensity 
if black, or 
thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
A,,.., 1 1 om's 
Orating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



0-4 

1 

1 

1 

4 

0'3 

2 

0-5 
2 
0-5 



1 

1 
1 

4 

l 
1 
l 

2 
1-3 

1-5 
1-5 
0'8 

15 
1-5 
1 



1-5 
1 
1 
1 

1-5 

2 

1 

2 

0-5 

0-5 

1 
3 
2 
0'8 

0-5 

2 

2 

1 

2 

2 



i r 



I ) 



ll 



I l! 



EE 



1S'358 
18-413 

18-480 
18-550 
18-592 
18-675 

18748 

18-865 

18-970 
19-002 
19-034 
19-084 
19-122 

19-164 
19-235 
19-304 

19 340 

19-360 
19-382 
19-430 

19-478 
19-526 
19-555 
19-570 
19-667 

19-743 

19-790 
19-850 



19-915 

19-978 
20-000 
20-062 
20-117 

20-174 
20-221 
20-265 
20-320 
20-390 

20-470 
20-530 
20-547 
20-587 
20-615 

20-783 
20-833 
20-878 
20-930 
20-982 
20-039 



Zinc. 
1 



53 885 



54 013 



Nickel. 

Titanium. ( 
Manganese, 
Iron. I 

Magnesium. 
Unknown. 



Titanium. 



Titanium. 



Titanium. 



Zinc, 
lion. 



Iron. 

i 



Concluded 
WAVK- 

NUMBER- 
l'LACE. per 
liiitisli Inch. 



53 794 
53 808 

53 823 
53 840 
53 850 
53 869 

53 885 

53 912 

53 933 
53 941 
53 948 
53 959 
53 968 

53 977 

53 990 

54 007 

54 013 

54 018 
54 023 
54 033 

54 044 

54 057 

54 063 

54 066 

54 089 

54 107 
54 117 
54 130 



54 144 

54 158 
54 165 
54 179 
54 192 

54 204 
54 216 
54 227 
54 239 
54 254 

54 274 
54 287 
54 290 
54 300 
54 307 

54 347 
54 358 
54 368 
54 380 
54 392 
54 404 



Differences. 



11 



10 



10 



12 



Then follows a group containing within it, amongst other finer lines, one very strong line, a notable haze fit the 
same time enveloping them all, in this manner and degree — 



iili 



u-.rru-< vvv 

■HiPviijIiiiiilH The whole group is sensibly different from Angstrom's Map, though 

fully coinciding with his apparent idea of its being the first of "the hazy ones," a new class of lines which seem to 
characterise the violet end of the spectrum. The places of the lines or linelets in this particular group are thus— 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 



519 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



A group to be called " the first of the 
hazy ones " — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 



3rd and principal, 

4th, a close double, 
5th component, 
6th do. 
7th do. 
8th do. 
9th do. 

lh. 10m. p.m. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
.graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



0-5 
15 

5 

1-5 

1 

1 

1 

0-8 

0-7 



21-073 
21-100 

21134 

21-160 
21-172 
21-185 
21-205 
21-216 
21 "266 



PLACE 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data frnni 
Angstrom. 
Thalcn, <fcc. 



Friday, 28th June 1878. Prisms 8 and 6. Dispersion = 21° 



The principal line of last 
group, for reference place 
only, 

A notable double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Clear line, 

Do. 
Fine line, 
Do. 
Do. 

Sharp double line, but with haze be 
hind — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 

Strong and sharp line, 

Sharp double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

A group : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 
5th do. 

Faint haze, 
Faint hazy line, 
Do. do. . 
Strong line, 

Faint hazy line, 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Strong line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Strong line, .... 

Stronger line, .... 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Very fine line, . 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Quadruple group of fine lines — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 



5 


iilil 


2-5 
2-5 


,'l'ij 


1-5 


i 


1-5 


i 


1 


i 


1 


i 


1 


i 


2 
2 


II** 


4 


i 


2 

2 


i'l''i 


3 
1 


! U 


3 


in , 

• Hill 


1 




3 


l J I 


1 




1 


T 


1 


■■: 


3 


1 


0-5 


ii: 


0-5 


;i; 


0-5 




0-5 


■1: 


2 
2 


'ii"! 


2 


1 


1 


i 


2 


1 


3 


1 


2 
2 


',{"! 


0-5 


i 


2 
2 


',!"! 


0-6 


1 1 f 


0-6 


1 L j 


0-6 


'./'t 


0-6 



8365 

8-545 
8-567 
8-624 
8-656 
8-691 
8-728 
8-780 



8- 



840 
882 

955 

066 
104 

224 
255 
284 
320 
353 

385 
423 
453 
480 

594 
635 
655 
676 
730 
757 

831 
874 
916 
967 

095 
130 
226 

285 
340 



54 420 

54 430 



Titanium. 
Titanium. 



10-430 
10-455 
10-477 
10-495 



54 420 



54 576 



54 842 



Titanium. 



Iron and 
Chromium. 

Copper. 

r 

Chromium. -J 

I 
I 



Iron. 

Iron. 

Iron. 
Titanium. 

Iron. 





Differences. 


Concluded 
WAVE- 






■8 . 


A 


IS UMBER- 


j3 Z 


o 


PLACE, per 


■S "2 




British Inch. 




s 


54 412 




6 
3 


54 418 




54 421 




10 
3 
4 
4 
2 
12 
11 


54 431 




54 434 




54 438 




54 442 




54 444 




54 456 





54 423 




54 467 


6 


54 473 


54 490 




54 497 




54 507 




54 516 




54 530 




54 546 


10 


54 556 


54 577 




54 608 


11 


54 619 


54 650 


9 
8 
9 

8 


54 659 


54 667 


54 676 


54 684 


54 692 




54 702 




54 710 




54 718 




54 747 




54 758 




54 762 




54 768 




54 781 


8 


54 789 


54 808 




54 819 




54 830 




54 843 




54 874 


8 


54 882 


54 904 




54 918 


14 


54 932 


54 952 


7 
4 
5 


54 959 


54 963 


54 968 



17 

7 

10 

9 

14 

16 



21 
31 

31 



10 



29 

11 
4 
6 

13 

19 

11 
11 
13 

31 

22 

14 

20 



12 



320 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Glaucous. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
l'raunhofer Line. 



Group of strong lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. . 
3rd do. . 



Intensity 
of black, or 
thickness 

of line. 



2-5 

2 
2 



Appear* 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Ill 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



10-565 
10-623 
10-645 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
date from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



54 996 



Iron and 
Titanium. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
I'LACE, pel- 
British Inch. 



54 980 

54 997 

55 003 



Differences. 



•OS 



17 
6 



GLAUCOUS colour ends here ; and BLUE colour begins. 



BLUE. 



Triple group : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
Faint hazy line, 

Do. do. ... 

Very strong and wide double line- 
1st component, 



2nd 
Hazv or double line, 



do. 



Graduated triple — 

1st and smallest component, 
2nd and mean do. 

3rd and strongest do. 

Strong line, .... 

Clear line, .... 

Quadruple group of fine lines — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
. 4th do. 

Triple group of lines — 

1st component, 
2nd and chief do. 
3rd do. 

Double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, .... 

nh. a.m. 

Strong line (not in Angstrom), . 
Fine line, .... 

Strong clear line, 
Very fine line, .... 
Strong line, .... 

Clear line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Group of strong clear lines — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Strong line, .... 
Strongei line, .... 
Vi] \ line line, .... 

Very strong line, 

Hazy band, .... 
Strong line, .... 
Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Fine double line: 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Very strong double line— 
1st component, 



0-7 

r 

1-5 
2-5 
1- 



2nd 



do. 



l 

2-5 
1 

1-5 
1-5 
1 



3 
1 
3 
1 
2 

1-5 

1 

2 
3 

2 

2 
3 
0-5 



4 
4 



i ,i 



iii 



II 



10-720 
10-755 
10-768 
10-790 
10-867 

10-905 

10-996 
11-175 



11-240 
11-263 
11-298 
11-410 
11-458 



11-516 
11-533 
11-553 
11-570 



11-642 
11-665 
11-676 

11-750 
11-778 
11-792 



11-904 
11-925 
11-977 
12-012 
12-050 

12-143 
12-200 

12-248 
12262 
12-270 

12-317 
12-367 
12-423 

12504 

12-574 
12-655 
12-736 
12-774 
12-846 
12-875 



12 990 

13 035 



55 063 
55 087 



Unknown. 

Iron. 
Calcium. 



Iron. 



55 316 



55 448 



55 558 



Iron. 



Manganese. 



Calcium. 



Calcium. 



Calcium. 



Titanium. 



55 018 
55 027 
55 031 
55 036 
55 054 

55 064 

55 087 
55 129 



55 145 
55 150 
55 159 
55 186 
55 197 



55 211 

i 55 215 

i 55 220 

55 222 



55 240 
55 246 
55 248 

55 266 
55 272 
55 276 



55 302 
55 307 
55 319 
55 328 
55 336 

55 358 
55 372 

55 383 
55 387 
55 389 

55 400 
55 411 
55 426 

55 446 

55 462 
55 480 
55 498 
55 507 
55 522 
55 529 



55 555 
55 564 



23 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



321 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



v ine line, ...... 

Hazy band : 1st side, 

2nd do. . . . 

Hazy band, . ... 

Triple group of lines : 1st component, 
2nd do, 
3rd do 

Fine line, 

Do. ... 

Strong line, shaded to right, 
Strong sharp line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 

Very strong line, 

Fine line, 
Do. ... 

Strong line, 

Fine line, . , 

Do. ... 

Strong line, 

Haze band : 1st, side, 
2nd do. 
Group of graduated lines — 

1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd and strongest, 

Very fine line, .... 

Do 

Very strong double line — 

1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, .... 

Strong double line : 1st component, 

(Single in Angstrom;, 2nd do. 
Fine line, .... 

Hazy band : 1st side, 
2nd do. 
Fine line, ... 

Very black line, 

llh. 55m. 

A band of lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd and chief, 
4th and last, 

Strong hazy line, 

Stronger and hazy line, 

Fine line, .... 

Broad faint haze band : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Wide double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Last pair repeated : 1st component, 
(Very faint in Angstrom, 2nd do. . 

Fine line, 

Do. 

Do. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
2 
2 

1 

2 
1 
2 

1 

1 

2-5 

3 

2 

1 



1 
2 
3 

07 



1 
2 
3 
2 

2 
3 
1 

0-6 
0-6 

2 

2 

2 
2 
1 
1 
1-2 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I II 



li 



II 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



13 
13 
13 
13 

13 

13 
13 

13 
13 
13 
13 
14 
14 

14 

14 
14 
14 

14 

14 
14 

14 
14 

14 
14 
14 

14 
14 

14 
14 
14 

15 
15 
15 

15 
15 
15 

15 



107 
150 
180 
272 

338 
373 
430 

635 
705 
845 
948 
042 
135 

191 

228 
280 
332 

386 
428 
470 

495 
510 

585 
628 
683 

733 

790 

932 
945 
993 

035 
085 
170 

187 
224 
283 
332 



393 
428 
455 
476 

543 

672 
825 

908 
977 

075 
130 

780 
835 
905 
950 
973 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 

Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



55 642 



55 835 



56 000 



56 027 



56 094 



56 167 



56 270 



56 270 



Unknown. 
Titanium. 



Titanium. 

Barium. 

Titanium. 



Titanium. 



Iron. 



Titanium. 

Titanium. 
Calcium. 
Calcium. 

Iron. 

Cobalt. 
Iron. 

Titanium. 



Barium. 
Titanium. 



Titanium. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
N UMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



55 580 

55 591 

55 598 

55 618 

55 633 

55 642 

55 651 

55 704 

55 720 

55 753 

55 778 

55 800 

55 820 

55 834 

55 842 

55 854 

55 866 

55 877 

55 887 

55 897 

55 902 

55 906 

55 922 

55 932 

55 944 

55 956 

55 968 

56 000 
56 002 
56 013 

56 022 

56 036 

56 055 

56 060 

56 069 

56 082 

56 094 



56 108 
56 116 
56 122 
56 126 

56 140 
56 167 
56 203 

56 221 
56 236 

56 258 
56 270 

56 258 
56 270 
56 286 
56 297 
56 302 



10 
12 



14 



15 



12 



12 



11 

20 
15 



53 

16 
33 
25 
22 
20 

14 



12 
12 

11 

10 
10 

5 
16 



12 
12 
32 

11 



19 
5 

13 
12 

14 



14 

27 
36 

18 



22 



16 

11 

5 

41 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4n 



:!l , l' 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH OX 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

tin' Place. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



BLUE. 



INIMCO. 



Strong lino (very faint double in 

Angstrom), 3 

Fine line, ..... 1 

Do. 1 

Do. 1-5 

Strong line, hazy on either side, . 3 

A narrow band, .... 2 

Fine line, 1 

Strong line, 2 

Fine line, ..... 1 

Do. 1 

Very strong line, " little d," with two 
following lines and haze (these latter 
particulars not in Angstrom) — 

1st component, . 5 

2nd do. . 3 

3rd do. . 1 

Band of fine lines, perhaps double 
ones, backed by haze — 

1st component, . 0*5 

2nd do. . 1 

3rd do. . 2 

4th do. . 3 

(The whole system ) 

very imperfect > 5th do. 
in Angstr. ) ) 

Fine line, . . . . . 1-5 

Strong hazy line (not in Angstrom), . 2 

Strong hazy line, 

Clear line, preceding, ... 2 

Very strong and black line 

following, ..." 4 

Narrow haze band, .... 1 

Broad and fainter haze band — 

1st side, . . . 0"5 

2nd do. . . . 0-5 

Very strong line, .... 3 

Faint haze, 0-5 

( ileal line, 2 

Hazy line. ..... 1 

Do 1 

Strong double line : 1st component, . 3 

2nd do. . 3 

strong hazy line, .... 3 

Do do. .... 3 

I lazy band almost resolved into lines — 

1st side, . . - 5 

2nd do. . . 2 

Clear line, '■ 2 

Strong line, .... 4 
1 He M Line, . . . . . I 2 

Do. 2 

Fine line, . . . . . . > 1 

Do l 

BLUE colour ■ads here ; INDIGO begins. 



Very thin line, . . . . . 

r line, . . . . . 

Strong hazy line : 1st side, 
2nd do. . 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 

compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Heading. 



I'll 



1 

i I .rr. 

I 



:i: 



■If" 
I 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
trom 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin' 

data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <tec. 



56 436 



•150 
■342 
•385 
•487 

•548 
•665 
•724 
•780 
■ •818 
•854 



8 904 56 522 

8-926 
8-948 



9-030 
9-068 
9-103 
9-150 

I 9-195 

9-240 
9-398 

9-487 
9-572 j 

9 600 ! 

9-652 

9-720 
9-760 

9-937 

10-020 
10-122 
10-195 
10-260 

10-322 
10-365 
10-490 
10-610 



Manganese. 



Titanium. 
Manganese. 

Titanium. 
Chromium. 



Iron. 



56 663 



1 

2 


i 
1 . 


4 
4 


! 1 1 



10-727 
10-792 

10-852 

10907 
10-950 
L0-994 

11-020 
11-042 



11-065 
11 -C95 

11 143 | 
11181 ( 



56 834 



Manganese. 
Manganese 
and Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Magnesium. 

Iron. 

Manganese. 



Iron and 
Titanium. 

Manganese. 



Manganese. 

Manganese. 

Iron. 
Manganese. 
Manganese. 



57 025 



Manganese. 
Titanium. 
Calcium. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
Hritish Inch. 



Differences. 



56 343 

56 389 
56 399 
56 422 

56 436 
56 466 
56 479 
56 492 
56 501 
56 509 



56 521 

56 526 
56 529 



56 547 

56 555 

56 563 

56 573 

56 582 

56 591 
56 602 

56 642 
56 659 

56 665 

56 676 

56 692 
56 701 

56 741 
56 760 
56 784 
56 800 
56 817 

56 830 
56 840 
56 870 
56 898 



56 924 
56 940 

56 953 

56 966 

56 976 
56 987 
56 992 
56 997 



57 002 
57 009 

57 020 
57 031 






in 



16 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



323 









Appear- 




PLACE- 






Differences. 


Colour of the 




Intensity 


ance by 


Micrometer 


DATA, 


Chemical-origin 


Concluded 






Continuous 


Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 


of black, o 


. graphical 


Reading. 


from 


data from 


WAVE- 


•8 . 


K 


Spectrum at 


Eraunhofer Line. 


thickness 


compara- 




Angstrom's 


Angstrom, 


NUMBER- 


~ o 


ZJ 


the Place. 




of line. 


tive 


Rev. 


Grating Nor- 


Thalen, &c. 


PLACE. per 


r= = 


c 








symbol. 




mal Solar 




British Inch. 


§5 


m 





« 








Spectrum. 






*« 


5 




Hazy line, ..... 


1 


■i; 


11-264 






57 048 




20 




Do. . l 

Strong hazy Tine, .... 


1 


:i; 


11-354 




Manganese. 


57 068 






2 


iili; 


11-420 




Titanium. 


57 081 




13 




Hazy line, ..... 


1 




11-507 






57 100 




19 
16 




Strong line, ..... 


3 


1 ' 


11-583 




Iron. 


57 116 






Faint hazy line, .... 


1 


:i: 


11-6-35 




Titanium. 


57 127 




11 




Exquisite bands of beautifully graduated lines follow, 


thus :— 21 




Very fine line, ..... 


0-5 






11-730 




f 


J 57 148 








Fine line, ..... 


0-8 


i 




11-750 






1 57 151 


3 






haze intervenes. 














! 


3 






Fine line, ..... 


1-2 


I 




11-770 






57 154 








haze intervenes. 
















7 






Clear line, 


2 


1 


~3§ 


11-798 




Titanium. 


57 161 








stronger haze intervenes. 




i 


- -=i 










11 






Strong line, ..... 


3 




11-849 




Iron. 


57 172 








stronger haze intervenes. 




1 


"i 










8 






Strongest line, .... 


5 


1 




11886 




Iron. 


57 180 








strong haze intervenes. 




i 












8 






Strong line, ..... 


3 


1 




11-915 




Iron ? 


57 188 








weak haze intervenes. 










■ 






4 






Fine line, . . . . . 


1 


i J 




11-940 




1 


57 192 








Very faint haze, .... 


0-6 




12-020 






57 210 




18 




Very fine line, ..... 


0-5 


. > 




12-147 




' 


57 236 




26 




Fine line, ..... 


0-8 


. 




12-186 






57 245 




9 




Do. 


1- 


i 




12-207 






57 249 




4 
7 
4 




Clear line, ..... 


1-5 


i 




12-238 




Manganese. 


57 256 






Strong line, . . . 


2" 


1 


-ill 


12-258 




Manganese. _ 
Manganese. 


I 57 260 




1XDIGO. 


Stronger line, ..... 


2-5 


,'i 


12-286 




57 266 




6 




Do 


3 




12-300 






56 269 




3 




Strongest and darkest of all. 


6 


1 j 




12 332 


57 274 


Calcium. 1 


57 275 




6 
16 




Double line : 1st component, 


2 


',!"! 


12-405 




|. 


57 291 


7 




.2nd do. 


2 


12-435 




57 298 






Fine line, ..... 


1 


i 


12-528 






57 318 




20 




Faint flat band : 1st side, 


2 


I -- i 


12-588 




Iron. J 


57 330 




12 




2nd do. 


2 


1 - 1 


12-635 




57 340 


10 


18 




Fine line, ..... 


1-5 


i 


12-718 






57 358 




20 




Strong double line : 1st component, . 


3 


'il»l 


12-804 




Titanium, 1 


57 378 


20 






2nd do. 


3 


12-905 




Calcium. { 


57 398 






Fine line, ..... 


1 


i 


12-986 






57 414 




16 




Haze band : begins sharp, 


1 


\ - \ 


13-045 




j 


57 429 


17 


15 




ends weak, 


0-3 


I ^ \ 


13-128 




\ 


57 446 


46 




Fine line, 


1 


i 


13-340 






57 492 






Do. 


1 


i 


13-385 




Titanium. 


57 501 




9 
11 




Do. 


1 


i 


13-433 






57 512 






Very strong, black and 
















17 




hazy: 1st side, . 


l« 


11 1 


13 515 \ 
13 543 11 


57 530] 


Iron and ) 


57 529 


3 




2nd do. . . .1 


Manganese. \ 


57 532 




lh. 10m. p.m. 






The field is now rather too dark, and is violet-coloured, 


approaching to lilac. On trying in place of present prisms 




8 and 6, Disp. =21°, the whiter pair 8 and 4, Disp. =14°, 1 


he field is instantly lighter and bluer. 




And on trying the still more transparent pair 8 and 3, '. 


3isp. =10°, the field is still lighter, and a lighter and more 




cobalt blue, or verging back even to glaucous blue ; the act 


ual spectrum-place, nevertheless, as tested by the last line, 




being absolutely the same all through. 






Similar, but mutatis mutandis, features having been n< 


rticed at the red end of the spectrum, it is plain that the 




colour has certain limits of change of place in the spectrum 


according to illumination ; though spectral lines have not. 




The limits, however, being very small, and not sensibly m 


airing the general law for beginners with small dispersive 




powers, that colour and refrangibility march together. 


■ 




Saturday, June 29, 9h. 30m. a.m. 






Centre of thick hazy line, 6 ;;|l; I 


| 1 Iron and I || 
6'955 1 57 530 (Manganese. \ \\ 57 530 I 1 1 12 




i 


All the lines hereabouts are hazy, more or less. 


1 






















\ 



324 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 
the Place. 



INDIGO. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Friiunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Very fine line, "j 

Fine line,. j A11 these 6 lines 

y wanting 

! in Angstrom. 



Do. 

Clear line 

Do. 



Strong unequal double— 
1st component, 

2nd component, 
Strong line, 

Very strong line, "little e," 
hazy— 

1st side, 
2nd side, 

Fine line, 

Unequal triple group— 
1st component, 

2nd component, 
3rd component, 

Close double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Fine line 

Do 

Do 



Very strong line, • 

Fine double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



Very strong line, 
Strong liue, 
Fine line, . 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 



Group of lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 
5th and chief, 

Strong haze band : 1st side, 

2nd side, 
Flat or fainter haze band : 1st side, 
2nd side, 

Very strong line, "little f," 
hazy— 

1st side, 
2nd side, . 

Haze continues up to this line, . 
Re-focussed telescope. 



Last line repeated, .... 

An alternating series — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 


2 

2 
1 


3rd 


do. 


2 


4th 


do. 


1 


5th 


do. 


2 


6th 


do. 


1 



0-7 
1-3 
1-4 
1-3 
9 



4 

l 

3 

2 

2 

1 
1 

1 

4 

l 

l 

3 

2 

1-5 
2 
1 

1 

1-3 

1-3 

13 

2 

3 
3 

2 
2 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



I 

1 ! ," 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



ll 




1 f 



',J 



•985 
•005 
•054 
•092 
■114 
•160 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



7183 

7-214 
7-250 



7300 
7 324 

7-372 



7 426 

7-455 

7-482 

7-527 
7-538 

7-580 
7-610 
7-628 

7655 

7-685 
7-704 

7-764 
7-793 
7-804 
7-833 
7-840 

7-874 
7-885 
7-896 
7-910 
7-924 

7-986 
7-998 
7-998 
8-030 



8 030* 
8 048 I 

8-063 



8-078 

8-150 
8-175 
8-213 
8-240 
8-295 
8-303 



Chemical-origin 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Calcium 
and Iron. 
Calcium. 



Iron. 

Nickel ? 

Nickel. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE. pei- 
British Inch. 



57 954 



Titanium. 

Iron. 
Calcium. 



Calcium. 

Iron. 
Chromium. 

Chromium. 
Calcium ? 



57 542 
57 550 
57 568 
57 584 
57 593 
57 611 



57 620 

57 631 
57 646 



57 666 
57 676 

57 694 



57 

57 
57 

57 
57 

57 
57 
57 

57 

57 

57 

57 
57 
57 
57 
57 

57 
57 
57 
57 

57 

57 
57 
57 

57 



715 

728 
738 

755 
759 

778 
789 
795 

806 

818 
826 

849 
860 
865 

875 
878 

890 
895 
898 
906 
911 

933 
939 
939 
952 



Differences. 












« 




u 


£ 3 


c 
3 




a 



57 952 
57 960 

57 965 



57 965 

57 990 

58 000 
58 013 
58 022 
58 042 
58 046 



11 



10 



13 



10 



INDIGO colour ends here ; VIOLET begins. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



325 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Frauenhofer Line. 



Strong line, 
Very fine line, 
Fine line, 
Very fine line, 

Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 



Very powerful triple— 

1st component, 

2nd do. 



3rd 



do. 



Strong line, .... 
Very fine line, .... 
A notable group — 

1st component, 

2nd and chief do. 
3rd do. 

4th do. 

5th do. 

A triple group — 

1st and smallest component, . 

2nd and large do. 

3rd and large do. 

A band of small lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. . 
3rd do. . 
4th do. . 

Quadruple group — 

1st component, 

2nd and chief do. 

3rd, a thin line, . 
4th, do. 

Strong line (barely seen in Angstrom), 
Strong line, ..... 
Unequal triple group — 

1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd and chief do. 

Violet Hydrogen, sometimes called, 
" near G" — 

Haze begins, . 
1st side of lines, 
2nd do. 

Following line, 



Fine line, 

Do. 
Stronger line, . 

Very strong line, 

Fine line, 
Stronger line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 
Strong line, 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



3 

0-8 
1-3 
0-8 

2 
1 
2 
1 



4 

4 



3 

2-5 

2- 

1 



1 

4 
4 

1 
1 
2 

9 



0-5 
10 

4 

l 
l 

2 

4 



1-5 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



l|JMl 




,'!■ 



I I 



hi 



1 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



8-333 
8-347 
8-360 
8371 

8-390 
8-412 
8-438 
8-452 




8-760 



8-792 
\ 8-806 

8-815 
^ 8-825 



J 8 920 
( 8 955 

( 9 034 

) 9-050 

1 9-073 

( 9-095 

f 9-164 

I 

-( 9195 

9-232 
I 9-240 

9-344 
9-405 

9-477 
9-495 
9-527 



9-604 

9 618 
9 645 

9 665 

9-720 
9-730 
9-745 

9 760 

9-821 
9-867 
9-914 
9-950 
9-972 

10-062 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



58 360 



} 58 524 



Chemical-origin 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Iron. 



? 

Iron. 
Iron. 



Chromium. 
Iron. 



Chromium 
and Iron. 



Chromium. 
Iron. 



Hydrogen. 



Chromium 

and 
Titanium. 





Differences. 


Concluded 
WAVK- 






« 




NU.MISER- 
PLACE, per 




C 


liritish Inch. 


=3 S 


*j 




-6 






M M 


A 


58 056 




5 
4 
4 


58 061 




58 065 




58 069 








7 


58 076 




7 
11 


58 083 




58 094 




58 100 




6 
19 


58 119 


20 




58 139 


24 




58 163 




14 


58 177 






58 183 




6 
26 


58 209 


12 




58 221 


5 
3 
3 




58 226 




58 229 




58 232 








22 


58 254 


12 




58 266 


12 




58 278 




27 


58 305 


6 

8 
9 




58 311 




58 319 




58 328 








24 


58 352 


10 




53 362 


15 
3 




58 377 




58 380 








36 


58 416 




24 


58 440 








28 


58 468 


6 

11 




58 474 




58 485 








27 


58 512 




7 


58 519 


11 




58 530 


8 




58 538 


23 


58 561 




4 


58 565 




6 


58 571 




7 


58 578 




23 


58 601 




18 


58 619 




58 638 




19 


58 652 




14 


58 660 




8 
38 


58 698 




15 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4 O 



326 



PROFESSOR PIAZZ1 SMYTH ON 









Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 




PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Crating Nor- 
mal Solar 




Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, pel- 
British Inch. 


Differences 


Colour of the 




Intensity 


Micrometer 


Chemical-origin- 


*} 




Continuous 
Spectrum ;u 

the Place. 


Object observed, generally a black, fixed 
Ftaunnofer Line. 


of black, i.i 
thickness 

of line. 


Heading. 
Rev. 


data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 


2S 

S o 


i 

c 












Spectrum. 






S Q 


a 






2 


! 


10-103 






58 713 






Grand line, followed by- 
















13 




lines in haze— 




1 














1st grand line, 


8 


1 




f 10 135 


58 727 


Iron. f 


58 726 








haze intervenes. 




1 















12 






2nd next grand line, . 


4 


-" : 




10170 






58 738 








haze intervenes. 


















14 






3rd line, .... 


l 


i 




\ 10-210 




« 


58 752 








haze intervenes. 
















5 






4th line, .... 


2 


! 


^™ 


10-223 






58 757 








haze intervenes. 
















8 






5th line, .... 


3 


1 - 




L 10-244 




Titanium. .. 


58 765 




21 

10 

31 
24 

26 




Fine line, ..... 


1 


1 


10-304 






58 786 






Strong line, ..... 


3 


I 


10-337 




Titanium. 


58 796 






Lpss strong line, .... 


2 


I 


10-424 




Calcium. 


58 827 






Fine line, 


1 


1 


10495 






58 851 






Sharp douhle line : 1st component, . 


2 


.'I'll 


10-568 




Iron and ( 


58 877 


11 




2nd do. 


2 


10-602 




Titanium. ( 


58 888 


14 
13 




Fine double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 


1 

1 


',!«! 


10-648 
10-665 




Titanium. ] 


58 902 
58 909 


7 




Fine double line : 1st component, 


1 


M'l 


10-700 




i 


58 922 


4 




2nd do. 


1 


10-715 




58 926 


7 




Fine line, ..... 


1-5 


I 


10-735 






58 933 






Do. 


]-5 


I 


10-745 






58 938 




a 

3 
3 

5 




Do. 


1-5 


I 


10-755 






58 941 






Do. 


1-5 


i 


10-767 






58 944 




VIOLET. 


Strong line, ..... 


3 


1 


10-780 






58 949 






Less strong line, .... 


2 


I 


10-790 






58 952 




7 




Fine line, ..... 


1 


i 


10-808 






58 959 






The Great G line— 
















i 


5 




1st side, • ) 








10823 




( 


58 964 


4 
5 






middle, [ 


10 






10 838 


58 967 


Iron. < 


58 968 






last side, • ) 








10 850 




1 


58 973 


9 
11 




Sharp line 


3 


1 


10-877 




Calcium. 


58 982 






Triple group : 1st component, . 


2 


1 . I 


10-907 




( 


58 993 


4 
3 




2nd do. 


1-5 


10-915 




Titanium. < 


58 997 






3rd do. 


2 


10-926 




( 


59 000 


9 

14 




Strong line 


3 


i 


10-954 






59 009 






Do. 


2 


i 


10-995 






59 023 






Hazy quadruple group — 
















9 




1st component, 


1 


, \ 


( 11-024 




I 


59 032 


6 






2nd do. 


3 


i ( ii 


) 11-038 




l 


59 038 






3rd do. 


1 


, i 'hl'Mi 


1 11043 




1 


59 040 


3 






4th do. 


3 


1) 


( 11-054 




Calcium. ( 


59 043 


12 

7 
8 

7 




r 


2 


1 


11-087 




Calcium. 


59 055 








1 




11-108 






59 062 






A group of lines and haze bands, J 


2 


I * 


11-182 






59 070 






terminated by a very strong line, ] 


1 




11-150 




Titanium. 


59 077 






I 


5 


r 


11173 




Calcium and 
Iron. 


59 085 




8 
15 




Strong line 


2 


i 


11-216 






59 100 




10 




Strong double line : 1st component, . 


3 


■'[■ii 


1 1 ".' 1 5 




Iron. ( 


59 110 


8 




2nd do. 


3 


11-266 




J 


59 118 






















23 




Unequal double line : 1st component, 


3 


'.in! 


11-335 




Titanium. ( 


59 141 








2nd do- 


5 


11385 




Iron. f 


59 159 


18 


11 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



327 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Fine line and sharp, 
Strong line and sharp, 

Very strong and. sharp line, 

Group of lines : 1st component, 

2nd and chief, . 

3rd component, 

4th do. 

5th do. 
Single, strong, and sharp line, . 

Group of 8 lines : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

3rd and chief, 

4th component 
5th do. 
6th do. 
7th do. 
8th do. 

Triple group : 1st component, . 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Strong lines in haze band — 
1st 
2nd 

3rd and chief, 

Fine line, 

Do. 

Decreasing haze band — 

begins sharp, 
middle, 

vanishes, 

Very powerful line, and other lines in 
a haze band — - 

1st line, . 

2nd and chief, 

3rd line, 
4th do. 

llh. A.M. 

Very powerful double— 
1st component, 

2nd do. 

Powerful line, . 

Fine line, 

Triple group : 1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 

Very fine line 
Fine line, 
Strong line, 

Do. 
Fine line, 
Fine line, followed by haze. 

Very powerful line, reached 
by said haze— 

1st side, 
2nd do! 

Hazy band — begins, . 
maximum, 
ends, 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



1 
3 

4 

l 

3 

1 
1 

0-5 
3 

1 
2 

4 

3 
2 
1 
0-5 

2 

1 

2-5 

1 



2 
3 

4 

l 
l 

2 

1-5 

0-1 



4 

l 

3 
1 
3 

0-5 

1 

2-5 

2 

1 

2 



10 

0-5 

2 

0-5 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



'll 



1 J 



I 1 

i ! 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



Illlllil 



I ' 



I ll 



ill 






1-1 



II 



H'415 
11-456 

11503 

11-536 
11-553 
11-564 
11-577 
11-583 
11-620 

11-655 

11-673 

11695 

11-713 
11-722 
11-732 
11-754 
I 11-775 

11-818 
11-835 
11-850 



11-890 
11-920 

11945 

11-972 
11-994 

12-025 
12-046 
12060 



12-107 

12138 

12-170 
12-188 



12 260 
12 278 
12 345 

12-384 
12-424 
12-445 
12-463 

12-505 
12-524 
12-550 
12-570 
12-613 
12-668 



12715 
12 745 

12-780 
12-810 

12-824 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin 
d ta from 
Angstrom, 
Tlialen, &c. 



59 467 



59 623 



Titanium. 



Chromium 

and 

Calcium. 

Titanium. 



Titanium, 
Iron, and < 
Calcium. 



Iron. 



Manganese. 



Copper. 



Chromium | 
and -j 
Calcium. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Manganese. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, pel- 
British Inch 



59 170 
59 184 

59 200 

59 212 
59 219 
59 222 
59 226 
59 230 
59 242 

59 254 

59 260 

59 268 

59 274 
59 277 
59 280 
59 287 
59 294 

59 309 
59 315 

59 320 



59 334 

59 344 

59 352 

59 362 
59 370 

59 382 
59 390 
59 393 



59 410 

59 420 

59 431 
59 438 



59 463 
59 470 
59 493 

59 506 
59 518 
59 527 
59 533 

59 548 
59 555 
59 563 
59 570 
59 586 
59 603 



59 620 
59 630 

59 642 
59 652 
59 657 



Differences. 



10 



10 



14 
16 

12 



12 

12 



15 
14 

10 

8 

12 

8 
3 

17 



25 



23 

13 
12 



15 

7 

8 

7 

16 

17 

17 



12 

10 

5 

23 



:i-2s 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 
Continuous 
um at 
the Place. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Kraunhofcr Line. 



VIOLET. 



Lavender. 



Intensity 

of black, or 
thickness 

of line. 



System of lines, very sharp — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 



4th 
5th 



do. 
do. 



6th and chief, 

7th component, 

Group of lines — 

1st and small component, 

2nd and powerful, 
3rd do. do. 

4th component, small, 

Fine unequal double line— 

1st component, 
2nd do. 

Grand double line— 

1st component, 



2nd 



do. 



Fine line, .... 

Strong line, .... 
Strong group of lines : 1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 



Group of alternating lines, 



■i 



A grand triple group, where place 
appears to be faulty in Angstrom's 
Map — 

1st line, .... 

2nd and chief line, 

3rd anil last line, . 
haze includes all three. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

7 

2 



1 

6 

6 
2 



0-5 
2- 



4 
4 

l 

2 
3 
3 
3 

1 
3 
1 
3 
1 
3 



8 
3 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 

compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



hilllli 



i J 



'iLiii 
I 



n 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



A 7 10 LET colour ends here ; LAVENDER begins. 

I) 



Triple group (single in Angstrom) 
1st line, 



2nd do. 
3rd do. 

Fine line, .... 

Strong line, .... 

Do. . . . 

Strong double line : 1st component, 

(Single in Angstr.), 2nd do. 

" Little g '' a very powerful and hazy 
line : naze begins, 

1st side of g, . 

2nd side of g, 
Terminal line to the 
haze, . 



3 
4 
4 

l 

2 
2 
8 
8 

0-5 

10 
10 



( 12-890 
12-905 
12-914 

12924 
12 941 

12968 

I 12-987 



13040 

13110 
13134 

I 13-154 



13-198 
13-216 



13 252 
13 282 

13-309 
13-348 
13430 
13-465 
13-473 

13-558 
13-585 
13 602 
13-623 
13-638 
13-656 



13-695 

13 736 

13-768 



13-845 

13 854 
13866 

13-912 
13-945 
13-965 
13-988 
14-000 

14-080 

14107 
14128 

14-162 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



59 758 
59 765 



59 959? 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Tlialen, &c. 



Chromium 
Calcium, - 
and Iron, 



60100 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Titanium. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

i 



Iron. 

Manganese 
Calcium. 

Calcium. 



60 004 
60 007 
60 012 

60 029 
60 041 
60 047 
60 054 

CO 060 

60 089 

60 100 
60 103 

60 114 



Concluded 
WAVE- 


Differ 


<3 . 


NUMBER- 


m a, 


PLACE, per 


SS 


British Inch. 


ta 






« 

6 
3 
4 


59 


680 


59 


686 


59 


689 


59 693 




59 698 


5 






9 


59 70 7 




59 


714 


7 


59 


733 


25 


59 758 




59 


765 


7 


59 771 


6 


59 


786 


7 


59 


793 




59 805 


9 


59 814 




59 


821 




59 


837 




59 


863 


12 


59 


875 


3 


59 


878 




59 


905 




59 


918 




59 


921 




59 


928 




59 


932 




59 


940 




59 


952 


13 


59 965 


10 


59 


975 





THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



329 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

nf black, m 

thickness 

of line. 



Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Very fine line, .... 

Do. do 

Powerful line and sharp, 

Tine line (not in Angstrom), 
Fine line, .... 

Strong and sharp line (not 

in Angstrom), 
Fine line, .... 

Double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

A grand triplet— 

1st line, . 
2nd and chief, 

3rd and last line, . 

Fine line (stronger in Angstrom), 

Do 

Do 

Stronger line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Very strong line and sharp, 

Strong line, ..... 

Do. 

Fine line, ..... 

Strong line and sharp, 

Fine line, 

Do. (strong line in Angstrom), 

Do 

Do 

Very powerful line— 

1st side, 
2nd do. 



Fine line, 
Do. 



Strong line, 

Clear line, 

Very powerful line (double in 

Angstrom) — 

1st side, 
2nd do. • 

Very faint double line — 

1st component, 
2nd do. 

Strong double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 

Strong line, .... 
Fine line, .... 

Very powerful line and 
hazy, 

Fine line, .... 

llh. 35m. A M. 
Strong line, .... 



1 
1 

0-5 
0-5 

4 

2 



4 
1 

1 
2 



10 

1 
1 

3 

2 



10 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



ill 



1 i 
II 

i 



14-208 
14-225 
14-252 
14-262 

14 313 

14-340 
14-398 

14440 

14-471 

14-525 
14-534 



14 583 
14 610 

14-621 

14-683 
14-724 
14-760 
14-793 
14-809 

14 835 

14-852 
14-898 
14-960 
14-985 

15-038 
15-056 
15-098 
15-107 



15174/ 
15 197 \ 

15-240 
15-275 

15-316 
15-332 



15 348) 
15 363 



15 

15 

15 

15 

15 
15 

15 

15 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



435 
443 

475 

505 

562 
614 

655 

680 



60 251 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Calcium and 
Iron. 



60 452 



60 502 



Iron. 



Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



60 602 



15-773 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Calcium. 



Iron. 



Calcium . 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, pei- 
British Inch. 



Differences. 


« . 




£s 


a> 


~ & 




s§ 


-2 


a M 


5 



60 128 
60 133 
60 142 
60 145 

60 161 

60 169 

60 186 

60 199 

60 209 

60 225 

60 228 



60 242 
60 251 

60 256 

60 278 
60 292 
60 303 
60 317 
60 320 

60 330 

60 336 
60 350 
60 373 
60 381 

60 400 
60 407 
60 420 
60 423 



60 448 
60 454 

60 469 
60 480 

60 491 
60 496 



60 502 
60 507 



60 531 
60 533 

60 544 
60 555 

60 573 
60 590 



60 602 

60 612 



60 646 



11 



5 
9 
3 

16 



17 

13 
10 
16 

14 

22 

14 

11 

14 

3 

10 



14 
23 

8 

19 

7 

13 

3 

25 



15 

11 

11 

5 



24 

11 

18 
17 
12 
10 

34 

16 



VOL. XXTX. PART I. 



4 P 



330 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spei I rum at 

the Plnce. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Lavender. 



Very strong line and sharp, 

Very strong line and sharp, 
but with haze behind, 

Said haze ends, 

Very strong line, 

Strong line, 

Very strong line, 

Fine line, 

Do. 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 

Do. 



Very powerful line, 

Fine line, 

Strong and sharp line, 

Fine line, 
Do. 

Very strong line, 

Strong line and sharp, 
Strong line, 
Do. 



Band of sharp lines, but with haze 
behind — 

1st component, 

2nd and chief do. 

3rd component, 
4th and last do. 

Strong line, .... 

Fine line, .... 

Do 



Triplet : 1st component, . 

2nd and chief do. 

3rd and faintest line, . 

Strong line, . , 

Fine line. 

Strong line, 

Very faint double line — 

1st component, 

2nd do. 
Very fine line, . 

Double line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Fine line, 

Strong close double— 
1st component, 

2nd do. 
Wider strong double— 
1st component, 

2nd do. 
Very strong line, . 

Strong line, .... 

Do. .... 

Fine line, .... 

Powerful line, • 

Stroii" line, .... 



Intensity 
of black, oi 

thickness 
of line. 



5 

0-5 

4 

2 

4 

l 
l 

2 
1 
1 

6 

l 

3 

1 
1 

4 

3 

2 
9 



4 
4 

4 
4 

5 

3 
2 

1 

5 

2 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



II 



ill' 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



15 820 

| 15 844 

1 15-863 

15 866 

15-955 

15 990 

16-010 
16-025 
16-036 
16-053 
16-072 

16095 

16-136 
16202 

16-216 
16-267 

16280 

16-330 
16-378 
16-412 



■ 16-458 
'16 486 

I 16-514 
. 16-554 

16-592 
16-643 
16-695 

16-738 

16 762 

16-774 

16-845 
16-880 
16-925 

17-020 
17-030 
17-063 

17-120 
17-135 
17-180 



17 237 
17 255 

17 323 
17363 

17454 

17-538 
17-555 
17-560 

17 582 

17-664 



60669 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom. 
Thalcn, &c. 



61 124 



61 147 



Iron. 

Titanium. 
Iron. 

Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron and 
Titanium. 



Iron. 



Titanium. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 

NUMBER- 

PLACE. per 

British Inch. 



60 662 
60 672 

60 680 

60 681 

60 709 

60 720 

60 727 
60 732 
60 736 

60 742 
60 747 

60 755 

60 769 
60 789 

60 793 
60 810 

60 813 

60 830 
60 846 

60 857 



60 871 
60 880 

60 889 
60 902 

60 913 
60 930 
60 948 

60 961 

60 970 

60 973 

60 998 

61 008 
61 022 

61 053 
61 056 
61 068 

61 083 
61 090 
61 103 



61 121 
61 126 

61 144 
61 155 

61 183 

61 209 
61 215 
61 217 

61 223 

61 249 



4 










a 


2 o 




s" 


Q 



26 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 



331 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Fine line, .... 

Very powerful and close 
double— 

1st line, 

2nd do. 

Strong line (not in Angstrom), . 
Fine line, .... 

Do. .... 

Very fine line, .... 

Triplet : 1st line, 

2nd, and chief line, . 
3rd, and last line, 

Very powerful line, and 
thick, .... 

Strong line, .... 
Do. .... 

Very powerful and thick 
line, 

Fine line (not in Angstrom), 

Do. do. 

Double line : 1st component, 
2nd do. 



2nd 


do. 


Very strong 

Strong line, 
Fine line, . 


lin 


e, . . . 


Do. 
Do. 

Very powerful 
line, . 


and thick 


Strong line, 

Do. 
Fine line, 




• 


Strong line, 
Fine line, 




. 


Very strong 


line, . 


Fine line, 
Strong line, 
Fine line, 







Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



2 
2 
2 
2 

4 
3 
1 

1 
1 



I ill 



Powerful line, 



(From 61 667 to 61 880 entirely blank in Angstrom). 



Powerful line, . 

Very strong line, 

Strong line, 
Fine line, 
Very fine line, . 

Powerful line, 

Strong line, 



4 

3 

2 
1 
0-5 

4 

2 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



17-735 



17 834 



17 

17 
17 

18 
18 

18 
18 
18 



851 

898 
914 

004 
016 

120 

145 
163 



18 274 

18-297 
18-354 



18 393 

18-485 
18-520 
18-586 
18-594 

18-662 
18-695 
18-790 
18-800 

18 843 

18-865 
18-910 

18-953 
18-975 

19 001 

19-054 
19-135 
19-145 

19-195 
19-232 

19297 

19-330 
19-361 
19-390 

19 415 



19 455 

19-465 

19-485 
19-505 
19-535 

19 576 

19-634 



PLACE 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



61305 



61440 



61478 



61 667 



Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 
Iron. 



Iron. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

N UMBER- 
PL AC E, per 
British Inch. 



61 271 



61302 
61308 

61 322 
61 328 

61 358 
61 362 

61 394 

61 402 
61 408 



61442 

61 450 
61 470 



61 480 

61 509 

61 520 

61 538 

61 542 

61 563 

61 575 

61 602 

61 606 

61620 

61 626 
61 639 

61 653 
61 659 

61667 

61 682 
61 708 
61 712 

61 727 
61 738 

61757 

61 768 
61 779 
61 787 

61795 



61808 

61 811 

61 818 
61 823 
61 833 

61844 

61 863 



Differences. 



31 



14 

6 

30 

4 
32 



34 

8 
20 

10 

29 

11 
18 

21 

12 

27 

14 

6 
13 

14 

6 

8 

15 

26 

4 
15 

11 

19 

11 

11 



13 



3 

7 

5 
10 
11 

19 

17 



332 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 
Continuous 

am at 
the Place. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
l'raunhofcr Line. 



Lavender. 



Notable haze - enveloped 
group, containing the im- 
portant and thick line 
representing Lavender- 
Hydrogen— 

1st component, 

2nd, with haze, 

3rd, with haze, 

4th, being the first side 
of grand line, 

5th, being the second 
side of the grand 
line, .... 

6tli, being end of the haze, 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



4 
4 
4 

10 



10 

l 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



f 19 690 
19 730 
19 790 

19 835 



19 873 

I 19-975 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



Hydrogen. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



61 880 
61 892 
61 911 

61 925 



61 938 

61 969 



Differences. 



13 



12 

19 
14 



31 



Monday, July 1, 1878. Prisms 8 and 4. Dispersion = 14°. 
At Oh. 50m. came a sudden clearing of sky after a cloudy morning. Began 
but the day's measures, from 61 923 to 62 822, are most unfortunately not of the 



immediately to work the apparatus, 
standard degree of definition. 



Lavender - Hydrogen re 
peated for place only— 
1st side, 
2nd do. 

Haze, attending it, ends, . 

Strong hazy band : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Weak hazy band, 
Hazy band or line, . 

Broad hazy band : 1st and sharp side, 
2nd and weak do. 

Hazy band or line : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Strong line, 

Graduated haze band — 

1st and faint side, . 

2nd and strong side, • 

Hazv line, 

Do. 

Hazy band, ..... 

Hazy band line, 

Stronger hazy band line, . 

Hazy band line, .... 

Broad hazy group— 

1st and stronger part, 

2nd and weaker part, 

Faint haze band 

Stronger haze band, .... 

Still stronger haze band, 
sharpest on 2nd side, 

Faint haze band, .... 

Very strong haze band line, 

Powerful hazy group— 

1st and stronger part, 
2nd and weaker part, 

Hazy band line, .... 

Do. do. . . . . 



10 
10 

0-5 


III 


2 


I m 


2 


\ == 


1 
2 


r= = 


3 

1 


1*1 


3 
3 


ill 


3 


1 


1 
4 


Ul 


3 


iilii 


3 


iilii 


3 




4 


1 


5 


1 


3 


= 


6 

3 


titan | 


1 


= 


2 


= 


4 

2 


_,il!llll 


5 




6 

3 


| | 


2 


- 


2 


- 



9 340 > 
9 368 j 

9-440 



505 
534 

583 
630 

674 
705 

786 
803 



9-842 



9-870 
9 910 

9-955 

9-972 
10-045 

10 083 

10140 

10-173 



10213 

10-285 

10-344 
10-395 

10 435 

10-490 

10 515 



10 556 

10-604 

10-662 
10-715 



61 931 



62 061 



62 305 



Hydrogen. 

Calcium. 
Calcium. 

Calcium. 



Iron. 



Manganese. 



Calcium. 



61 923 
61 935 

61 958 


61 976 
61 986 


62 002 
62 017 


62 030 
62 040 


62 065 
62 070 


62 083 


62 093 
62 106 


62 119 

62 126 

62 149 

62 162 


62 180 

62 191 


62 204 

62 227 


62 246 
62 262 


62 276 

62 294 


62 302 


62 315 

62 330 


62 349 
62 366 



23 



15 



18 

16 
15 
13 

25 

13 
10 

13 

13 
18 

11 

13 

19 

1G 
M 

18 I 
8 

18 

19 

17 
M 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



333 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Grand line with haze — 

Haze begins, 

1st side of line, 
2nd do. 

Haze ends, 

Hazy line, ..... 

Stronger hazy line band, 

Broad haze band, almost 
resolved into lines— 

1st side, 
2nd do. . 

Hazy band line, .... 

Very powerful line : 1st side, 
2nd do! 



Strong line, 

Do. 
Decided line, 

Do. 
Fine line, 
Strong line, 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Powerful line, 

Strong line, 



0-5 
10 
10 

0-5 



4 
4 
2 

8 
8 

3 
3 

2 
2 
1 

2 

4 
9 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



(All this part very imperfect in Angstrom. ) 



Strong line, .... 
Fine line, .... 

Strong line, .... 

Powerful and thick line, 

Fine line, .... 
Strong line, .... 
Stronger line 

Powerful and thick line, 

Strong line 

Do. .... 

Fine line, 



Strong double line— 

1st component, 

2nd do. 

Fine line, 
Strong line, 

Triplet of lines— 

1st and strongest 



2nd and intermediate, 
3rd and weakest, . 



A grandly powerful line set in haze 
and other fine lines — 
Haze begins, 
Fine line in haze, 

1st side of grand line, 
2nd do. do. 
Strong line in haze, 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



2 


1 




1 


1 


2 


1 


5 


1 


l 


1 


2 


! 


3 


1 


5 


1 


2 




2 


| 


1 


I 


4 
4 


Mii 


l 


1 


2 






4 


1 




3 


1 


III 


2 


1 J 




0-3 




1 


-t~_ 


10 


- ~~ : = 


10 
4 


— ■» 


4 


-fl 


4 







10 760 
10800 
10 819 

10 855 

10-928 
10985 



11017 
11072 

11-113 

11185 I 
11 220 i 

11-247 
11-250 
11-286 
11-307 
11-395 
11-423 

11450 

11-470 



11-483 
11-500 
11-506 

11527 

11-580 
11-610 
11-626 

11650 

11-690 
11-712 
11-730 



11-774 
11787 

11-835 
11-863 

11-904 

11-932 
11-960 



12-030 
12-075 
12 100 I 
12 145 
12165 
12195 
12 225 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, <fcc. 



62 390 



62 516 



Iron. 



Iron. 



62 790 



Manganese. 



Iron. 



Manganese. ■{ 



Iron. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 
NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch 



62 380 

62 392 
62 396 

62 408 

62 430 
62 449 



62 459 
62 476 

62 488 

62 510 
62 521 

62 529 
62 530 
62 541 
62 548 
62 573 
62 582 

62 590 

62 596 



Differences. 



17 



11 



62 600 
62 605 
62 607 




62 613 

62 628 
62 638 
62 643 




62 650 

62 662 
62 669 
62 674 




62 698 
62 690 

62 705 
62 715 


2 


62 728 

62 735 
62 743 


7 
8 


62 764 
62 778 
62 786 
62 799 
62 804 
62 813 
62 822 


14 
8 

13 
5 
9 
9 



22 
19 

10 

12 
22 



11 
11 

7 

25 

9 



15 

10 

5 



12 

7 
5 

14 



15 
10 

13 



21 



43 

lh. 15m. p.m. Only one more very powerful line before H 1 .— The lines this morning are very hazy and 
" worstedy," perhaps from deficient illumination. 

Tuesday July 2nd, 1878. Prisms altered ; being now Prisms 8 and 3, Dispersion =10. The illumination is there- 
fore brighter, and the definition improved, but the Dispersion is now too small for much accuracy. 



VOL. XXIX. PART T. 



4Q 



334 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of the 

Continuous 

Spectrum at 

the Place. 



Lavender. 



Object Observed, generally n black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



The last grand line alone, 
repeated for place— 

1st side, 
2nd do. 

Triplet of sharp lines— 

1st, and strongest, • 

2nd, and moderate, 
3rd, do. 

Hazy doable line : 1st component, 

2nd do. 
Faint band 

Powerful double— 

1st component, 

2nd do. 

Strong double line : 1st component, . 

2nd do. 
Strong line, 

Very powerful line— 

1st side, 
2nd 

Strong line, .... 

A long hazy band of fine lines, ter 
minated by a powerful line — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 
5th do. 

6th do. 

7th do. 

8th do. 

9th do. 

10th, and chief, 

Band ended by a strong line — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 

4th, and chief line, 

Strong line, .... 

Powerful line, • 

Strong line, .... 

Strong triplet of lines— 
1st component, 

2nd do. 

3rd do. 

Very fine line, .... 
Fine line, .... 



Strong double line : 



1st component, 
2nd do. 



Hand of 6 lines : 1st component, 



2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
6th 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



10 
10 



4 

3 
3 

2 



6 
6 
2 



1 
1 

1 
1 
1-5 

2 
2 
2 
3 

5 



4 
3 
3 
1 
1 

3 
3 

3 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Micrometer 
Reading. 



Rev. 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data, from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



|j"l 



l". 



ill 




8 124 I 
8 153 



8 302 

8-320 
8-348 

8-388 
8-395 
8-455 



8 560) 
8 585 i 

8-604 
8-620 
8-654 



8683 
8704 

8-729 



8-765 
8-783 
8-797 
8-813 
8-825 

8-844 
8-857 
8-870 
8-888 
8910 



8-932 
8.945 
8-980 

9008 

9-034 
9060 

9-104 



9 142) 



I 



62 790 



162 \ 
170 ^ 
202 
223 

278 
295 

356 
377 
398 
420 
455 
483 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



62 984 Manganese 



63 035 



Manganese. 



63 231 



Iron. 



Iron. 



Differences. 


■e 


. 




V 


JZ ^ 


o 


S3 


c 

OS 






2o 


3 



62 783 
62 796 



62 865 

62 870 
62 884 

62 900 
62 906 
62 933 



62 978 
62 989 

62 999 

63 005 
63 019 



63 032 
63 040 

63 050 



63 066 

63 073 

63 079 

63 086 

63 090 

63 098 
63 103 
63 109 
63 117 

63 127 



63 135 

63 141 

63 156 

63 168 

63 180 



63 190 

63 208 



63 224 

63 231 
63 236 
63 252 
63 262 

63 286 
63 290 

63 316 
63 324 
63 332 
63 340 
63 353 
63 364 



13 



From 63 230 to 63 400 empty in Angstrom ; but apparently from instrumental insufficiency only. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-1878. 



335 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
Fraunhofer Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Solitary line, . 
Band of small lines : 



1st line, 
2nd do. 
3rd do. 
4th do. 



Very powerful and black 
line— 

1st side, 
2nd do. 

Fine line, 

Do. 

Very fine line, 

Do. do 

Triplet of strong lines — 

1st component, . 
2nd do. 

3rd and chief, • 



A group of one moderate and four 
very strong lines, . 

Quadruple group of lines — 
1st component, 
2nd do. 

3rd do. 

4th do. 

Fine line, .... 

Do 

Do 



Unequal double line— 

1st and stronger, 

2nd and weaker, 
Haze band, ... 

Hazy line : 1st side, 
2nd do. 



All these lines are more or less thick 
and hazy, and in an atmosphere 
(solar and spectral) of haze, . 



Hazy line, 

Do. 

The grand haze of H 1 begins, . 

The first side of the grandly 
black H 1 , 

The second side of the 
grandly black H 1 , 

The grand haze of H 1 ends nearly, 
Prisms re-adjusted. 

Centre of the grand H 1 line 
as above, for new starting, 



9 
9 

2 

2 
1 

1 



2 
2 
4 

2 

4 
4 
4 
4 

2 
3 
4 



4 

2 
2 

4 

2 
4 

2 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
2 

4 

3 
3 



10 

10 

1 



10 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



Ill 



111 




jl 



llll 



I 



Micrometer 
Reading. 

Rev. 



9-528 

9-552 
9-566 
9-586 
9-594 



9 622 
9 640 

9-670 
9709 
9-727 
9-736 



9-753 
9-777 

9 804 

9-845 
9 858 
9 881 
9 904 
9 920 

9 953 
9-970 

9997 

10-030 

10-060 
10-095 
10-130 



10168 

10-210 
10-225 

10 285 
10 312 

10-358 
10 414 

10-460 
10-493 
10-518 
10-590 
10-623 
10-645 
10-675 
10 719 
10-796 
10-827 

10-830 
10 964 
11065 

11-234 



11827 



PLACE- 
DATA, 

from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



63 419 



63532 



63 686 



64012 



64 012 



Iron. 



Iron. -{ 
I 



Manganese. 



Iron and 
Calcium. 



Concluded 

WAVE- 

NUMBER- 

PLACE, per 

British Inch. 



63 385 

63 396 
63 400 
63 409 
63 412 



63 420 
63 426 

63 442 
63 460 
63 468 
63 470 



63 477 

63 486 

63 500 

63 517 
63 524 
63 534 
63 542 
63 548 

63 561 

63 570 

63 579 

63 598 

63 612 
63 630 
63 640 



63 658 

63 680 
63 686 

63 710 
63 722 



63 743 


63 764 


63 


783 


63 


798 


63 


814 


63 


836 


63 


850 


63 


860 


63 


874 


63 887 


63 


922 


63 


937 



63 938 

63 993 

64 032 

64 105 



6,4 012 



Differences. 



■aS 



22 



12 



39 



11 



16 

18 
8 
2 

7 



17 



13 



14 

18 
10 

18 



24 

21 
21 
19 



35 

15 

1 

55 



73 
12 



336 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Colour of tlir 
Continuous 

Spectrum at 
the Place. 



Lavender. 



Object Observed, generally a black, fixed 
FraunhofiT Line. 



Intensity 

of black, or 

thickness 

of line. 



Hazy thick line : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Finer line, .... 



Hazy thick line : 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Finer line, .... 

Hazy thick line ■ 1st side, 
2nd do. 

Hazy unequal band : 1st side, . 
2nd do. . 

Hazy strong line group— 

1st side, . 
2nd do. . 



Faint band, 



The grand gloomy haze of H 2 begins, 

The first side of the grandly 
black H 2 line, 

The second side of the 
grandly black H 2 line. 

The grand gloomy haze of H 2 ends 
nearly 

Hazy line darkest to right, 

Hazy line, ..... 

Very dark hazy group, 

Fainter haze group, .... 



4 
4 

3 

4 

4 

3 

4 
4 

3 
3 



10 
10 



Appear- 
ance by 
graphical 
compara- 
tive 
symbol. 



! 11! i 



Micrometer 
Heading. 



Rev. 



12 074 | 
12 1131 

12-235 

12 283 
12300 

12-323 

12 424 I 
12-4441 

12-585 
12-668 



12753 
12790 

12-884 
12-925 

13122 
13 275 

13-420 

13 420? 

13-610? 

13728? 

14-324? 



PLACE- 
DATA, 
from 
Angstrom's 
Grating Nor- 
mal Solar 
Spectrum. 



Chemical-origin- 
data from 
Angstrom, 
Thalen, &c. 



64 114 



Aluminium 



64 284 



64 424 



Iron. 



Aluminium 



64 582 



Iron and 
Calcium. 



Concluded 
WAVE- 

NUMBER- 
PLACE, per 
British Inch. 



64 117 
64 128 

64 192 

64 216 

64 221 

64 232 

64 280 
64 290 

64 349 
64 381 



64 417 
64 430 

64 463 

64 480 

64 556 
64 607 

64 654 

64 654 

64 718 

64 759 

64 960 



Differences. 



11 



10 



32 



13 



51 



64 
24 

11 

48 

59 

36 

33 
17 
76 

47 


64 
41 

1 



All the last 20 observed subjects have been badly denned, unsatisfactory and deficient in light ; while the spectrum 
itself and all light formed thus, it is to be remembered, through glass and noted by the eye alone, ends at the last one. 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 



337 



M 








r-J 


XI 


C 














a> 




Xi 


W 


*" 




o 






ci 


— 




30 














a 




<S 


7- 



.5 a 








u P 


*« 


r^ 




r* 


□0 

5 


h0>, 




'5 
m 




s 

r« 

O 




a> 

a 


Jr3 ^ 


ho 3 

^ p 


Cm 
O 

CO 




3.5 


to 


be ,j 

S i- 3 


■St; ce 







»-5 




!•§ 


'8 -3^ 

C3 >> 3 


so 
> 




.2 ° 

*-< c/j 
T3 3 


CO 




~ "C 

_ — ; oj ;-; 


© 


a 




fe 


en . <; 


^ ? -S 


<} 


3J 


M -3 


.o 


2? * e<' 


•5 a 3 






* u 


Tl 


-C "< © 


" <*_ 


T3 





csH 




C r-c . 


s.a 


fl ja 








09 




S. 


> 


c •" >• 









►* 


!> 


oaoQP 5 


u 




m 


oq cm 


CO 


CM CM <M <M 


rH 




M CM 



b>3 



"3 6 



£ a 



£*' . 

•o _, a 

a> C -• 

j= P ^ 

g "*" 



Si? 

8 fc 



.*=> I 



cs; 3 



CM CM CM CM CM 1 



CM CM i-h rH CM CM 






CO CM -* CO -* 



CO CO -* "* ■** CM -^ 



CO CO ** -* CO CO CI 



CO CO CO CM CO CO CO 



■8 = 

o o 



t^. CM CO tO »0 



oo-*oao 00 



OOOOOOi-l i-H CM-* 



aionooo 



ri X 



S ft K s! 02 



£ P . . . . fe js fe . 

. • S5 SS S5 fc . . -IS 



•S £ £ Se gs «s 

^ fc' si fc 2; fc 



CO CO CM rH CM 



1^ CO CO -* CM rH rH 



(MHWIOOONN 00 OIN 





fl 


II 














= 








w 


CO 




c 


B 


= 












■5 3 

tx 





<! 




o,p 




> 


3 


; 



10 ^ ^ \a> t& 



10 -^ -* -* \o 



•*& 10 10 o lO CO CD 



WIQ lOlOO Tfi 



-^ CO (M CO O 



OOOOOOW 


^t< CO 


OiCOCD O N-^ CO 


CD H (M N (N 


"^ CO 


CO OOl HO) QIO 


Tft -r*l -* CO VO 


-^ ^ 


^ lO ^ 10 -^ 10 lO 



05 Oi 

CO CO 



NOJNiOOtH 
OOOOOCOOO"* 
TtH -* IO -rp "-^ Tyl 



sap 

CJ Ph 
H 



C» C CM CM lO 



t^ CO CO CM CO 



■* CO CO lO IO C» rH 



CO -*K CO 1— I CO W 



O CO CO lO CO 



(NtKCOON 



lO O O t^ CM O O 



CO 00 
H ■* 



ooiflwoon 



B o 



2 « 
— a 



10 00 t— to 10 



OO 10 vo "O O 



lO CM lO O 00 00 ^O 



»o 00 00 o o 00 



O CM Oi CO CO 



o 02 o 10 in o o 



O Ci O CM O CO 



si 



O WS CM CM CO 



OCOKCOi 



CD CO lO N Ol H N 



CO CM CO O 00 i-H 



15 



0<='^3x>J+ 



OJ O i-H CM CO 



CH-X-O^Ki »y- O+X-O^HJ^^ CH ^CQ "=' + Ox>^{-o+ l C 



=* i-H CM CO -* lO CO 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4 R 



338 



PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 



Part V.— STEPS of SPECTROSCOPY according to Increasing Temperature as 
collected directly from observations. Referred to in Part II., pp. 289-291. 



SPECTRUM PLACE. 


STEP 1. 

Telluric- 
Lines 
below 

Freezing. 


STEP 2. 
Colour Edges 
in Warmed 

Chamber. 


STEP 3. 
Flame 
Lines. 


STEP 4. 
Vacuum 
Tubes with 
1 Inch 
Sparks. 


STEP 5. 

Chemical 

Lines with 

2 Inch 

Sparks. 


STEP 6. 

Chemical 

Lines with 6 

to 10 Inch 

Condenser 

Sparks. 




Part. 


Colour. 


Wave-Number 
per British Inch. 


Chief 
Ones. 


All. 


Chief 
Ones. 


All. 


Chief 
Ones. 


All. 


Chief 
Ones. 


All. 


Chief 
Ones. 


All. 








25000 to 26000 





















26 27 




7 






















Ultra- Red. 


27 28 

28 29 




2 
1 




















n 




29000 30000 
30000 to 31000 




12 

15 



















n 




fe 




31 32 




5 




1 














fe 


w 


Crimson-Red. 


32 33 


1 


7 


2 


2 




1 




1 




1 


m 


p 




33 34 


12 


25 


1 


1 




1 




1 




1 


a 


1 




34000 35000 
35000 to 36000 


14 

15 


62 
25 







1 




4 
5 













1 


3 


RED. 




36 37 


20 


25 





1 




7 




5 




5 








37 38 

38 39 
39000 40000 




10 

3 


27 
23 
22 


2 

1 


8 

9 

18 




6 
6 
4 


2 
2 
1 


9 
16 

27 


1 

2 
12 


26 
34 
69 






Scarlet. 


3 






Orange. 






40000 to 41000 


6 


20 


5 


18 





7 


3 


32 


9 


79 






Amber. 


41 42 


3 


23 


3 


19 


3 


8 


8 


50 


23 


123 




=3 




42 43 

43 44 


11 

10 


32 

75 


1 

2 


20 
19 


1 

1 


7 
9 


8 
9 


41 
39 


19 
20 


111 
107 


=3 




Yellow. 


44000 45000 


4 


30 





15 


2 


8 


6 


42 


22 


101 


1— 

UJ 




45000 to 46000 
46 47 






18 
22 


5 

2 


22 
35 


4 
1 


11 

7 


6 
6 


54 

48 


30 

27 


160 
159 


ea 

f— 

C3 
UJ 

Ou 


CITRON. 






47 48 





15 


6 


23 


2 


13 


y 


62 


26 


158 




o 


Green. 


48 49 





17 


6 


25 


1 


15 


12 


63 


28 


172 


o 


UJ 

1 

C3 




49000 50000 
50000 to 51000 



3 


17 

17 






24 

16 


1 
1 


4 

7 


14 
9 


66 
55 


20 

18 


142 
133 


UJ 

_l 

o 




s 




51 52 





16 





12 





4 


2 


45 


14 


107 


2 




Glaucous. 


52 53 


2 


13 





11 


3 


6 


8 


45 


22 


116 








53 54 


2 


15 


1 


10 


1 


6 


6 


45 


24 


118 








54000 55000 





13 





8 


1 


9 


1 


33 


19 


91 






Blue. 


55000 to 56000 




7 


3 


9 


1 


7 


4 


38 


18 


97 








56 57 

57 58 

58 59 




18 
11 
22 


1 

2 


12 
6 
9 


1 

1 
2 


8 

8 

10 


5 
3 
3 


40 
38 
30 


21 
19 

17 


111 
95 

87 




Indigo. 


VIOLET. 


g 

w 

H 

W 


59000 60000 
60000 to 61000 




11 
19 



3 


7 
6 


2 
2 


8 
7 


5 

2 


42 
24 


19 

8 


106 

72 


fi 






61 62 




19 




2 


2 


8 


1 


20 


4 


55 




Lavender. 


62 63 




18 




1 


1 


6 


1 


25 


4 


33 




63 64 




15 








2 




8 





8 


3 


o 

t-H 
> 




64000 65000 
65000 to 66000 




9 
1 








1 




4 


2 


7 


o 

M 

> 








66 07 


























Gray. 


67 68 

68 69 




























69000 to 70000 




741 


46 


370 


37 


220 










— 






Totals, = 


116 


136 


1048 


448 


2685 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 



339 



STEPS of SPECTEOSCOPY according to increasing Temperature, 

REDUCED TO A UNIFORM TOTAL OF 1000 FOR EACH KIND. 



SPECTRUM-PLACE. 


STEP 1. 
Telluric- 
Lines 
below- 
Freezing. 


STEP 2. 
Colour- 
edges in 
Warmed 
Chamber. 


STEP 3. 
Flame-Lines, 


STEP 4. 

Vacuum Tubes 

with 1 inch 

Sparks. 


STEP 5. 

| Chemical Lines 

with 2 inch 

Sparks. 


STEP 6. 
Chemical Lines, 
with 6 to 10 inch 
Condenser Sparks. 


Part. 


Colour. 


Wave-Number 
per British Inch. 


Chief 

Ones. 


All. 


Chiei 
Ones 


All. 


Mean 


Chiei 
Lines 


All 


Mean 


Chiei 
Ones 


All. 


Mean 


Chiei 
Ones 


All. 


Mean 








25000 to 26000 













26 27 




9 






























Ultra-Red. 


27 28 

28 29 
29000 30000 




3 

1 

16 


























P 


p" 




30000 to 31000 




20 




























fe 




31 32 




7 




3 


1 




















P 


*? 


Crimson- 


32 33 


9 


9 


43 


5 


24 




4 


2 




1 


1 












p 


Red. 


33 34 


103 


34 


22 


3 


12 




4 


2 




1 


1 














34000 35000 
35000 to 36000 


120 
129 


83 
33 







3 



1 




18 
22 


9 
11 
























RED. 




36 37 

37 38 


173 



33 
36 



43 


3 

21 


1 
32 




31 
27 


16 

14 


15 


4 
9 


4 
12 


2 


2 
10 


1 

6 




Scarlet. 




38 39 
39000 40000 


87 
25 


31 
30 




22 


23 

47 


12 

34 


78 



27 
18 


52 
9 


15 

7 


15 
26 


15 
16 


4 
27 


13 
26 


8 
26 




Orange. 






40000 to 41000 


51 


27 


109 


47 


78 





32 


16 


22 


31 


26 


21 


29 


24 






Amber. 


41 42 


25 


31 


65 


49 


57 


78 


36 


57 


59 


48 


54 


51 


46 


48 








42 43 

43 44 


94 
87 


43 
101 


22 
43 


52 
49 


37 
46 


27 

27 


32 

40 


30 
34 


59 
66 


39 

37 


49 

52 


42 
45 


41 
40 


42 

42 






Z3 


Yellow. 


44000 45000 


34 


41 





39 


20 


54 


36 


45 


44 


40 


42 


59 


38 


44 




DC 

1— 
CD 




45000 46000 





24 


109 


57 


83 


104 


50 


77 


44 


52 


48 


67 


60 


64 


cc 

C3 


CITRON. 


o_ 
CO 




46 47 

47 48 






30 
18 


43 

130 


91 
60 


67 
95 


27 
54 


32 

59 


30 
56 


44 
66 


46 

59 


45 
62 


60 

58 


59 
59 


60 
58 


CL- 
OT 




o 


Green. 


48 49 





22 


130 


65 


98 


27 


68 


48 


88 


60 


74 


62 


64 


63 


Li- 


LU 

I 

o 




49000 50000 
50000 51000 



25 


22 
22 






62 

42 


31 
21 


27 
27 


18 
32 


22 
30 


103 
66 


63 

52 


83 
59 


45 
40 


53 

49 


49 

44 


LU 

1=1 
CD 




E 




51 52 





21 





31 


16 





18 


9 


15 


43 


29 


31 


40 


36 


s 




Glaucous. 


52 53 


17 


18 





29 


14 


78 


27 


52 


59 


43 


51 


49 


43 


45 








53 54 


17 


20 


22 


26 


24 


27 


27 


27 


44 


43 


44 


54 


44 


49 








54000 55000 





18 



65 


21 
23 


10 
44 


27 
27 


40 
32 


34 
30 


7 
29 


31 
36 


19 
32 


42 


34 


38 








55000 to 56000 


9 


40 


36 


38 






Blue. 


56 57 

57 58 

58 59 




24 
15 
30 


22 



43 


31 
16 
23 


27 

8 

33 


27 
27 
54 


36 
36 
45 


32 
32 
50 


37 
22 
22 


38 
36 
29 


38 
29 
26 


47 
42 
38 


41 
35 
32 


44 
38 
35 




Indigo. 


VIOLET. 


P* 


59000 60000 




15 





18 


9 


54 


36 


45 


37 


40 


38 


42 


39 


40 


p" 






60000 to 61000 




26 


65 


16 


40 


54 


32 


43 


15 


23 


19 


18 


27 


22 




61 62 




26 




5 


2 


54 


36 


45 


7 


19 


13 


9 


20 


14 


H 




Lavender. 


62 63 




24 




3 


£ 


27 


27 


27 


7 


24 


16 


9 


12 


10 


H 




63 64 




20 










9 


4 




8 


4 





3 


2 


© 


o 




64000 65000 




12 










4 


2 




4 


2 


4 


3 


4 


£ 




65000 to 66000 




1 


























l-H 
> 








66 67 


































Gray. 


67 68 

68 69 




































69000 70000 














































1 

















340 PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON 

THE SOLAR STEP in SPECTROSCOPY, touching possible Solar Surface Temperature. 













LISBON 
Solar 

Sl'ECTRCM 




ANGSTROM'S 


LISBON S.S. 




SPECTRUM PLACE. 


ANGSTROM'S Normal Solar 
Spectrum as Observed. 




i N.S.S., Reduced 
to a Uniform 


Reduced to 
a Uniform Total 












Observed. 




Total of 1000. 


of 1000. 


Part 


Colour. 


Wavk-Nomber 
per British Inch. 


Chief Lines. 


All. 


Chief 
Lineb 


All. 


Chief 
Lines 


All. 


Mean 


Chief 
Lines 


All. 


Mean 






25000 to 26000 














26 27 


























Ultra-Red. 


27 28 

28 29 
























p" 




29000 30000 
30000 to 31000 


Supplied (1) 


Supplied (3) 


1 
1 


3 

5 


P 








4 
4 


1 

2 


2 
3 




» 




31 32 


Do. (1) 


Do. (10) 


2 


9 


{Z5 








9 


4 


6 


W 


Crimson-Bed. 


32 33 


Do. ( ) 


Do. (3) 





3 


W 











1 





P 




33 34 


Do. (7) 


Do. (30) 


6 


34 


P 








27 


17 


22 






34000 35000 
35000 to 36000 






16 
12 


C 



28 
50 








11 

9 


6 
4 







14 

24 


7 
12 


RED. 




36 37 

37 38 


1 
1 


22 

10 


6 



35 
22 




5 
5 


16 

7 


10 
6 


27 



17 
11 


22 

6 


Scarlet. 






38 39 

39000 40000 


3 

8 


21 
39 


1 




33 

38 




14 
39 


15 
28 


14 
34 


4 



16 
19 


10 
10 


Orange. 






40000 to 41000 


7 


55 


2 


51 




34 


39 


36 


9 


25 


17 




Amber. 


41 42 


10 


53 





51 




49 


38 


44 





25 


12 






42 43 

43 44 


6 
5 


30 
41 


2 
3 


51 
53 




29 
24 


21 
29 


25 
26 


9 
14 


25 
26 


17 
20 




Yellow. 


44000 45000 


5 


51 


3 


57 


24 


36 


30 


14 


28 


?A 






























1— 

CO 


CITRON. 


45000 to 46000 


11 


51 


3 


55 


1— 

C3 


53 


36 


44 


14 


27 


21 


CO 




46 47 

47 48 


11 

8 


50 
54 


8 
10 


55 
64 


CO 


53 
39 


36 

38 


44 
38 


36 

45 


27 
32 


32 
38 




O 


Green. 


48 49 


15 


59 


8 


78 


C3 


73 


42 


58 


36 


39 


38 


LJJ 

1 




49000 50000 


9 


57 


8 


82 


LU 


44 


40 


42 


36 


40 


38 


a 














C=D 














en 




50000 to 51000 


8 


56 


5 


92 


(=1 


39 


40 


40 


22 


46 


34 


s 




51 52 


6 


51 


5 


78 


s 


29 


36 


32 


22 


39 


30 




Glaucous. 


52 53 


8 


40 


5 


82 




39 


28 


34 


22 


41 


3? 






53 54 


5 


58 


5 


72 




24 


41 


32 


22 


36 


29 






54000 55000 


7 


48 


8 


86 




34 


34 


34 


36 


42 


39 




151 ue. 


55000 to 56000 


7 


58 


5 


73 




34 


41 


38 


22 


36 


2 9 






56 57 

57 58 

58 59 


8 
5 
4 


60 
53 
64 


6 
16 
10 


69 

86 
82 




39 
24 
19 


43 
38 
45 


41 
31 
32 


27 
72 
45 


34 
42 
40 


30 
42 


Indigo. 




. 


VIOLET. 


59000 60000 


5 


85 


20 


96 


. 


24 


60 


4°, 


91) 


48 


0!' 


ET-ENE 




60000 to 61000 


6 


58 


16 


88 


p 

• 


29 


41 


35 


72 


44 


58 






61 62 


7 


41 


16 


74 


34 


29 


32 


72 


37 


54 


Lavender. 


62 63 


6 


35 


22 


80 


t-1 


29 


25 


27 


99 


40 


69 


i-J 




63 64 


6 


24 


6 


80 


29 


17 


23 


27 


40 


34 


o 




64000 65000 


8 


12 


13 


24 


o 

t-l 


39 


9 


24 


59 


12 


36 


> 


Gray. 


65000 to 66000 

66 67 

67 68 

68 69 














> 
























69000 70000 






222 


2019 


\ 


















Totals, 


205 


1410 



THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT THE DATE 1877-78. 341 



APPENDIX. 



While the above paper was passing through the Press, I have had the honour of receiving 
from Prof. S. P. Langley, of the Alleghaney Observatory, United States, North America, a 
copy of his double pamphlet on, 1st, the Solar Spectral lines, A and B, Oct. 7, 1878 ; and 2nd, 
the Temperature of the Sun's visible surface, Oct. 9, 1878 ; printed subsequently in the 
Proceedings of the American Academy. 

Prof. Langley has, if I may presume so to say, a speciality for doing whatever he has to 
do, most thoroughly ; so that his one drawing of a Sun-spot a few years ago, copied into Padre 
Secchi's classical work on the Sun, outweighs at once the legions of drawings by almost all 
the other observers put together ; and in the present instance, his labours have not been of a 
less excelsior kind. 

Eemembering, as I do, the sudden delight with which my Wife and I recognised the exquisite 
duplicity residing in the lines of great B and its preliminary band, when we first saw them in 
June, 1878, — I must congratulate Prof. Langley on having been able to detect a similar duplicity 
in the lines composing the preliminary band of great A. I can believe it too, most completely, 
though I did not see it so myself ; for the Dispersion at that point of the spectrum with the " grat- 
ing " he used (the most magnificent example yet given forth of Mr Eutherford's unequalled 
mechanics, containing 17296 lines per inch, over a surface 1*75 inch square), must have been 
some three times greater, and much better defined too, than anything which could be got out of 
the small compound prisms to which I was restricted in my examinations of A and its band of 
lines in 1877. But the larger prisms which I used in 1878 on the B line/ enabled me both to 
see and measure, not only the duplicity of the lines of B's preliminary band, but of those of its 
attached band as well ; a higher and more refined kind of duplicity, which does not seem to 
have been noted yet by any one else, and may be the subject of further observation. 

Next, with regard to the Temperature of the Sun's photospheric surface, Prof. Langley's mode 
of proceeding was so different from mine, — that the very similar, though more positively and 
numerically expressed, conclusions which he arrives at finally, are a most satisfactory confirma- 
tion on a point of exceeding difficulty, but of infinite importance to man and all his science. 

Prof. Langley first calls attention to the extravagant differences of result among many of 
the best scientists, and especially to their later lowerings of the Sun's surface temperature, — 
so that while, a few years ago, that all important quantity was announced by, — 

Sir John Herschel, ... . = 9,000,000° Fahr. 

And by Mr Ericssen, 

The late Padre Secchi made it only, . 

Sir William Thomson and others, from 

down to 
Several French observers, 
And lastly, M. Violle, of Grenoble, only 
the latter figure being lower than that for melting platinum. 



= 4,000,000 
= 239,000 
= 108,000 
= 54,000 
= 4,500 
= 2,800 



VOL. XXIX. PART I. 



4 s 



34'2 PROFESSOR PIAZZI SMYTH ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

The AUeghaney Astronomer determining therefore to make the most direct and practically 
convincing experiment possible, — sought out the largest available surface of the most intensely 
heated material to be had upon this earth ; and this he found in Bessemer's steel converter ; 
whose contents offer a surface of several square feet, of a proved temperature above that of 
melted platinum ; and of so intense a brilliancy, that ordinary cast iron, though proverbially 
bright, looked like a stream of dark coffee when poured into it. The radiation then of this 
terrible converter, flinging showers of burning particles around it, was then compared by a 
differential instrument immediately with the Sun ; and though the attendant circumstances of 
the observation were always in favour of the Converter, and against the Sun, yet the latter was 
ever found vastly the superior. 

Indeed the Solar heat-radiation, so far from being comparable, as recently taught in many 
places, to furnace heat, "is," says Professor Langley, " even at a minimum, at least 100 times 
the heat-radiation from melted platinum, area for area; and may be much more." That is, the 
temperature of the Sun's general photospheric surface must be at least above, and probably 
very much above, 300,000° Fahr.; or if we take the light-radiations, which he considers a 
more trustworthy observation, the Solar superficial temperature, at every point of its area, 
must amount, on a mean, to more nearly 15,000,000° Fahr. ! 

"Wherefore, he concludes, that everything " seems to point to the use of the highest attain- 
able terrestrial temperatures (ex. gr. that of the electric light) in comparisons, as the safest line 
for future investigations." P. S. 



ERRATA. 

Page 298, Line 39 112, for Barium read Iron. 

Page 299, Line 39 264, for Iron read Calcium. 

Page 312, Group 50 411, add but also Titanium and Iron lines. 

Page 321, Group 56 022, for Iron read Iron and Calcium. 

Page 324, Group 57 728, for Nickel read Nickel and Iron. 

Page 325, Group 58 139, for Iron read Iron and Chromium, 



( 343 ) 



X. — On the Structure and Affinities of the Platysomidse. By Ramsay H. 
Traquair, M.D., F.R.S.E., Keeper of the Natural History Collections 
in the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. (Plates III.-VI.) 

(Read 5th May 1879.) 

INTRODUCTION. 

The genera, which I at present include under the family term Platysomidw , 
are the following : — 

1. Eurynotus, Agassiz. 

2. Benedenius, Traquair. 

3. Mesolepis, Young. 

4. Eurysomus, Young. 

5. Wardichthys, Traquair. 

6. Cheirodus, M'Coy. 

7. Platysomus, Agassiz. 

Eurynotus and Platysomus (incl. Eurysomus) were classified by Agassiz in his 
Lepidoid family of Ganoids, the former genus forming in his opinion a transition 
between the latter and Amblypterus* By Giebel, Eurynotus and Platysomus 
were included in his " Heterocerci Monopterygii," along with the Palseonis- 
coid genera known at that time, and unfortunately also along with certain 
other very heterogeneous elements (Eugnathus, Conodus, Megalichthys)A By 
Quenstedt Platysomus was also placed among the Heterocercal Ganoids, 
immediately after Palwoniscus, Amblypterus, and Pygopterus.\ 

But already, before the appearance of Quenstedt's " Handbuch," Sir Philip 
Grey-Egerton § advocated the removal of the genus Platysomus to the family 
Pycnodontidse on the following grounds : — The mandible of a specimen of 
Platysomus macrurus, Agassiz, from Ferry Hill, showed two rows of peculiar 
teeth with flattened crowns, supported on constricted necks, the dentary 
element of the jaw on which they were placed being also a " dense triangular 
bone, very similar to the Pycnodont jaws found at Stonesfield and elsewhere." 

* Poissons Fossiles, vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 153. f Fauna der Vorwelt, vol. i. pt, 3, Leipzig, 1848. 

| Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde, Tubingen, 1852. 

§ On the Affinities of the Genus Platysomus, "Qu. Journ. Geol. Soc, London," v. (1849), p. 329-332. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 T 



344 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

Munster's genus Globulodus, founded upon rounded pedunculated teeth from 
the Kupferschiefer, was cancelled, and merged in Platysomus, Agassiz having 
also previously expressed a suspicion that these teeth appertained to the last 
named genus. Sir Philip also considered his views as to the Pycnodont nature 
of Platysomus to be completely corroborated by the form and arrangement of 
the scales. For he had made the important discovery that the so-called 
" dermal ribs " of the Pycnoclonts were in reality nothing more than thickenings 
of the anterior margins of the scales, obliquely sliced off above and below for 
articulation with'the adjoining scales of the same dorso-ventral band. Pointing 
out that a similar conformation was to be found in the high and narrow scales 
of Platysomus, he maintained that the squamation as well as the dentition 
justified the incorporation of that genus with the Pycnodont family. 

In this view Agassiz concurred, and in a letter quoted by Sir Philip says, 
that the "teeth are conclusive evidence for placing Platysomus with the 
Pycnoclonts." It must at the same time be remembered, that Agassiz himself 
had previously stated that the jaws of Platysomus were armed with " petites 
dents en brosse tres-pointues," and that in Platysomus gibbosus " on apercoit 
quelques petites dents au bord du maxillaire superieur.""* And with regard to 
Globulodus, he had also, besides suspecting its identity with Platysomus, ex- 
pressed himself as follows with regard to its supposed Pycnodont affinities — 
"Nous connaissons du moins dans la famille des Lepidoides les genres Tetra- 
gonolepis et Dapedius, dont les dents egalement petites sont plus on moins 
renfle'es au sommet ; mais je ne connais point de Pycnodontes qui aient des dents 
pediculees comme celles du genre Globulodus '."+ 

As regards Eurynotus, Sir Philip Grey-Egerton announced in the following 
year J that it also had obtuse teeth, having received from Hugh Miller a 
letter on the subject, with a cast of a specimen from Fifeshire, showing some 
rounded palatal teeth in situ. He, however, hesitated to remove Etirynotus to 
the Pycnodont family, and stated regarding its dentition — " These " (the teeth) 
" at first sight would seem to indicate a Pycnodont, but a comparison of the 
dentition of this family with other fishes, having blunt rounded teeth, especially 
with Lepidotus and Tetragonolepis, shows that there is so great a difference in 
the arrangement of the teeth in the two families, that even without the test of 
microscopic examination, the true affinities of the fish can be determined." 
Accordingly Sir Philip retained Eurynotus as a Heterocercal Lepidoid, admit- 
ting, however, that its dentition, as well as that of Amblypterus macropterus 
{Rkabdolepis, Troschel), as ascertained by Goldfuss, invalidated the definition of 
that family given by Agassiz. 

* Poissons Fossiles, vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 165. f lb. p. 203. 

| Qu. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, vi. (1850). 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMIILE. 345 

These views as to the position of Platysomus met with very considerable 
acceptance ; accordingly we find, in the systematic works of Geinitz,* PiCTET,t 
and M'Coy,J this genus included in the family Pycnodontidse. 

Nevertheless there were some dissentient voices. Vogt, in his classification 
of the Ganoids, published in 1852,§ continued to associate Platysomus, as well as 
Eurynotus, with the Palceonisci, placing them together in the subfamily " Palw- 
onisciden " of the family Monosticha. Heckel|| and Wagner/T both of whom 
had laboriously studied the Pycnodontidae, also declined to admit into that 
family either Platysomus or Tetragonolepis {Pleurolepis, Quenstedt), the latter 
genus having also, on account of its scales, been subsequently brought by 
Sir Philip Grey-Egerton under the same category. Their objections as 
regards Platysomus were chiefly founded upon its heterocercal tail, fulcrated fins, 
and non-possession of the peculiar premandibular bone, or " Vorkiefer " of the 
Pycnodonts. With regard to the teeth of Platysomus macrurus (Eurysomus, 
Young), and those of Globulodus, Dr Wagner recalled attention to the fact that 
Agassiz originally hesitated to recognise the latter as Pycnodont, adding, — 
" Ich setze hinzu dass die Zahne von Platysomus die grosste Aehnlichkeit mit 
denen des Lepidotus zeigen, also keinesweges auf die Pycuodonten hinweisen," 
stating also that we knew nothing of the condition of the upper jaw in Platy- 
somus. He admitted that the form of the body and of the scales were in favour 
of Pycnodont affinities ; the other characters were, however, either not exclusive, 
or in contradiction with the peculiarities of the Pycnodonts. Dismembering 
the old " Lepidoidei " of Agassiz, Dr Wagner now proposed to constitute a 
new family of " Stylodontes," which should include besides Platysomus, also 
the genera Pleurolepis, Quenst. (= Tetragonolepis, Bronn, ~Egerton), Ho ?noslep is, 
Wagner, Heterostrophus, Wagner, Dapedius, De la Beche, and Tetragonolepis, 
Agassiz [ = JEclimodus, Egerton). We shall see in the sequel that the associa- 
tion by Wagner of Platysomus with those other genera is just as unnatural as 
the classification which he himself wrote to oppose. 

In 1866, however, Professor Young,** in a well-known paper, declined to accept 
the peculiar dentition of Platysomus macrurus as characteristic of all the species 
which had been referred to that genus, and recalled attention to the " dents en 
brosse," mentioned by Agassiz in his generic definition, which he said " are not 
Pycnodont, but Lepidoid ( = Lepidosteid)." Minutely describing the structure, 
of a small Carboniferous fish, which he referred to the Platysomus parmdus of 
Agassiz, he stated that it also had its jaws " armed with slender conical teeth," 

* Dyas, Leipzig, 1861, p. 8. f Traite de Palseontologie, 2d ed., 1854, vol. ii. p. 208. 

+ British Palaeozoic Fossils, p. 614. § Zoologische Briefe, vol. ii., Frankfurt, 1852. 

|| Beitrage zur Kenntniss der fossilen Fische Oesterreichs, Denkschr. Ac. Wien. xi. 1856. 
IT Miinchener gelehrte Anzeigen., Bd. L., 1860, pp. 80-99. 
** On the Affinities of Platysomus and Allied Genera, " Qu. Journ. Geol. Soc." 1866. 



346 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

and accordingly he separated Platysomus macrurus as the type of a distinct 
genus Eurysomus. More than this, he described two entirely new though closely 
allied genera, Amphicentrum and Mesolepis, in the former of which the dentition 
is entirely peculiar, while in the latter the teeth somewhat resemble those of 
Eurysomus, consisting of blunted cones with constricted necks. Though not 
correct in all his osteological details, Professor Young clearly showed that these 
genera, in spite of the differences in their dentition, are naturally related to each 
other, and that Eurynotus also cannot be disassociated from them, notwith- 
standing the more palseoniscoid aspect of its scales. Unable to include these 
forms in the Pycnodontidae proper, he proposed to class them, along with that 
family, in a new " suborder," which should be equivalent to the suborders 
Crossopterygidse and Lepidosteidse, established a few years previously by 
Professor Huxley. To this suborder he gave the name " Lepidopleuridse," its 
principal, and indeed only tangible character being the mode of articulation of 
the scales " by strong ribs traversing their anterior margin internally," a 
character nevertheless absent in Eurynotus. According to Dr Young, this 
suborder included five families which he tabulated as below : — 



I.— VENTRAL FIN WANTING. 

Platysomid^e. — Teeth uniserial, conical, sharp. Palate bones edentulous. 
— Platysomus, Agassiz, partim. 

Amphicentrid^e. — Dorsal and ventral margins sharply acuminated. Teeth 
in the form of tuberculated plates on the maxillary, mandibular, and palato- 
vomerine bones. Premaxillary edentulous. — Amphicentrum. 

EuRYSOMiDiE. — Teeth in the form of blunted cones on a peduncle with a 
constricted neck. — Eurysomus { — Platysomus, Agassiz, pa?'tim). 



II.— VENTRAL FIN PRESENT 

Mesolepid^e. — Teeth similar to those of Eurysomus. — Mesolepis, n. g. ; 
Eurynotus, Agassiz. 

PycnodontidtE. — Teeth oval, hemispherical, or, if elongate, blunted cones. — 
Pycnodus, Mesodon, Gyrodus, &c. (except the Labroid forms of Cocchi). 

Tetragonolepis is here excluded, as its place "is undoubtedly among the 
Lepidosteidae." 

Professor Young's views have in their turn met with very general adoption 
so far as the institution of the suborder Lepidopleuridse is concerned. 
Dr Lutken, for instance, in his excellent treatise on the " Limits and Classifica- 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 347 

tion of the Ganoids," has accepted the Lepidopleuridae, but with this modifica- 
tion that the genus Tetragonolepis of Bronn and Egerton, rejected by Dr 
Young as being a true Lepidosteid form, is introduced as the type of the family 
u Pleurolepidoe" while the four families into which the last-named author 
divided the palaeozoic heterocercal forms are merged into one, — that of the 
" Platysomi." To the Pleurolepidae, Dr Lutken conceives it possible that the 
imperfectly known Cleithrolepis of Egerton may belong ; while of Eurynotus 
he says that perhaps it is "a palaeozoic, heterocercal Stylodont or Sphaerodont." 
Likewise, in Professor Victor Carus's " Handbuch der Zoologie,"* the Lepido- 
pleuridse are accepted and divided into the three families of Platysomidce, 
Pleurolepidoe, and Pycnodontidce, Eurynotus being, however, retained in the first. 

More recently, however, Professor E. D. Cope t has reverted to the plan of 
placing Platysomus in one family with Dapedius and Tetragonolepis, for which 
he adopts the term " Dapediidae " in place of Wagner's " Stylodontes." Eury- 
notus, however, he places in the family " Lepidotidae," along with Lepidotus, 
Pkolidophorus, &c, a group which he renders still more heterogeneous by the 
addition to it of Amblypterus, Palwoniscus, and Cosmolepis. Nothing is said 
regarding Ampkicentrum and Mesolepis, and on the whole this classification 
can hardly be considered as an improvement on that of Professor Young, of 
whose work the author seems to take no cognisance. 

That the palaeozoic forms enumerated on the first page of this memoir 
constitute a connected series is undeniable, and considering the small number 
of genera, it seems convenient to follow Dr Lutken and Professor Carus in 
uniting them in one family group. I have already expressed my opinion \ that 
these fishes have little in common with the Pycnodonts, while they are 
intimately allied to the Palaeoniscidae, and that the suborder " Lepidopleuridse " 
must be abandoned, — to follow up this idea more in detail is the object of the 
present paper. I shall therefore first review the structural features of the 
Platysomidae, genus by genus, and from the facts thus acquired endeavour, in 
conclusion, to justify my views as to their real position, and as to the validity, 
or not, of the suborder established by Professor Young. 

To those who have kindly aided me by the loan of specimens of this group 
my best thanks are due, especially to Mr Ward of Longton, without the use of 
whose magnificent collection of carboniferous fishes I should not have been 
able to pursue the investigation far. I am also indebted to the Earl of 
Enniskillen, Sir Philip Grey-Egerton, Professor Huxley, Professor Geikie, 
Professor Hughes, Mr William Davies of the British Museum, Dr Rankin 
of Carluke, Mr Binney of Manchester, and Mr Plant of Salford for much 
valuable assistance. 

* Bd. i. 2te Halfte, Leipzig, 1875. f Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., May 20, 1877. 

| Carboniferous Ganoid Fishes, part i. Pakaonistidce , p. 41, "Mem. Pakeontographical Society," 1877. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 U 



348 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 



STRUCTURE OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 



Before entering on the structure of the various genera, I must explain that 
the cranial roof bones of the Platysomidse, being evidently, like those of the 
Palseonisciche, entirely superficial or dermal in their nature, the terms 
" anterior " and " posterior frontal " are not used to designate bones abso- 
lutely identical with those so named in the Cuvierian nomenclature, for which I 
prefer Mr Parker's terms, " ectoethmoidal " and " sphenotic." The opercular 
bones being in this group also very similarly conformed to those in the Palseo- 
niscidae, I shall, in accordance with the views expressed in my account of the 
last-named family, term that plate " interoperculum," which has been hitherto 
known as "suboperculum." 



Genus I. Eurynotus, Agassiz, 1835. 

Plectrolepis, Egerton, 1850 (Agassiz ?). 
Platysomus, Agassiz, pars (M.S.) 
Platysomus, De Koninck, pars, 1878. 

History. — Eurynotus is mentioned by Agassiz in the report of the meeting 
of the British Association at Edinburgh in 1834, and also by Hibbert-Ware in 
the "Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh " for December 1834, and 
in his Memoir on the Burdiehouse Limestone, in vol. xiii. of the Transactions of 
the same Society. Descriptions and figures of E. crenatus from Burdiehouse, 
E. ftmbriatus from Wardie, and E. tenuiceps from Sunderland, Massachusetts, 
were given by Agassiz in 1835,* who considered the genus as "Lepidoid," and 
intermediate between Amblypterus and Platysomus — " La forme de son corps et 
de sa nageoire dorsal le rapproche meme davantage des genres a, corps plat, 
tandis que la forme des nageoires paires rapelle le genre Amblypterus." Re- 
garding the teeth, he says that the margin of the inferior maxillary is armed 
with " plusieurs rangdes de dents extremement fines et obtuses," but he seems 
to have mistaken the maxilla for a suborbital. Agassiz's third species, E. 
tenuiceps, from the Triassic beds of North America, was subsequently ascer- 
tained by W. C. Redfield not to be a Eurynotus^ and it is now referred to Sir 
Philip Grey-Egerton's genus Ischypterus, belonging to a totally different 
family. 

In 1850 Sir Philip Grey-Egerton quoted a letter from Hugh Miller rela- 
tive to the rounded palatal teeth of Eurynotus, having also received a cast of 
the specimen, but, as we have already seen, he did not consider these teeth as 

* Poissons Fossiles, vol. i. part i. pp. 153-160. 

+ .Short Notices of American Fossil Fishes, "Am. Journ. Sc." xli. 1841. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 349 

a sufficient cause for removing it to the Pycnodont family.* The same circum- 
stance is also noted by Professor Young, who mentions another specimen in 
the British Museum showing the palatal teeth in this genus, whose affinity to 
Mesolepis he fully recognises.t 

In 1867 I myself published a description of several of the bones of the head 
of Eurynotus,\ including the operculars, maxilla, branchiostegal rays and tooth- 
bearing palatal plate, pointing out the presence of similar rounded teeth also on 
the edge of the maxilla. The restored figure of the side of the head which I 
gave at that time is, however, erroneous as regards the form of the snout, 
which, not having seen any perfect examples, I represented as forming a pro- 
jection over the mouth similar to that which is characteristic of the Palaeonis- 
cidse ; the mandible is also too long and slender. Subsequent examination of 
a large quantity of additional material has, in other points, confirmed the 
observations then recorded. 

Species. — The species of Eurynotus require revision as regards their dis- 
tinctive characters, but this I must reserve for another occasion. I may, never- 
theless, here observe that, in my opinion, the fish in Lord Enniskillen's 
collection, which Sir Philip Grey-Egerton§ referred to the Plectrolepis rugosus 
of Agassiz, is a species of Eurynotus, and that the Platysomus declivus of 
Agassiz contained in Sir Philip's own cabinet, and catalogued by Morris,|| is 
most undoubtedly a distorted specimen of Eurynotus crenatus. For the oppor- 
tunity of examining both of these specimens I am indebted to the kindness of 
their distinguished owners. 

I am also indebted to the kindness and courtesy of the authorities of the 
Royal Museum of Natural History in Brussels for the opportunity of examining 
one of the specimens from the Carboniferous Limestone of Viesville in Belgium, 
recently described by Professor De Koninck under the name of Platysomus 
(?) insignis.^ I find it to be an undoubted Eurynotus, and closely allied to 
E. crenatus of Agassiz. 

Geological Distribution. — So far as investigation has hitherto reached, the 
genus Eurynotus is confined to the Lower division of the Carboniferous forma- 
tion. In Scotland it ranges from the Wardie shales up to the top of the Car- 
boniferous Limestone series, and is especially abundant in Edinburghshire and 
Fifeshire; indeed, in the Calciferous Sandstone series of the latter county it 
seems to form the great majority of all the smaller fishes which the collector 

* On the Ganoidei Heterocerci, " Qu. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond." vi. 1850. 
t On the Affinities of Platysomus and Allied Genera, " Qu. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond." 1866. 
X Description of Pygopterus Greenockii, &c, " Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb." 1867. 
§ Ganoidei Heterocerci, p. 3. 

|| Catalogue of British Fossils, London, 1854, p. 339. 

IT Faune du Calcaire Carbonifere de la Belgique, in " Annales du Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Belgique," Brussels, 1878, p. 25, pi. iii. 



350 EAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

meets with. It occurs also in the west of Scotland, as in the Possil ironstones. 
No specimens, save those from Belgium mentioned above, have as yet been 
found in any other country, nor has it in any case occurred above the horizon 
of the Millstone grit. 

Structure. — In Eurynotus (Plate III. fig. 1) the body is rather deeply fusiform, 
the tail very heterocercal, deeply cleft and inequilobate. There are largely 
developed pectorals and abdominally placed ventrals ; the anal is acuminate 
with a short base, like that of most Palseoniscidse. But the dorsal fin is very 
long, extending from opposite the origin of the ventrals as far as the tail 
pedicle ; in front it is high and acuminate, but posteriorly it becomes low and 
fringe-like. 

The structure of the fins is, however, altogether Palseoniscoid. The rays 
are closely set, their demi-rays strongly imbricating from before backwards, 
except in the hinder part of the fins, especially in the fringe-like portion of the 
dorsal and the upper lobe of the caudal, where little imbrication is observable. 
They are ganoid externally, and articulated throughout ; the joints simulating 
the appearance of small scales. The stronger rays of the anterior parts of the 
fins dichotomise towards their terminations in the shorter rays ; posteriorly, 
this process creeps up towards their middle. The anterior margins of all the 
fins are set with prominent fulcra, which form a double row. 

The scales have not been quite accurately figured by Agassiz, whose artist 
(as is too often the case in the plates of the " Poissons Fossiles ") has slurred 
over their salient peculiarities of form. Those of the body are arranged in the 
usual oblique or slightly sigmoidal dorso-ventral bands. Taking a scale from the 
front of the flank (Plate III. fig. 2), it is conspicuously higher than broad, though 
not so much so as in some other genera (Platysomus, Cheirodus, &c). The 
anterior covered area is of considerable breadth, and marked off by a vertical 
groove from the exposed one, which is rhomboidal, the acute angles being 
posterior-superior and anterior-inferior ; the posterior margin is denticulated, 
or rather fimbriated, with fine sharp points, which, however, on some parts of 
the body, tend to pass into a coarse and prominent denticulation. The pointed 
articular spine or peg arising from the upper margin is of moderate size, and 
is quite distinct from the acute and upwardly produced anterior-superior angle 
of the scale. On the attached surface (fig. 3) a socket corresponding to the 
articular spine of the scale next below is seen at the lower margin, from which 
extending upwards to its own spine is an indication of the usual vertical keel. 
Towards the dorsal and ventral margins the scales become more equilateral, 
and that is also the case towards the tail, while they become at the same 
time more obliquely and regularly rhomboidal, and the keel of the attached 
surface more marked (figs. 5, 6). The scales of the sides of the caudal body- 
prolongation (figs. 8, 9) are acutely lozenge-shaped, and arranged in very 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 351 

oblique rows, whose direction is from above downwards and forwards ; along its 
upper margin or ridge they are acutely V-shaped and imbricating (fig. 7). The 
free surface of all the scales is covered by a glittering layer of ganoine, orna- 
mented by scattered punctures passing into short grooves and streaks, the orna- 
ment usually fading away as we pass towards the hinder regions of the body. 

The shoulder-girdle also is constructed on the same type as in the Palseonis- 
cidae. I have not obtained a satisfactory view of the plate, which in that family 
I have considered as post-temporal, but there is a well-marked supra-clavicular 
(s cl, fig. 1) obliquely perforated above by the canal of the lateral line ; its 
direction is more vertical than in the Palaeoniscidse. This is followed by a strong 
clavicle (cl), of the same general form as in the last-named group of fishes, to 
the front of the inferior extremity of which there is articulated an infra- 
clavicular plate (i. cl), which is, however, proportionally shorter, while just 
behind the junction of the supra-clavicular with the clavicle we find a small 
post-clavicular of a narrow semilunar shape. 

The line of the top of the head, sloping pretty rapidly downwards and for- 
wards, shows a convexity over the region of the orbit, which has not the 
remarkably anterior position seen in the Palseoniscidae, but is placed nearly 
right over the upper jaw; the snout, too, does not project in the same manner 
over the front of the mouth. Common as specimens of Eurynotus are in the 
Edinburgh district, I have never yet obtained a specimen giving a proper view 
of the bones of the cranial shield ; two short parietals {pa) articulating with each 
other in the middle line, followed by two slightly larger frontals (/), are all 
which can be made out with accuracy, owing to the crushed condition of the 
heads, though I have also seen indications of a squamosal and posterior 
frontal. The base of the skull is furnished with a powerful parasphenoid ; 
ossifications were doubtless present in its side walls, but cannot be described. 
The position of the suspensorium is nearly vertical, with perhaps a slight 
inclination forwards, consequently the gape does not assume quite the enormous 
extent characteristic of the Palseoniscidae. The mandible is stout; externally a 
dentary (d) and an angular element (ag) are visible, the former occupying nearly 
the whole extent of the jaw, and having its upper margin set with small obtuse 
teeth ; internally there is a splenial, also dentigerous. The maxilla {mx, figs. 1, 
10, 11, 13, 14), always easily recognisable, is triangular, having two long sides, 
upper and lower, and a short posterior one, the latter being nearly vertical, with 
a slight backward inclination, while the upper margin slopes gently downwards 
and forwards to the bluntly pointed anterior extremity. The lower margin, 
nearly horizontal in position and very gently convex in contour, shows, seen 
from the outside (fig. 13), but few evidences of teeth, to get a proper view of 
which it must be looked at from within (figs. 10, 11, 14). Here it will be 
seen that a little in front of the posterior-inferior angle of the bone a narrow 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 X 



352 RAMSAY H. TRAQTJAIR ON THE 

band of obtuse teeth commences, and extends all the way along the internal 
aspect of that margin to the anterior extremity. These are at first closely 
and somewhat irregularly packed together, but as the anterior extremity of the 
bone is approached they become very small, and tend to be arranged in lines 
transverse or slightly oblique to the margin. Of the prsemaxilla I can say 
nothing. Of the palato-quadrate apparatus, the only element I have seen is a 
plate (fig. 12), evidently the representative of the large pterygoid or ectoptery- 
goid of the Paleeoniscidse, which I found lying detached on a slab of shale 
beside a maxilla (fig. 13) and numerous scales of Eurynotus ; portions of the 
same bone, crushed and obscured, are often seen in the heads of entire specimens. 
It carries a large oval patch of obtuse teeth, this patch showing three slight 
longitudinal elevations, separated by two corresponding shallow depressions. 
Of these elevations or ridges, two form the margins of the tooth patch, one of 
them corresponding with the external margin of the entire bone at this place ; 
the third passes midway between them, and bears the largest teeth. The 
teeth themselves are all obtuse, often at the first glance suggesting an 
aggregation of small grains of shot. On examination they are seen to be 
mostly in the form of short blunt cones, sometimes round in transverse 
section, or somewhat elliptical, or polygonal from close crowding; on the 
dentary element of the mandible they are frequently laterally compressed in 
shape. The base is sometimes, though not always, slightly constricted, and a 
few slight vertical grooves commonly extend some distance up the sides. 
Microscopically they consist of dentine, traversed by delicate tubules radiating 
from a basal pulp cavity, and surmounted by a cap of structureless " enamel " 
corresponding to, but relatively much larger than, that of the teeth of 
Palseoniscidse and many other ganoids. It is apparently the wearing down, by 
attrition, of this enamel-cap, and the consequent exposure of the softer dentine 
below, that gives the flattened tops of such worn teeth (fig. 15) the " dimpled " 
aspect referred to by Hugh Miller in his letter to Sir Philip Grey-Egerton. 

The orbit {or) is placed right above the middle of the maxilla, and in its 
boundary shows at least two conspicuous suborbitals (s.o). One of these is a 
narrow curved bone forming the posterior-inferior part of the orbital margin, 
and is joined in front by another (the so-called " lachrymal ") of a larger 
size and broader shape, forming the anterior-inferior orbital boundary, and 
extending along the anterior part of the upper margin of the maxilla towards 
the snout. 

The operculum (op) is small and of a quadrate shape, with the posterior- 
superior and anterior-inferior angles rounded off. Immediately below it is 
another plate (i.op), somewhat larger and higher, whose posterior-inferior angle 
is quite rounded off, while the anterior-inferior comes close behind the quadrate 
articulation of the mandible. This is evidently the exact homologue of the 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 353 

plate, which in the Palseonisciclse I have called " interoperculum," for reasons 
given in my memoir on the structure of that family, which interpretation I 
therefore retain for it in the Platysomidae. The anterior margins of the 
operculum and interoperculum form one continuous line, nearly vertical in 
direction, following that of the hyomandibular, and slightly concave in contour, 
not angulated at the junction of the two plates, as in the Palseoniscidae. Now, 
fitting on to this line in front, and covering the hyomandibular and a portion of 
the cheek, is a narrow vertical plate {p. op.), broadest in the middle and pointed 
below, and filling in the space between the operculum and interoperculum 
behind, and the posterior margin of the maxilla and the suborbital chain in 
front. It is equally evident that this plate is the homologue of that which 
I have marked " preoperculum " in the Palseonisciclse, though much modified 
in form by the altered direction and configuration of the hyomandibular. 

Succeeding the interoperculum and extending between the rami of the 
mandible, there is on each side a series of branchiostegal rays (br) in the form 
of narrow, slightly curved, imbricating plates, whose exact number I have 
not in any case been able to ascertain. In front, however, exactly the 
same arrangement is found in Eurynotus as that which prevails in most 
Palaeoniscidse {e.g., Palwoniscus, Elonichthys) — viz., the anterior plate of each 
lateral series is much broader than the rest, and there is a median lozenge- 
shaped one behind the symphysis corresponding to the median "jugular "in 
Amia, and in many extinct Lepidosteid forms {Eugnathus, Dapedius, &c). 

The exposed surfaces of the bones of the shoulder, and of the exterior of 
the head of Eurynotus are brilliantly ganoid and ornately sculptured, usually 
with tolerably coarse and prominent corrugations and furrows. 

Owing to the great density of the scaly covering, no internal skeleton can 
be seen in ordinary entire specimens of Eurynotus, though numerous scattered 
ossicles, apparently spinous processes and interspinous bones, may be observed 
lying among the scales in disjointed examples. But the Belgian specimen of 
Eurynotus figured by De Koninck {op. cit. pi. iii. fig. la), which I have had the 
privilege of examining, displays in the dorsal region, where the scales of the 
left side have been removed with the counterpart, a considerable portion of the 
internal skeleton in situ, compressed against the inner surfaces of the scales of 
the other side of the body. What is here seen of the internal skeleton consists 
of a set of short neural spines, surmounted, as in the Palseoniscidae, by two sets 
of interspinous bones, proximal and distal, those of the distal set being also less 
numerous than the dorsal fin-rays which they support. As in Platysomus, the 
proximal set of interspinous bones may be observed extending in front of the 
dorsal fin towards the occiput. These little bones seem to have been over- 
looked by Professor De Koninck both in his description and figure, but, 
indeed, very close examination of the specimen is necessary for their detection. 



354 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

In no specimen has any trace of vertebral bodies been observed, and the 
extraordinary distortions of form, so common in specimens of this genus, 
yield additional evidence that the vertebral axis was notochordal. 



Genus II. Benedenius, Traquair, 1878. 
Palceoniscus, P. J. Van Beneden, 1871. 

My distinguished friend, Professor De Koninck of Liege, having come to 
entertain doubts as to the " Palseoniscus de DeneV' of Professor Van Beneden* 
being really referable to that genus, did me some time ago the great honour 
of confiding to me for redescription the unique and valuable specimen of that 
remarkable fish from the Carboniferous Limestone of Den^e in Belgium. As 
my detailed account of its structure has already appeared in the first part 
of Professor De Koninck's new great work on the Fauna of the Belgian Car- 
boniferous Limestone,t I shall here restrict myself to noting a few points 
concerning its generic peculiarities and its place in the system. 

Benedenius Deneensis, VanBened. sp. (Plate III. fig. 17), has the body ovoid, 
with the dorsal and ventral lines pretty evenly arched, the caudal fin power- 
fully heterocercal and inequilobate. The dorsal fin, shaped much like that of 
Eurynotus, arises, however, as in Wardichthys, considerably behind the middle 
of the arch of the back ; its base extends to the tail pedicle. The anal fin 
is triangular and acuminate, with a short base ; the ventrals are placed rather 
far back ; the pectoral is not completely preserved, but appears rather delicate ; 
the fins are strongly fulcrated. The scales are of moderate size, and arranged 
in the usual oblique dorso-ventral bands, which, beneath the pectoral, turn 
forwards as in Mesolepis, Cheirodus, &c. Those of the flank are not much 
higher than broad, delicately striated with transverse and oblique ridges ; but 
as they all lie so very closely in position, and none are seen from the internal 
aspect, it is impossible to get a view of their entire contour or mode of articula- 
tion. A row of large and prominent median scales extends from the front of the 
dorsal fin to midway between that fin and the occiput; the belly between the 
ventrals and the lower extremity of the shoulder-girdle displays a series of pro- 
minent narrow plates, whose long axis are directed downwards and forwards. 
The shoulder-girdle is conformed as in Eurynotus. The suspensorium is nearly 
vertical, slightly inclining forwards ; the orbit is placed right over the middle of 
the jaw. The operculum is small and square shaped, the interoperculum is 
much larger and higher, and is followed by a series of branchiostegal rays. 
The outer aspect of the posterior part of the mandible displays a very peculiar 



* Bull. Ac. Roy. Belg. xxxi. 1871, pp. 512-515, plate iv. 
t Op. cit. pp. 14-23, plate ii. 






STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^]. 355 

appearance, as if covered by a number of oval imbricating scales, — a similar 
appearance is seen on some of the branchiostegal rays. Unfortunately no 
teeth are visible. 

The curious form being evidently no Palceoniscus, but on the contrary 
standing out boldly as a hitherto unrecognised genus, I have bestowed upon it 
a new generic title, in honour of the eminent naturalist who first made it known 
to the scientific world ; and the structure of the head, as seen by the direction of 
the suspensorium and the position of the orbit, being clearly Platysomid, and in 
accordance with the disposition of the dorsal fin, I have transferred it to the 
family under examination. It resembles Eurynotus in the body being less 
deep than in the rest of the family, in the general aspect of the squamation (the 
singular ventral scales being left out of view) and in the form of the anal fin, 
but the dorsal has the position of that fin in Wardichthys. Benedenius may 
therefore be placed near Eurynotus as one of the most paleeoniscoid, in general 
aspect, of the family Platysomidse. 

Genus III. Mesolepis, Young, 1866. 

History. — The genus Mesolepis was first made known by Professor Young 
in 1866, in whose original description we find the contour of the body and fins, 
and, in one species at least, the shape of the teeth correctly recognised : the 
figure of the scales given by him cannot, however, be said to give an accurate 
idea of their configuration. 

Specimens of Mesolepis (M. Wardit), from the " Drumgray " coal shale at 
Carluke, occur in Dr Eankin's collection, one of which gives an exquisite view 
of the mandibular teeth, with their " minie bullet-shaped " crown, elevated 
on a constricted neck or stalk. Is it not possible that this specimen may 
represent the Pododus capitatus, catalogued by Agassiz in his " Tableau 
general," as a " Sauroid " from the coal strata of the above named locality ? 
Certainly the name is descriptive enough of the peculiar form of the tooth. 
But as Agassiz left no description or figure behind him whereby Pododus 
(and only too many other genera and species) might be identified, Young's name, 
Mesolepis, must be definitely adopted. 

Species. — Professor Young has distinguished two species — M. Wardi, in 
which the length of the trunk is nearly twice its greatest depth, and the tail 
pedicle thick and elongate ; and M. scalaris (Plate IV. fig. 1), in which the 
body is more arched dorsally, and the tail pedicle very short and slender. 

I am indebted to Mr Binney of Manchester, and Mr Bekesford Weight 
of Aldercar Hall, Nottinghamshire, for the loan of two specimens of Mesolepis 
from the Dalemoor Rake Ironstone (Lower Coal Measures) of Stanton-by-Dale 
in Derbyshire, which seem to me to indicate yet another species, which I pro- 

VOL. XXIX. PAET I. 4 Y 



356 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

pose to call Mesolepis micropterus. "We have in these specimens the deep body 
and narrow tail pedicle of M. scalaris along with a dorsal fin which is propor- 
tionally less high and acuminate in front than in that species. The mandibular 
teeth are exposed in the specimen belonging to Mr Beresford Wright, and 
these, though the fish is in other respects an undoubted Mesolepis, are, like the 
teeth of Platysomus parvulus, slender and cylindro-conical in shape, and scarcely 
dilated above the root. 

Geological Distribution. — Mesolepis has hitherto been found only in the Coal 
Measures or Upper Carboniferous rocks of Great Britain, and seems to be 
nowhere very abundant as regards number of specimens. The best examples 
of the genus which I have seen are from North Staffordshire, and are in the 
collection of Mr Ward of Longton ; but it occurs also in the coal-fields of 
Derbyshire and of Lanarkshire. 

Structure.— The body is deeply fusiform, deeper than in Eurynotus, less so 
than in Platysomus. The scales of the flank are higher than broad, but 
as Professor Young has observed, they have not yet assumed the extremely 
high and narrow aspect seen in Cheirodus and Platysomus. As usual, the 
scales become more equilateral towards the dorsal, ventral, and caudal aspects. 
Taking the external aspect of a scale from the front part of the flank (Plate IV. 
fig. 2), its marginal covered area is seen to be very narrow ; the exposed surface 
is quadrilateral and slightly rhomboidal, and is ornamented by raised tubercles, 
frequently running together into sinuous ridges, which are more or less vertical 
in their direction ; from the upper margin, and close to the anterior superior 
angle, there arises a prominent, flattened, and pointed articular spine, marked 
externally by one or two furrows converging downwards towards its base. 
The internal aspect of the scale (fig. 3) is smooth, and presents a vertical keel, 
close to and parallel with the anterior margin, passing above into the articular 
spine, and bevelled off below and behind by the anterior margin of the pointed 
fossette which lodges the spine of the scale next below. It is manifest that 
these flank-scales are conformed exactly upon the so-called " Lepidopleurid " 
type, but further back, as for instance opposite the origin of the anal fin, the 
keel or " scale-rib " tends to pass back toward the middle of the scale, 
becoming less marked or even obsolete, while the articular spine and corre- 
sponding fossette appear upon the middle of the upper and lower margins re- 
spectively (figs. 4 and 5). No better instance could be had of the unimportance, 
as a " subordinal " character at least, of the position upon the scale of these keels 
or so-called scale-ribs. The scales of the body are arranged in dorso-ventral 
bands, whose backward obliquity is rather less than in Eurynotus ; below the 
root of the pectoral fin the most anterior of these turn a little forwards ; 
the same condition is observed on the back for a little distance behind the 
occiput. The scales clothing the sides of the caudal body prolongation are 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 357 

small and acutely lozenge-shaped, and arranged in bands directed very 
obliquely downwards and forwards, this arrangement commencing as usual 
opposite the lower caudal lobe ; the upper margin of the same part is set 
with large and imbricating V scales. 

In general form the head of Mesolepis (Plate IV. figs. 1 and 9) resembles 
very closely that of Eurynotus. The sloping contour of the top of the head 
shows the same rounded prominence over the orbit, below which it slopes still 
more sharply into the short pointed snout. The bones of the cranial roof are 
delicately sculptured with ridges and granules ; the lines of demarcation between 
at least some of them may be observed in a specimen belonging to Mr Ward. 
A pair of well-marked elongated frontals (/) occupy the top of the buckler, but 
the boundaries of the plates in the parietal, squamosal, and post-frontal regions 
are obscured by crushing. The rounded prominence above and in front of 
the orbit is formed by a narrow median superethmoidal plate (e), with a broader 
anterior frontal {a. f) on each side ; the posterior extremity of the former of 
these is pointed, and received into a notch between the anterior extremities 
of the frontals, while each of its lateral margins show a rounded notch com- 
pleted into a small nasal opening (n) by the inner margin of the adjacent anterior 
frontal. The portion of bone forming the snout in front of the last described 
plates is probably premaxillary in its nature. 

The line of the suspensorium passes downwards with a slight forward 
inclination, the operculum (op) is short, the interoperculum (i. op) larger and 
higher ; the preoperculum is not exhibited in any specimen I have seen, but a 
well-developed series of narrow imbricating branchiostegal rays or plates (br) 
follows the lower margin of the interoperculum. The maxilla (mx) resembles 
that of Wardichthys more than that of Eurynotus; it is broad behind, pointed 
in front, the upper margin, sloping downwards and forwards, showing imme- 
diately behind the anteriorly directed apex a small rounded expansion; the 
lower or oral margin is gently convex, and displays no teeth when seen from 
the outside, nevertheless, on the internal aspect of this margin there are very 
evident traces of at least tooth-like tubercles. The mandible is short and stout, 
and peculiarly pointed in front ; the anterior part of the upper margin of the 
clentary element is separated off from the rest of the bone by a wide smooth 
shallow groove, below and behind which the surface is ganoid and sculptured. 
On the margin thus marked off is seen a set of peculiarly shaped teeth, all of 
the same size, and apparently in a single row. Each of these teeth, ordinarily 
and as seen in Plate IV. figs. 6 and 7, consists of a head with bluntly pointed 
apex, rounded below, and supported by a constricted neck, which again expands 
so as to form a conical base ; but in M. micropterus (fig. 8), they are, as I 
have already stated, cylindro-conical, the apical dilatation and neck-constric- 
tion being scarcely if at all marked. I am unable to give any account of the 



358 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

palato-quadrate apparatus, but probably teeth were present on the palate in 
this as in allied genera. The orbit is placed as in Eurynotus, but the circum- 
orbital plates are badly preserved, a large anterior one (lachrymal) may, how- 
ever, be clearly seen, as in that genus, over the fore part of the maxilla. 

The shoulder girdle presents us with well-marked post-temporal supra- 
clavicular, clavicular, and infra-clavicular elements, the three latter, at least, 
shaped exactly as in Eurynotus. The fin-rays are ganoid and sculptured ex- 
ternally, divided by transverse articulations up to their origins, their demi-rays 
imbricate in the anterior part of each fin, and fulcra are conspicuously present, 
though these are smaller than in Eurynotus. The pectorals are of moderate 
size, the ventrals well developed and abdominal. The dorsal reminds us strongly 
of that of Eurynotus, commencing opposite the ventrals, and having its anterior 
margin in the usual condition of expansion of the fin continuous with the line 
of the back between its origin and the occiput; its anterior rays become very 
rapidly elongated towards the high and acutely pointed apex, from which they 
again rapidly fall away posteriorly, so that the hinder two-thirds of the fin is 
low and fringe-like. The anal is similar in form, but smaller, and its posterior 
fringe-like part proportionally shorter, the entire length of the base of the fin 
hardly equalling two-thirds that of the dorsal. The caudal is strongly hetero- 
cercal, deeply cleft and inequilobate. 

The affinities of Mesolepis to Eurynotus are clearly seen in the form and 
position of the dorsal and ventral fins in the powerfully heterocercal and 
inequilobate caudal, as well as in the form and general osteology of the head. 
But the scales have now decidedly assumed the Platysomid type, the body is 
deeper in shape, and the anal fin too has begun to resemble the opposing 
dorsal, though its base is still considerably shorter. The teeth differ consider- 
ably from those of Eurynotus in external form, but in such cases where they 
have a constricted neck they in so far resemble those of Eurysomus, a genus 
long confounded with Platysomus, but which has really much more affinity with 
Mesolepis. In M. micropterus the form of tooth passes into that which is 
found in Platysomus. 

Genus IV. Eurysomus, Young, 1866. 

Platysomus (pars), Agassiz, Egerton, et cet. auct. 
(?) Globulodus, Munster. 

The remarkable fish from the English marl slate, designated by Agassiz 
Platysomus macrurus, was first figured, though without any name, by Professor 
Sedgwick.* At the time, however, of the publication of the " Poissons Fossiles," 

' Trans. Geol. Soc. Lond., ser. 2, vol. iii. plate xii. figs. 1 and 2. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 359 

Agassiz had not himself seen a specimen, and he therefore contented himself 
with the reproduction of Sedgwick's figures and a few general remarks as to 
the leading peculiarities of external form which distinguished it from the 
associated Platysomi* But a much liner specimen, now in the Newcastle 
Museum, afterwards turned up, in which not only the entire shape of the fish 
but also the dentition of the lower jaw was preserved, and having been submitted 
to Sir Philip Grey-Egerton, the mandible was figured by him in the " Quarterly 
Journal " of the Geological Society,t the entire specimen in King's " Permian 
Fossils."! The peculiar form of the teeth as here shown, in which " a circular 
crown with flattened grinding surface " was " mounted on a pedicle of much 
less diameter," was attributed by Sir Philip to the whole of the species then 
included under Platysomus, and, as we have seen in the introduction, was, 
along with some other circumstances, especially the form of the scales, con- 
sidered by him to warrant the removal of Platysomus, of which Globulodus, 
Miinster, was now considered a synonym, to the family Pycnodontidse. We 
have, however, also seen that although Agassiz concurred in this view, Pro- 
fessor Young refused to accept the dentition of Platysomus macrurus as 
characteristic also of the true Platysomi, such as P. gibbosus, &c, and proposed 
therefore to institute for the former the new genus Eurysomus. With Professor 
Young, I must certainly agree as regards the distinctness of the genus from 
Platysomus, but at the same time it must be remembered that the resem- 
blance of the teeth of Eurysomus macrurus to those of Globulodus elegans is 
so great that were we only quite certain as to the generic identity in this 
latter case, Munster's name would certainly be entitled to preference over, 
Dr Young's. 

Species. — Only one species of Eurysomus, viz., E. macrurus, Ag. sp., has 
with certainty been determined. With this, Platysomus Fuldai of Munster, is 
no doubt generically identical, and the latter has also been merged specifically 
in " macrurus " by Geinitz. 

Geological Distribution. — Eurysomus has as yet only occurred in strata of 
Permian age ; in England in the marl slate ; in Germany in the Kupfer- 
schiefer. 

Structure.— I am not in a position to enter minutely into detail regarding 
the structure of Eurysomus, the only specimens which I have seen being that in 
the Newcastle Museum, and a not very perfect head in the Edinburgh Museum 
of Science and Art. But no one can look at any of the published figures of 
the fish without being struck by the evident affinity which it bears to Mesolepis, 
both in its general aspect and in the form and position of its fins. We have a 

* Poissons Fossiles, vol. ii. plate i. p. 170 ; Atlas, vol. ii. plate xviii. figs. 1 and 2. 

t Vol. v. (1849). 

X Mem. Palasontographical Society (1849), plate xxvi. fig. 1. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 4 Z 



360 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

powerfully heterocercal and inequilobate caudal, a dorsal high in front and 
becoming fringe-like posteriorly, and an anal similar in form but considerably 
shorter in the extent of its base. There is also clear evidence of its well- 
developed and abdominally placed ventrals, a fact also alluded to by Sir Philip 
Grey-Egerton in his description, so that it is difficult to understand how 
Dr Young, in his paper on " Platysomus and Allied Genera," has described 
Eury somas as being deficient in that member. The scales seem to be somewhat 
more strongly keeled than in Mesolepis, nevertheless, as Professor Young 
observes, " the scale character allies it somewhat to the latter genus." 

The specimen preserved in the Edinburgh Museum (Plate IV. fig. 10) is 
deficient as regards the top of the head, nevertheless it shows several details of 
the greatest importance. There is a large clavicle, similar in shape to that of 
Eurynotus and Mesolepis, in front of which is a broad interoperculum, having 
below it a number of narrow branchiostegal rays. All these bones are orna- 
mented externally by somewhat coarse crenulated wavy ridges passing into 
tubercles. But the points of greatest interest are those concerning the con- 
figuration of the jaws, and here the resemblance to Mesolepis is brought out 
in a manner still more remarkable. In front there is a beak-like portion of 
bone (p. mx), convex and smooth externally, and evidently prsemaxillary in its 
nature ; its lower margin is injured, and here the roots of several broken- off 
teeth are visible. Behind this is the left maxilla (mx), which is narrow in front, 
but broadening out behind in a sort of angular spatulate manner ; its broad 
posterior portion is covered behind by a tubercular ornament. Its upper 
margin is nearly straight, and slopes gently downwards and forwards; the 
posterior margin, gently convex, slopes also downwards and forwards, but at a 
less inclination than the superior one, with which it forms an acute angle above, 
while below it forms an obtuse angle with the lower margin, which is concave, 
and passes on to the lower margin of the prsemaxilla. No teeth are perceptible 
in the maxilla when looked at from the outside, but just below the left mandible 
we get a view of what is clearly the inner aspect of the anterior part of the 
maxilla of the opposite side (mx'), but crushed out of its place, and this dis- 
plays a row of broken-off tooth-stumps. The mandible (mn) is not completely 
exhibited, being largely overlapped above and behind by the posterior-inferior 
angle of the maxilla, but its similarity in general form to that of Mesolepis is 
obvious. It is comparatively short and stout, pointed in front and broad 
behind ; a wide oblique shallow groove marks off the dentary margin. The 
exposed portion of the oral margin bears a row of the large characteristic 
pedunculated and flattened teeth (fig. 11) so well described by Sir Philip 
Grey-Egerton. But there is a second or inner row of mandibular teeth, and 
these would seem to be borne upon the splenial element, judging from the 
anterior portion of the opposite mandibular ramus (mn fig. 10), which, seen 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 361 

from the internal aspect, is also displayed in the specimen, being displaced and 
dislocated below the other. The palate is not seen, but we might indeed be 
tempted to assume that it was as in Eurynotus amply supplied with crushing 
teeth. 

It is, therefore, clear that Eurysomus is a genus which, far from being 
identical with Platysomus, differs from it, as we shall afterwards see more fully, 
not only in its dentition, but also in its fins and the form of some of the bones 
of the head. And precisely in these respects it approaches the carboniferous 
genus Mesolepis, from which it indeed differs principally in the more broadly 
triangular shape of the mandible and in the shape of the teeth, which, although 
pedunculated have their crowns much flattened instead of being bluntly conical. 

Genus V. Wardichthys, Traquair, 1874. 

Wardichthys cyclosoma was described by myself in 1874* from a single 
specimen contained in an ironstone nodule which occurred in the Lower 
Carboniferous shales (Calciferous Sandstone series) of Newhaven (Wardie), near 
Edinburgh. It is not a little remarkable, as well as unfortunate, that notwith- 
standing the large number of ichthyolites which have been collected in this 
locality, no other specimen of the fish, not even a detached scale, has ever been 
obtained. The name Wardichthys was bestowed upon it, not in reference to 
the locality, but in honour of my friend Mr Ward of Longton, whose untiring- 
industry in collecting the fishes of his district has contributed so very largely 
to the advancement of our knowledge of Carboniferous ichthyology. 

Structure. — The length of the specimen is three inches, but, as the caudal 
fin is entirely wanting, its original length was probably about four. The body 
is nearly circular, the dorsal convexity being, however, considerably greater 
than the ventral. The head is large, and several of the bones can be distinctly 
made out (Plate IV. fig. 12). Posteriorly there are two parietals (p) meet- 
ing each other in the middle line, and on the outer side of each is a small 
squamosal (sq). In front of the parietals are two more elongated frontals (/), 
and again on the outer side of each frontal is a large posterior frontal (pf), the 
anterior part of whose outer margin apparently takes part in the posterior- 
superior boundary of the orbit. In front of this there is another plate (a./) 
forming in like manner the anterior-superior boundary of the orbit, and which 
is clearly equivalent to the anterior frontal of Mesolepis, &c, but the median 
superethmoidal cannot be made out. Below this a portion of bone is seen in 
front of the maxilla, which is probably the prsemaxilla. The orbit is thus seen 
to be placed as in Mesolepis, nearly right above the maxilla, but no circuni- 
orbitals are recognisable. A portion of a slender hyomandibular is seen ; it 
* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. xv. 1874, p. 262, plate xvi. figs. 1-5. 



362 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

is somewhat displaced, but from the position of the operculum and the 
direction of the bones of the shoulder girdle, it is clear that the axis of this 
element must have been, as in other Platysomids, downwards and slightly 
forwards. The operculum (op) is somewhat square-shaped, its posterior- 
superior angle being rounded, and its straight anterior margin nearly vertical 
with a slight forward inclination ; below it is a larger plate (i. op), which is 
evidently the inter operculum a little dislocated from its position ; no branchi- 
ostegal rays are preserved. The maxilla (mx) is shaped much as in Mesolepis, 
but the angle between its inferior and posterior margins is very much rounded 
off, so as to be nearly obsolete ; as in that genus, a small laminar projection 
passes off from its superior margin close behind its bluntly pointed anterior 
extremity ; no teeth are shown. The mandible is not exhibited at all in the 
specimen. The post-temporal element of the shoulder girdle (p. t) most nearly 
resembles that of Platysomus, and is a large, somewhat square-shaped plate, 
with its posterior angles somewhat rounded off, placed right behind the 
parietal, and apparently in contact above with its fellow of the opposite side. 
The supra-clavicular (s. cl) is of considerable size, vertically oblong, rather 
broad above, where it is obliquely traversed by the lateral slime canal, and 
narrowing to a point below, where it is in contact with an elongated clavicle (cl) 
of the usual Platysomid form. Of the fins, only the dorsal and anal are 
preserved, and the latter is not in good condition. The dorsal is small, arising 
considerably behind the middle of the arch of the back, and both in that 
circumstance and in its shape it resembles the dorsal of Benedenius. It is 
acuminate in front, becoming fringe-like behind, and terminates at the com- 
mencement of the narrow tail pedicle ; its anterior margin is distinctly ful- 
crated. But from what is seen of the anal, it is evident that it possessed a 
more extended base than that of Benedenius, and was conformed much like 
the dorsal. Unfortunately the caudal is not present in specimen, but the 
analogy of the rest of the structure of the fish leaves no reason for doubt as 
to its having been heterocercal. The scales of the side of the body (figs. 13 
and 14) are high and narrow, and shaped according to the same general type 
seen in Mesolepis or Platysomus. The articular spine and internal rib are mode- 
rately developed ; externally the smooth overlapped marginal area is well 
defined, while the free surface is ornamented with raised tubercles, which tend 
to he arranged in lines or to coalesce into short ridges, whose direction is 
across the scale from before backwards, some downward radiation towards the 
posterior-inferior angle being often observed at the lower part. As usual, the 
scales become more equilateral towards the dorsal and ventral margins (fig. 15), 
and the middle dorsal and ventral lines in front of the dorsal and anal fins 
are evidently furnished respectively with rows of azygous scales, having back- 
wardly directed spur-shaped points. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 363 

It is unfortunate that the dentition of Wardichthys is as yet unknown, but 
its affinity to Mesolepis seems pretty clear from the osteology of the head, a 
resemblance to Benedenius being also seen in the small size of the dorsal fin 
and the backward position of its commencement. But we have now got the 
deep short body of Cheirodus and Platysomus, as well as the narrow flank scales 
of these genera, the scale ornament being, however, very different from that of 
Platysomus, and more resembling what is found in Cheirodus and Mesolepis. 



Genus VI. Cheirodus, M'Coy, 1848. 

(?) Platysomus, Binney, 1840. 

Cheirodus, M'Coy, 1848 (not Pander, 1858) ; Traquair, 1878. 

Amphicentrum, Young, 1866 ; Hancock and Atthey, 1871 ; Traquair, 
1875. 

History. — In 1866 Professor Young'" instituted the genus Amphicentrum for 
a remarkable Platysomid fish from the North Staffordshire coal-field, which he 
also distinguished specifically as A. granulosum. A second species, A. striatum, 
from the Coal Measures of Northumberland, was in 1871 added by Messrs 
Hancock and ATTHEY.t 

Professor Young's original description of A. granulosum includes a minute 
account of the osteology of the head, illustrated by a restored outline showing 
the cranial and facial bones. But in 1875 I published a description of the 
cranial structure of the same genus, differing in many particulars of great 
importance from that given by him, especially as regards the determinaT 
tion of those dentigerous bones, which so frequently occur in a detached 
condition. Since that time the examination of a considerable number of 
additional specimens from both the North Staffordshire and Lancashire coal- 
fields has amply confirmed these statements, in which I differed from Professor 
Young, and has also brought to light a few additional particulars, though 
there are still some points regarding which some further information is 
desirable. 

But although to Professor Young is undoubtedly due the credit of having 
first described and figured an entire specimen of this strange and interesting 
genus, its remains were nevertheless previously not entirely unknown or 
unpublished. As early as 1841 % Mr E. W. Binney figured some scales from 
the Manchester coal-fields as belonging to Platysomus, but which, judging 

* Op. oil, p. 306. 

"f" Nat. Hist. Trans., Northumb. and Durham, vol. iv. 1871, p. 414 ; also in Ann. and Mag. Nat, 
Hist., ser. 4, vol. ix. 1872. 

% Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. vol. i. 1841, plate v. figs. 14 and 15. 
VOL. XXTX. PART I. 5 A 



364 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

from the figures, have undoubtedly a much greater resemblance to those of 
Professor Young's fish. And during a recent visit to the Woodwardian 
Museum at Cambridge I was surprised to find that the original specimen 
described by M'Coy in 1848* as Cheirodus pes-ranw, and considered by him 
to be the tooth of a Cestraciont allied to Ceratodus, then still ranged among 
the sharks, was in reality nothing more than a mandibular dental plate of 
the same Platysomid genus. I have, therefore, in a recently published paper,t 
felt compelled by the inexorable law of priority to propose the abolition of 
•' Amphicentrum" however much we may regret the necessity for supersed- 
ing a name by which the animal in its entirety is so widely known, by one 
which was originally bestowed upon a mere fragment whose nature its describer 
did not understand. 

Since the discovery of the true position of Ceratodus, Cheirodus, M'Coy, has 
been associated with the Dipnoi, both on account of M'Coy's original opinion 
of its affinities, and because Pander X not only referred to the same genus the 
teeth from the Devonian of Russia, which he named Cheirodus Jerofejewi, but 
also merged in it the Conchodus of M'Coy, which he considered to have been 
founded on the palatal tooth-plate of a fish generally identical with that whose 
mandibular one constituted Cheirodus pes-rance. But it is now clear that 
Cheirodus, Pander, is not = Cheirodus, M'Coy, though it is indeed possible that 
the former may be identical with Conchodus, the Dipnoous nature of which is 
undoubted. 

Species. — One unfortunate circumstance connected with the establishment 
of species upon mere fragments, like M'Coy's Cheirodus pes-rance, consists in 
the difficulty which we so often experience in satisfactorily deciding as to the 
identity or non-identity with them of more perfect specimens from other 
horizons or localities. The difficulty is seriously felt in the case of Cheirodus, 
and although I have, in my paper last referred to, felt inclined "pes-rance," 
M'Coy, and "granulosus," Young, as best kept separate, I must nevertheless 
own that this view of the case is also open to serious doubt. In any case the 
retention of Professor Young's specific name seems justifiable, on the ground 
that M'Coy's specimen is hardly sufficient to characterise the species, although, 
on the other hand, the genus to which it belongs is unmistakable. The only 
other species known is C. striatus of Hancock and Atthey. 

Geological Position. — This is entirely a Carboniferous genus. C. pes-ranw, 
M'Coy, is from the Carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire, and MrW. J. Barkas 
has recorded the occurrence of C granulosus in the same formation at Rich- 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. ii. 1848, pp. 130-131. British Palasozoic Fossils, p. 616, 
plate 3 <j, fig. 9. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1878, pp. 15-17. 

% Die Ctenodipterinen des Devonischen Systems, St Petersburg, 1828, pp. 33-37, plate vi. 
fiKS. 15-22. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMIIL3E. 365 

mond, Yorkshire.* Cheirodus is, however, chiefly known as a fish of the Coal 
Measures, in which horizon C. granulosus is abundant in North Staffordshire, 
occurring also in a more fragmentary condition both in Lancashire and in 
Lanarkshire, while the smaller C. striatus has been yielded by the coal strata 
of Northumberland. 

Structure. — The body of Cheirodus (Plate V. fig. 1) is deep and rhombic, the 
dorsal and ventral margins elevated into peaks, of which the dorsal is slightly 
in advance of the ventral ; the tail is completely heterocercal, but not very 
inequilobate; no ventral fins have been as yet observed, and the pectorals are 
rarely seen, owing to their having been placed a little higher up than usual on 
the side of the flattened body, as indicated by the position of their roots, which 
are always observable behind the lower extremity of the clavicle. The dorsal 
and anal fins arise immediately behind the respective dorsal and ventral peaks 
of the body, and extend to the narrow tail pedicle ; they are therefore nearly 
equal, with elongated bases, and fringe-like for the greater part of their extent. 
Their anterior margins are fulcrated ; their rays are numerous, closely set, and 
closely articulated ; the joints being externally ganoid and sculptured. The scales 
of the body are arranged in bands, which are nearly vertical, with a slight back- 
ward obliquity; just below the insertion of the pectoral fin they curve slightly 
forwards, as in Mesolepis and Benedenius, turning also slightly backwards just 
in front of the dorsal and ventral peaks. They are very high and narrow, 
especially on the flanks, above and below they become lower ; while on the 
caudal body prolongation they are very small, lozenge-shaped, and arranged in 
oblique rows, whose direction is from above downwards and forwards. The 
scales are also peculiarly modified on the anterior margins of the dorsal and 
ventral peaks, where they assume a spur-like appearance, with backwardly 
directed points ; on the upper margin of the caudal body prolongation they have 
the usual V-shaped aspect and imbricated arrangement. In the body scales the 
narrow anterior covered area is very distinctly marked off from the sculptured 
one, which in C. granulosus (Plate V. fig. 13) is ornamented with closely set 
tubercles, which sometimes assume a more or less linear arrangement, while 
in C. striatus they coalesce on the scales of the middle part of the body into 
actual though somewhat irregular vertical striae. The articular spine is very 
strong, its base often extending back along the whole of the upper margin ; 
the vertical rib or keel of the attached surface (fig. 14) is close to the anterior 
margin, and is very strongly and sharply defined. 

The upper contour of the head continues the downward slope of the back 
in front of the dorsal fin, showing also, as in Eurynotus and Mesolepis, a slight 
convexity above and in front of the orbital region, whence its descent to the 
front of the mouth is more rapid. Most of the cranial roof-bones can be made out 

* Geol. Mag. ser. 2, vol. i. 1874, p. 431. 



366 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

with great distinctness. There are two parietals (p) in contact with each other 
in the middle line, in advance of which are two somewhat longer frontals (/). 
External to each parietal and the posterior part of the outer margin of the 
corresponding frontal is a large squamosal (sq), in front of which there is a 
smaller posterior frontal (p./), forming the posterior-superior part of the orbital 
margin. The anterior-superior part of the orbital boundary is formed by another 
plate, the anterior frontal («./), which articulates both with the frontal and pos- 
terior frontal, and seems to pass down towards the praemaxilla ; but I have not 
obtained a satisfactory view of the median superethmoidal, which was probably 
intercalated between the two anterior frontals, nor of the nasal openings, 
although it is unlikely that these parts differed much from what we have found 
in Mesolepis. The base of the cranium displays a powerfully-developed para- 
sphenoid, but I have not yet seen any specimen in which ossification in the 
lateral walls could be determined. 

The hyomandibular (fig. 10, h. m) is an elongated bone, whose direction is 
from above downwards and slightly forwards. Above it shows a large 
flattened "head," articulated to the side of the cranium below the squamosal; 
below this head the bone is much constricted, and then assuming a cylindrical 
form, it gradually expands again in diameter towards its inferior termination, 
which is situated somewhat above and behind the quadrate articulation. There 
is no evidence of any symplectic. 

A powerful palato-quadrate apparatus (Plate V. figs. 2 and 10) extends 
forwards from the front of the lower part of the hyomandibular towards the 
snout. In my previous paper on the skull of Cheirodus (Amphicentrum), I was 
inclined to consider this as consisting of one piece, though I likewise stated 
that it was not certainly so, and that I had observed what seemed to me to be 
traces of a separate ossification towards its posterior-superior angle. Sub- 
sequent investigation has confirmed the latter view of the case, and has 
brought to light the existence of three elements, — quadrate, pterygoid, and 
mesopterygoid. The pterygoid or palato-pterygoid (pt. figs. 2, 3, and 10), 
which is the largest, has a "body" of an elliptical shape, pointed at both ends, 
and having on this flat lamina or wing (y, fig. 3) projecting upwards along 
the posterior part of its upper margin. Its outer surface is concave, its inner 
or oral surface is gently convex, and bears a patch of tolerably prominent shin- 
ing tubercles, some round, some oval, by which the roof of the mouth is rough- 
ened and armed. Its lower margin is convex, and presents two prominent 
ridges, separated by a groove, but coalescing behind in an acutely V-shaped 
fashion ; each of these ridges, the external of which is more prominent than the 
other, is armed with a single row of small tuberculo- conical tooth-like projec- 
tions, rather distantly placed, and varying much in number and degree of 
prominence in different individuals. With the posterior extremity of the 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 367 

pterygoid is connected a distinct quadrate {qu, figs. 2 and 10) projecting down- 
wards to articulate with the lower jaw ; above which, and extending also along 
the upper margin of the pterygoid, whose posterior projecting wing it overlaps 
internally, is another plate (m.pt. figs. 2 and 10) of a triangular form, broad 
behind and narrowing to an acute angle in front, which seems to be the 
equivalent of the mesopterygoid of other fishes. The obvious resemblance which 
the palato-quadrate apparatus bears to that of the Pakeoniscidae will be noticed 
further on.* 

The mandible is stout and deep, and as regards its constituent elements 
three may be easily recognised, — the dentary, splenial, and angular; the arti- 
cular was doubtless also present, but is not well defined. The dentary (d, fig 1, 
9, and 10) carries, however, no teeth, its upper margin forming a thin sharp 
edge ; its anterior extremity is pointed, prominent, and excavated above, so as 
to resemble the prsemaxillary beak opposed to it. Behind it on the outer sur- 
face of the posterior extremity of the jaw is a well-marked angular (ag, figs. 
1 and 10) resembling that of the Palaeoniscidse. The splenial element {sp, figs. 
6, 7, 8 and 10), covering the inner as well as folding over the upper aspect of the 
Meckelian cartilage, has its oral surface provided with a patch of enamelled 
tubercles similar to those of the palate. Its upper margin shows two ridges 
coalescing posteriorly, and of these the external one is the most prominent, and 
becomes anteriorly gently convex in its contour, while the other, proceeding in 
a straight direction, gets lower down as it passes forwards. The inner ridge 
is also set with a few sharpish dental tubercles, which, however, vary much in 
prominence in different individuals; they are not found at all in the original of 
M'Coy's C. pes-rance, but I fear that this circumstance can hardly be con- 
sidered as constituting a specific mark, as in many specimens of C. granulosus 
from North Staffordshire they are nearly entirely obsolete. 

The contour of the maxilla (figs. 4 and 5, mx fig. 1) is almost identical with 
that of the same bone in Eurynotus, but its lower margin is thin and sharp, 
like the corresponding one of the mandibular dentary element, and shows not 
the slightest trace of teeth of any kind. But on its internal aspect (fig. 4), and 
just above the edentulous margin, there is a narrow band of small thickly-set 
flattened and enamelled tubercles, resembling those which we have found to 
occur in patches upon the inner surface of the pterygoid and splenial bones ; 
this band curving suddenly downwards towards the margin at the junction of 
the posterior and middle thirds of the bone. The prcemaxilla? (p. mx, fig. 1) 
are, as Professor Young has described them, a pair of triangular beak-like 
bones, whose oral edges are sharp but edentulous. 

* Here it is, however, necessary to note that I was formerly inclined to consider the bone, which in 
the Palseoniscid head corresponds to that which I have above referred to the mesopterygoid element, to 
be metapterygoid in its nature (Carboniferous Ganoid Fishes, pt. i. Pal. Soc. 1877, p. 18.) 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 B 



368 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

The orbit (or.) is placed right over the middle of the mouth; a conspicuous 
sickle-shaped suborbital bounds it below and behind, while another (the so- 
called lachrymal), larger and broader, completes it below and in front ; besides 
which there is evidence of a narrow superorbital chain placed along the outer 
orbital margins of the posterior and anterior frontals, which I rather suspect is 
continued as a circumorbital ring round its entire circumference. The opercular 
bones and branchiostegal rays are extremely similar in form and relations to 
those of Eurynotus. So likewise are the bones of the shoulder-girdle, which 
include well-marked infraclaviculars, but the post-temporal seems to be rather 
small. 

Occasional traces of a pretty well ossified internal skeleton may occasionally be 
seen shining through the dense scaly investment in small specimens. They are 
too imperfect to admit of detailed description ; but so far as they go they seem to 
indicate that the conditions were pretty similar to what exists in Platysomus. 

Remarks. — The remarkable genus just described betrays a most singular 
resemblance to Eurynotus in the shape of the cranial bones, while in the form 
of the body it is more akin to Platysomus; and in that of the scales we find the 
" Lepidopleuricl " type carried to an extreme. The dentition is, however, alto- 
gether peculiar, and forms a forcible illustration of the small systematic value 
of the external configuration of these organs ; and I also fail to see how, accord- 
ing to Professor Young, " Amphicentrum gives the explanation of the arrange- 
ment " found in Pycnodus! k 

Genus VII. Platysomus, Agassiz, 1835. 

Stromateus, Blainville, Germar. 
Uropteryx, Agassiz. 

History. — The deep -bodied fishes of the Kupfersehiefer were well known to 
the older German writers in the beginning of last century, such as Knorr and 
Walchner, Scheuchzer, Mylius, and Wolfart. Palaeontology was, however, 
then in its infancy, and these pioneers of modern science, misled by the broad 
rhombic shape of these fishes, were content to consider them as petrified turbots, 
"Rhombus," or in German, "Meerbutt," "Platteiss," " Scholle"). Specially 
worthy of note is the excellent figure given by Wolfart (" Historia Naturalis 
llassioe inferioris," pt. i. tab. xiii.) of a "Rhombus major diluvianus" (Platysomus 
rhombus, Agassiz), in which the general form of the body, of the scales, and of 
the deeply-cleft heterocercal tail, the latter part being certainly very unlike the 
caudal fin of a Rhombus, are well brought out. Afterwards they were referred 
by De Blainville and by Germar to the genus Stromateus, but it was reserved 
for Agassiz to point out their dissimilarity to all existing forms, and to institute 

* Op. clt. p. 312. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 369 

for them the genus Platysomus, which he placed in the "Lepidoid" family of 
the order Ganoidei. 

For an account of the subsequent history of this genus, — its transference to 

the Pyenodontidse by Sir Philip Grey-Egerton, to the Stylodontes (Dapediidee) 

by Dr Andreas Wagner, and the position assigned to it by Professor Young in 

his suborder of "Lepidopleuridse," I may refer to the introduction to this paper. 

Species.— Under Platysomus Agassiz included the species gibbosus and 

rhombus from the German Kupferschiefer ; striatus, 'parvus, and macrurus from 

the English Magnesian Limestone ; and parvulus and declivus from the British 

coal formation. Professor King has merged P. parvus in P. striatus* and as to 

the so-called P. macrurus {Eurysomus, Young), we have already discussed its 

affinities, and the circumstance that its peculiar dentition, along with the shape 

of the scales, induced Sir Philip Grey-Egerton with Agassiz's approval, to 

transfer not only it, but the whole genus Platysomus to the family of Pynodonts. 

Neither P. parvulus nor declivus were described by Agassiz, but Professor 

Young has given a minute description of a fish, which, following Professor 

Williamson, he has referred to the former species, and it is chiefly upon its 

structural features that he has based his account of the cranial osteology of the 

genus.t Platysomus declivus is a MS. name given by Agassiz to a specimen 

from Burntisland, Fifeshire, in the collection of Sir Philip Grey-Egerton, and 

published by Morris in his " Catalogue of British Fossils," p. 339. I am 

indebted to the kindness of its distinguished owner for an opportunity of 

examining the specimen, and find that it is in reality a distorted example of 

Eurynotus crenatus, an opinion in which Sir Philip also concurs. 

By MunsterJ three species were added, viz., — P. Fiddai, intermedins, and 
Althausii, but two of these have been subsequently cancelled. P. Fiddai has 
been merged by Geinitz § in P. macrurus {Eurysomus) ; and there can be no 
doubt that Messrs Hancock and Howse|| were correct in referring P. Althausii 
to Dorypterus Hoffmanni, Germar. 

From the Coal Measures of Illinois, two species — P. circularis and P. 
orbicularis — have been determined by Messrs Newberry and Worthen.1T 

Messrs Hancock and Atthey ** have also added two well-marked Carboni- 
ferous species to the list, viz., — P. Forsteri and P. rotundus, from the Coal 
Measures of Newsham, near Newcastle, and I myself must now acid still another 
from the Lower Coal Measures of Derbyshire, — 

Platysomus tenuistriatus, sp. nov., Traquair (? = P. striatus, Young pars). 

* Catalogue of the Organic Remains of the Permian Rocks of Northumberland and Durham, 
1848, p. 15 ; "Permian Fossils" (Mem. Paheontographical Society, 1850), p. 232. 

t Op. cit. pp. 302-305, woodcut, fig. 2. j Beitrage zur Petrefactenkunde, v. 1842, pp. 43-47. 
§ Dyas, p. 10. || Qu. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxvi. 1870, p. 627. 

IT Geol. Survey of Illinois, vol. iv. p. 347, PI. III. fig. 1 ; PI. IV. fig. 2. 
** Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) ix. 1872, p. 252. 



370 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

Usual length about 3| inches. Body deep and rounded ; back strongly and 
evenly arched from the occiput to the narrow tail pedicle ; ventral contour 
more gently curved from the throat to the commencement of the anal fin, from 
which it then slopes rapidly upwards in a manner corresponding to the down- 
ward direction of the dorsal line opposite. Flank scales, exclusive of the 
articular peg, about 2\ times as high as broad ; all over the body they are 
marked externally with exceedingly close and delicate stria?, vertical to the long 
axis of the fish. Dorsal fin commencing rather behind the highest point of the 
rounded back, acuminate in front, and falling away to a narrow fringe-like 
form behind, anal similar in shape, but about one-sixth part shorter. Pectorals 
small with distinctly articulated rays, ventrals not observable. External bones 
of head for the most part minutely striated ; some granulation observable 
upon the parietals and frontals ; operculum very high and narrow, interoper- 
culum very small. 

The above description is principally taken from a specimen in the Museum 
of Practical Geology, labelled Platysomus striatus ;* others are in the collections 
of Messrs E. W. Binney, F.RS. of Manchester, and J. Ward, F.G.S. of Long- 
ton. All are from the " Dalemoor Rake " ironstone of Stanton-by-Dale, 
Derbyshire. Its specific distinctions are clear and unmistakeable. From the 
large Permian species gibbosus, rhombus, and striatus, it is obviously dis- 
tinguished by the rounded contour of the back, being especially widely 
removed from P. striatus by the greater anterior acumination of the dorsal and 
anal fins, and the sharp turning forwards of the dorso-ventral bands of scales 
so prominent in that species, being here hardly perceptible. From P. gibbosus 
and rhombus it is equally distinct. As regards the Carboniferous species, the 
want of the dorsal peak and the finer sculpture of the scales at once dis- 
tinguishes it from P. par mdus, while from P. rotundus, the shorter dorsal fin, 
the proportionally broader scales, with their closer and more delicate sculpture, 
are diagnostic marks which strike one at the first glance. P. Forsteri is a large 
species which has not yet been found entire ; but the character of the scale 
ornament is rather different from that of P. tenuistriatus, the striae being more 
undulating, usually more or less oblique to the anterior margin even in the 
flank scales, and tending to become abruptly intercalated. 

Geological Position. — The genus Platysomus is characteristic of the Permian 
and Carboniferous formations, and if we except the remains catalogued by Messrs 
Young and Armstrong as " P. dedivus" from the Carboniferous Limestone of 
Braehead,t which I have not seen, no trace of it has been found below the 

* This is probably the same specimen from Derbyshire, " in the Jermyn Street collection," to which 
Professor Young refers {op. cit. p. 305), in support of his statement that P. atriatus is common to the 
( iiboniferous and Permian formations. 

+ Carboniferous Fossils of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, 1871, p. 75. Catalogue of the 
'Western Scottish Fossils, "British Association Guide Books," Glasgow, 1876, p. 64. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 371 

horizon of the Millstone grit. P. declivus of Agassiz having turned out to be 
a Eurynotus, the genus must at least be struck out of the list of fishes of the 
Scottish Calciferous Sandstone series, remarkable as these strata for the num- 
ber and variety of their Palaeoniscidoe. 

Structure. — The body is deep, and the general form usually more or less 
rhombic, owing to the pointed snout, and the angulation of the dorsal and 
ventral margins. In P. tenuistriatus the back is, however, gibbously rounded ; 
in P. parvulus (PI. VI. fig. 5), it forms a high peak in front of the dorsal fin ; 
more commonly, as in P. striatus (PI. VI. fig. 1), it forms an obtuse angle at 
the commencement of that fin ; the ventral line being more horizontal as far as 
the commencement of the anal, where, forming an obtuse angle, it slopes rapidly 
upwards to the tail pedicle. 

The scales of the body are arranged in nearly vertical bands, which show, 
however, a slight backward and downward obliquity, which increases towards 
the tail ; in P. striatus these bands, along the origin of the anal fin, turn for- 
wards at an obtuse angle. In shape the scales (figs. 2, 3, 4) are high and nar- 
row on the flank, but as usual they become proportionally lower towards the 
dorsal, ventral, and caudal aspects. The articular spine is well marked, but 
the internal rib, close to the anterior margin, as in all the genera of the family 
save Eurynotus, varies in strength in different species, being in some (P. par- 
vulus, Forsteri) nearly obsolete. There is a line of small azygous scales, furnished 
in P. parvulus with recurved points, along the dorsal and ventral margins in 
front of the dorsal and anal fins, and along the upper margin of the caudal 
body prolongation they are large and V-shaped, while the sides of the same 
part are clothed with the usual small acutely lozenge-shaped scales, arranged 
in oblique rows, whose direction is from above downwards and forwards. The 
external sculpture of the scales is very characteristic of the genus, and consists 
of fine striae or ridges more or less vertical to the long axis of the body, con- 
sequently tending, on the flank scales, to become parallel with the anterior and 
posterior margins, numerous specific variations occurring, however, in their 
relative coarseness or fineness, straightness or wavyness, while in the marginal 
scales of P. striatus some amount of granulation is also observable. 

The tail pedicle is slender, the caudal fin deeply cleft and heterocercal, 
though not very inequilobate, and the prolongation of the body along the upper 
lobe is comparatively weak. The dorsal fin, commencing at or near the middle 
of the back, is more or less acuminate in front, and extends fringe-like to the 
commencement of the tail pedicle ; the anal is similar in shape and in relative 
position on the ventral aspect of the fish, though its base does not extend quite 
so far forwards. No ventral fins were observed by Agassiz, though he intro- 
duced them hypothetically into his restored figure of the genus (" Poissons foss." 
Atlas, vol. ii. PI. D), and their existence was denied altogether by Professor 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5C 



372 BAMS AY H. TBAQUAIB ON THE 

Young. Nevertheless, Messrs Hancock and Atthey have expressly recorded 
the presence of small ventrals in P. parvulus ; and in a specimen of P. striatus 
in the Edinburgh Museum, traces of a ventral are certainly to be seen ; it is, at 
the same time, at least remarkable that in the immense majority of otherwise 
well-preserved specimens the fins in question are not observable. The pectorals 
are frequently well displayed, and are of moderate size. As regards the constitu- 
tion of the fins, the same type of structure seen in Eurynotus and in the 
Palreoniseidre is here perpetuated ; the rays are closely set, imbricating in the 
fore part of the fin, divided throughout by transverse articulations, and having 
their external surfaces ganoid and sculptured. Dichotomisation of the rays 
commences towards their extremities in the longer rays on the front of each 
fin, creeping up to the middle in the shorter ones behind. I have not myself 
been able to detect the presence of fulcra. 

In describing the pectoral of P. striatus, Agassiz states that its rays " ont 
cette apparence cornde que Ton observe dans les nageoires de beaucoup de 
poissons de Solenhofen et qui rend les articulations transversales des rayons 
imperceptibles," I have, however, very distinctly observed the transverse 
articulations of the pectoral fin rays in P. gibbosus, parvulus, and tenui- 
striatus. 

The shoulder girdle (fig. 5) is well developed. The post-temporal element 
{p.t.) is a large plate, somewhat rounded- quadrate in shape, and placed im- 
mediately behind the cranial shield and above the operculum ; it is usually 
conspicuous in every specimen of Platysomus, and is, no doubt, the part which, 
in previous descriptions, is usually called " occipital crest." The supraclavicular 
(s.cl.) is similar to that of Mesolepis and other genera; so is also the claxicle 
{(•!.), although that is also rather more narrow and elongated. A small, though 
very distinct infraclavicular plate (i.cl.) is attached to the front of the lower 
extremity of the clavicle, but I have not seen any post-clavicular. 

In the larger and more typical species of the genus, such as P. gibbosus and 
striatus, the bones of the head are seldom clearly decipherable, so that in 
describing the osteology of this part I must follow the example of Professor 
Young in using for that purpose the small Carboniferous species P. parvulus 
(fig. 5). Professor Young has given a minute description of the cranial structure 
of this species, but after a most careful and prolonged examination of a large 
series of specimens in the collection of Mr Ward, I am unable to make my re- 
sults agree with his, or to reconcile them with his restored figure of the head. 

I can find no trace of the large " supra-occipital " which Professor Young 
has represented as intercalated, Teleostean-like, between the parietals, and I 
cannot help strongly suspecting that the bone indicated, along with his parietal, 
appertains to the large post-temporal plate, which occupies a similar position 
above the operculum. The real parietals are small plates (p.), articulating with 



STRUCTUKE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 373 

each other, as usual, in the middle line, and on the posterior part of the outer margin 
of each is a small squamosal or dermal-pterotic (sq.). In front of the parietals are 
rather short frontals (/.) arching over the region of the eye, while forming the two 
posterior-superior margin of the orbit is, on each side, a somewhat triangular- 
shaped posterior frontal or dermal-sphenotic (p-f-) placed in front of the 
squamosal, and external to the anterior part of the outer margin of the parietal, 
and the posterior part of the outer margin of the frontal. Immediately in 
advance of the frontals is a narrow elongated median bone (e.). Its posterior 
extremity is somewhat expanded, and presents, behind, an acute angle project- 
ing, wedge-like, into a slight notch between the anterior extremities of the 
frontals, and on each side an obtuse angle, in front of which the bone tapers 
gradually to a point, passing down towards the extremity of the snout. This 
is, without doubt, the median super ethmoidal, and the homologue of that plate, 
which in the Palreoniscidse forms the projection of the snout over the mouth. 
Placed on each side of this ethmoid, and articulating with the anterior extremity 
of the corresponding frontal, is another elongated bone (a./.) ; this is somewhat 
narrow where its posterior extremity joins the frontal, but suddenly it becomes 
expanded laterally, so as to form a prominent angle, directed outwards in front 
of the orbit, from which it again becomes gradually narrowed to a point an- 
teriorly. On its inner margin, near its posterior or upper extremity, is a deep 
round notch, completed into a foramen (n.) by the adjoining superethmoidal, 
and which foramen is clearly the nasal opening, but placed in a rather different 
position from that which it was supposed to occupy by Professor Young. This 
bone (a./.) corresponds in position to the anterior frontal of the Palseoniscidse, 
and the nasal openings occupy in reality exactly the same relative position to 
the orbit as in that family, only the great downward development of the bones 
of the nasal region, and the consequent " prognathous " character of the face, 
causes them to assume a position remarkably distant from the extremity of the 
snout. The close correspondence of the arrangement with that which has been 
already described in Mesolepis is also quite apparent. In front of the last 
described bones are evident traces of two others, small and narrow, one on 
each side, which apparently sends back its posterior pointed extremity for a 
little distance between the adjacent superethmoidal and anterior frontal. Their 
anterior extremities are never clearly exhibited, nevertheless they seem to pass 
down to the extremity of the snout, and to be there placed between the anterior 
extremities of the maxillse. These may be the premaxillse, but as yet I have 
seen no teeth upon them. 

A strong parasphenoid bar is seen extending along the base of the cranium, 
and there are also some traces of ossification in the side walls, but, unfor- 
tunately, too indistinct for description. 

The hyomandibular (hm.) is indicated in one specimen as a slender bone 



374 RAMSAY H. TRAQTJAIR ON THE 

extending from above downwards and slightly forwards, with a flattened and 
somewhat expanded upper extremity, below which it is suddenly constricted, 
whereupon it once more, though very gradually, increases in diameter towards 
its lower extremity, which is, however, not well seen. Placed along its 
posterior margin is the operculum, a high narrow plate, with rounded posterior- 
superior angle and gently curved posterior margin. Below, it overlaps the 
interoperculum (i.op.) a much smaller plate, whose anterior-inferior angle is 
somewhat produced so as to pass down close to the posterior extremity of the 
mandible. In front of these two bones, and covering the hyomandibular 
extremity, as well as a portion of the cheek, is the preoperculum (p.op.), a plate 
of a somewhat triangular form, whose three margins may be designated as 
posterior, anterior-superior, and anterior-inferior, and its angles as superior, 
inferior, and anterior. The posterior margin, the longest, is gently convex, and 
follows the contour of the anterior margins of the two preceding plates with 
which it is in close apposition ; the anterior-superior margin is in contact with 
the suborbital chain, the anterior-inferior one with the maxilla ; the superior and 
inferior angles are acute, the anterior one very obtuse. On its internal surface 
(fig. 8) a fine ridge is seen connecting its superior and inferior angles, which 
corresponds with a slime canal traversing its interior on its way to the mandible. 
In none of the numerous specimens which I have examined is the palato- 
quadrate apparatus exhibited, a fact which may be accounted for by the heads 
being almost always crushed quite flat, and the parts in question covered up 
by the large external facial plates. 

The maxilla (mx.) is of a broad triangular shape. Its inferior margin is gently 
convex, so is likewise the posterior one, which is in contact with the preoper- 
culum ; the superior margin slopes downwards and forwards to the anterior 
extremity. Its external surface is sculptured with fine vertical striae, save on 
a small area distinctly marked off along the superior margin, deepening towards 
the extremity of the bone and overlapped by the large anterior suborbital. The 
mandible is weak, slender, tapering, and gently curved with upwardly directed 
concavity ; its constituent elements, with the exception of the dentary, are not 
recognisable. From below the interoperculum a set of narrow branchiostegal 
plates extends on each side between the ravine of the mandible ; their exact 
number cannot be determined, though I have counted at least six. 

The orbit (or.) is placed high up and far back on the head, its position being 
right above the articulation of the mandible. There is evidence that it is sur- 
rounded in the first place by a complete ring of very narrow osseous plates, 
besides which there are, as in the other members of the family, two outer sub- 
orbital plates (s.o). One of the latter set, narrow and somewhat curved, lies 
along the posterior-inferior aspect of the orbit, being also in contact with the 
anterior-superior margin of the preoperculum, the other of an oblong shape 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 375 

joins it in front, and is then placed along the upper sloping margin of the 
maxilla, which it overlaps, while internally it is in contact with the outer 
margin of the anterior frontal in front of the orbit. 

So far as they can be deciphered, the heads of the other species of the genus 
seem to agree in their osteology in all essential points with that of P. parvulus, 
as described above. 

The dentition of the true Platysomi is quite unlike that of Eurysomus, Young, 
or of Globulodus, Miinster. We have already seen that Agassiz states that the 
jaws of Platysomus were armed with "petites dents en brosse tres-pointues," 
and that in P. gibbosus " ou apercoit quelques petites dents au bord clu 
maxillaire," although he afterwards suspected the identity of Globulodus with 
the present genus. . Professor Young states that the jaws of P. parvulus are 
" armed with slender conical teeth, those in the lower slightly larger and more 
distant than those in the upper jaw." Messrs Hancock and Atthey describe 
the dentition of P. rotundus in the following terms : — " The mandibular teeth 
are minute, conical, and pointed ; those of the maxillaries are of the same 
character, but more minute ; on the premaxillaries they seem a little larger." 
And regarding P. Forsteri the same authors proceed to state — " The mandibular 
teeth are large, conical, stout, and obtusely pointed ; those of the maxillse are 
small, conical, and tubercle-like, with wide bases and recurved apices, and are 
disposed without order along the alveolar border." 

So far as my own observations go, I have only seen the teeth clearly as 
they exist in the maxillary bones of P. Forsteri and P. parvulus. As regards 
the former species, I can certainly corroborate the description given by Messrs 
Hancock and Atthey. There the maxillary teeth resemble small tubercles, 
and are irregularly arranged in a narrow band, which passes along the inner 
aspect of the bone just above the lower margin. In PI. parvulus (PL VI. fig. 11) 
the appearances are somewhat different ; the teeth being arranged in one row 
on the lower margin of the maxilla. They are nearly equal in size and exces- 
sively minute, requiring a strong lens for their examination; in shape they are 
cylindrical, becoming slightly enlarged towards the apex, when they become 
suddenly and rather obtusely pointed. The expression " slender conical " used 
by Professor Young in reference to the teeth of this species, would I think tend 
to recall the form of tooth prevalent in the Pal£eoniscidaB f whereas in reality they 
more resemble those of JEchmodus ; there is also no very material difference 
between these maxillary teeth of P. parvulus and the mandibular ones of 
Mesolepis. 

Very little has been said as to the endoskeleton of the trunk in the genera 
of Platysomidae already examined, the internal bones being always more or less 
obscured and hidden from view by the thick outer covering of scales. Such 
strong glimpses, however, as we do occasionally obtain lead us to suppose that 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 D 



376 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

the arrangements did not materially differ from those in Platysomus. In this 
genus the same difficulties are also encountered, but to a less degree, as in 
many specimens from the Magnesian Limestone and Kupferschiefer, the bones 
are to a considerable extent perceptible through the scales, or are here 
and there actually exposed by the removal of patches of scales with the 
counterpart. 

Agassiz has given a restored figure of the skeleton of Platysomus, which 
may serve as a basis for the following few remarks on the subject. It is hardly 
necessary to begin by pointing out that the osteology of the head and shoulder 
as here delineated is quite erroneous, but for that ample allowance must be 
made, considering the specimens at his disposal, and the enormous amount of 
work he executed in so short a time. More attention must be paid to the parts 
behind. Here the vertebral axis is represented as segmented into distinct 
centra by vertical dotted lines ; above, it gives off a series of short neural arches 
and spines directed obliquely upwards and backwards ; below, a corresponding 
set of haemal ones ; while in the abdominal region short ribs are delineated, 
extending hardly more than \ of the depth of the abdominal parietes. Above 
the neural spines, and extending from the occiput to the tail, is a lower or 
proximal set of interspinous bones {interapopliysaires), the most anterior of 
which are consequently placed far in advance of the dorsal fin, and they are 
also inclined downwards and backwards so as to be placed at right angles to the 
neural spines beneath; they gradually, however, alter their direction, so as 
posteriorly to become more in a direct line with the spines. The dorsal fin 
itself is represented as borne by a second or distal set of short interspinous 
bones (surapojrftysaires) limited in extent to the length of the fin, whose rays, 
enlarged at their proximal extremities, are articulated to the extremities of 
these supporting ossicles, with which they also correspond in number. The 
anal fin is also represented as supported by two sets of interspinous bones, the 
proximal set commencing with one very large one immediately behind the 
abdominal cavity. 

Now, in the first place, there can be little doubt that the vertebral axis of 
Platysomus was not provided with ossified centra, but consisted of a per- 
sistent notochord. It is so described by Heckel, who refers its condition in this 
genus to the same category as that in Palwoniscus and Coelacanthus, of which 
he states that they possess in the vertebral axis "durchaus keine Spur von 
Wirbeln, oder audi nur von Halbwirbeln, Hier sind blosse Dornfortsatze vor- 
handen, die mit einer Art von Gabeln, welche theils die Stelle der Wirbelbogen, 
theils von vereinigten untern Querfortsatzen vertreten, iiber und unter einer 
nackten Ruckensaite ansitzen. " ""' Nor have I myself ever seen any trace of 

* " Ueber die Wirbelsiiule fossiler Ganoiden," Sitzungsb. der Wiener Acad. 1850, Abth. 2, p. 303. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 377 

vertebral bodies either in this or in any other genus of the family to which it 
belongs. It is also incorrect to represent the rays of the dorsal and anal fins 
as equal in number to their supporting interspinous bones and articulated to 
their extremities ; the real state of matters being, that as in the Palseoniscidae 
their rays are more numerous than the ossicles which carry them, whose ex- 
tremities they also overlap. 

On the other hand it is abundantly and clearly demonstrable that Agassiz 
was perfectly correct in representing the dorsal and anal fins as borne by two 
sets of interspinous bones, of which the proximal set {interapopltysaires) 
extends right on to the occiput ; while the distal set, immediately supporting 
the rays, is limited in extent to the length of the fin. I should think it also 
extremely probable that two sets of interspinous bones were also present in the 
case of the anal fin, though in the specimens I have examined the evidence is 
not quite so clear, but I am inclined to doubt the existence of the specially 
large one which in Agassiz's figure commences the series immediately behind 
the abdominal space. Regarding the presence or absence of ribs I regret that 
I am unable to offer any original observations. 

Conclusion. 

From the researches recorded in the preceding pages, it will now be 
abundantly clear that the genera treated of forms a connected series whose 
leading structural features may be summed up as follows : — 

The body, deeply fusiform in Eurynotus, or ovoid as in Benedenius, becomes 
very deep and laterally flattened in most of the genera, and often rhombic in 
its contour. The tail is completely heterocercal and accipenseroid in aspect ; 
the deeply cleft caudal fin is strongly inequilobate in some, less so in others ; 
the dorsal margin of the caudal body prolongation is set with a line of imbri- 
cating V scales, its sides clothed with small scales of an acutely lozenge-shaped 
figure. The scales of the body are arranged in dorso-ventral bands, which in 
the more deeply bodied forms become less oblique and more vertical in their 
direction. The scales are articulated by strong pointed processes of the upper 
margin, and in all save Eurynotus (Benedenius V) the vertical rib or keel of the 
attached surface is coincident with or close to the anterior margin, The dorsal 
fin is long, and, commencing at or behind the middle of the back extends to 
the tail pedicle, while the anal shows every gradation from the short-based 
triangular shape seen in Eurynotus and Benedenius to one closely simulating 
the dorsal in form and extent (Platysomus). The paired fins are largely de- 
veloped in Eurynotus, but they seem to become relatively smaller as the body 
deepens ; this is especially the case with the ventrals, which are rarely seen in 
Platysomus, and have not yet been detected in Cheirodus. The fins are pro- 



378 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

vided with fulcra (certainly distichous in Eurynotus), their rays are ganoid 
externally, closely set, articulated throughout, and in the fore part of the fin 
their demi-rays imbricate from before backwards. 

The line of the top of the head slopes downwards and forwards at an angle, 
which in some forms (Platysomus) becomes very high, and usually shows a 
slight convexity or rounded angle above and in front of the orbit. The snout 
is pointed and prognathous, and the orbit and nasal openings tend to become 
more and more removed from it in an upward and backward direction. The 
cranial roof is covered with ganoid plates corresponding to those of the 
Pakeoniscidse. There are two parietals touching each other in the middle line, 
each of which is flanked by a squamosal (dermal-pterotic). Over the orbits 
are two frontals, and on each side a posterior frontal (dermal-sphenotic) forming 
the posterior-superior orbital margin, and an anterior frontal (lateral dermal- 
ethmoidal) forming its anterior-superior boundary. Between the anterior 
frontals is a medium superethmoidal, and the nasal openings are formed each 
by a rounded notch on the outer side of the superethmoidal, completed by a 
similar one on the opposed margin of the adjacent anterior frontal. The hyo- 
manclibular slopes downwards and usually also a little forwards ; the osseous 
part of the palato-quaclrate apparatus displays, in Cheirodus at least, three bony 
elements, pterygoid, mesopterygoid and quadrate, of which the pterygoid is by 
far the largest. The mandible shows the presence of articular, dentary, angular, 
and splenial pieces, its external aspect being occupied almost entirely by the 
dentary. The maxilla is a more or less triangular plate, the prsemaxilla is 
pointed and often beak-like. 

The opercular apparatus consists of an opercular plate, below which is an 
interopercular, often as large as, or even larger than the opercular, while the 
preoperculum placed in front of these covers the hyomandibular as well as also 
a portion of the cheek. The branchiostegal rays take the form of narrow 
imbricating plates, and where, as in Eurynotus and Cheirodus, a favourable view 
has been obtained, a median lozenge-shaped plate is seen connecting the right 
and left series behind the symphysis of the mandible. The orbit is bounded 
below and behind by a chain of suborbital plates, besides which there is evi- 
dence of a narrow circumorbital ring passing round its entire circumference. 

The teeth vary very much in shape in different genera, but so far as yet 
observed never display the acutely conical form characteristic of the Palseonis- 
cidae. They may be either tubercular or obtuse, with or without constricted 
neck or base, or cylindro-conical, with constricted base more or less marked. 
They are usually present upon the splenial and on the pterygoid, not always 
so upon the dentary of the mandible, the maxillary margin, or upon the 
prsemaxilla. 
The notochord is persistent, but the neural and hsemal arches and spines are 



STKUCTUKE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 379 

ossified. The neural spines are succeeded above by a proximal set of inter- 
spinous bones, which in Platysomus at least extend forwards as far as the 
occiput, above which is a second or distal set supporting the rays of the dorsal 
fin. The arrangements on the haemal aspect are probably essentially similar 
as regards the presence of two sets of interspinous bones. The rays of the 
median fins exceed their supporting ossicles in number, and also overlap their 
extremities. 

This series of forms may, I think, in the present state of science, be taken as 
forming a family, for which the name Platysomidw will be appropriate, as the 
genus Platysomus was not only the first known of the group, but in its structure 
the peculiarities characteristic of the series seem to have attained their greatest 
amount of specialisation. Further subdivision of the family may at present 
remain unattempted, for although distinct " subfamilies " seem certainly to be 
represented by the genera Eurynotus, Mesolepis, Cheirodus, and Platysomus, yet 
there is considerable difficulty in dealing with Benedenius and Wardichthys, 
inasmuch as their entire structure is not yet sufficiently known. 

Affinities of the Platysomidw. 

It now remains for us to endeavour to ascertain the position of the Platy- 
somidae in the system, or, in other words, to inquire as to the relative amount 
of structural affinity which they betray to other groups of fishes, fossil or recent. 

Opinions of Previous Authors. — We have seen in the introduction to this 
memoir, that various opinions as to the position and classification of the genera 
here ranked as Platysomidae have been maintained by various authors, which 
opinions may now be briefly recapitulated. 

1. Agassiz originally classed Eurynotus and Platysomus, along with Palce- 
oniscus and Amblypterus, in the Heterocercal division of his family Lepidoidei 
belonging to the order Ganoidei. 

2. Giebel classed the above-named forms, along with others, in his group of 
Heterocerci Monopterygii. 

3. Grey-Egerton placed Platysomus in the family Pycnodontidse, in which 
he also included Tetragonolepis, at the same time leaving Eurynotus with Palm- 
oniscus in the Agassizian group of Lepidoidei Heterocerci. 

4. Vogt classified Eurynotus and Platysomus along with Palwoniscus in the 
subfamily Palseoniscidse of his family Monosticha, in which a second sub- 
family was constituted by the Dapediidse. 

5. Wagner placed Platysomus in his family " Stylodontes," in which it was 
associated with Tetragonolepis and Dapedius. 

6. Young divided the genera, which in this essay are taken together as 
Platysomidae, into four distinct families of Platysomidce, Amphicentridce, Eury- 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 E 



380 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

somidce, and Mesolepidee. These he associated with the Pycnodontidae in one 
" suborder " which he named " Lepidopleurida3," and from which he excluded 
Tetragonolepis and Dapedius. 

7. Lutken accepted the " Lepidopleuridse," but divided the series into the 
three groups of Platysomi, Pleurolepidae, and Pycnoclonticlse, including in the 
first of these the fishes distributed by Professor Young in his four families of 
Platysomidoe, Amphicentridee, Eurysomidae, and Mesolepidee. While admitting 
that the affinity between the Platysomi and Palseonisci is incontestable, he 
maintained that the former were inseparably allied to the Pycnodonts. 

8. Victor Caeus followed Lutken in reuniting the Platysomid fishes into 
one family, and in retaining the suborder Lepidopleuridse, in which, besides the 
Platysomidas, he also included the families of Pycnodontidae and Pleurolepidae, 
the latter to contain Tetragonolepis, but not Dapedius. 

9. I have myself maintained that the Platysomidee are more nearly related 
to the Palseoniscidae than to any other group, and have included both families 
in one suborder with the Chondrosteidee, Polyodontidae, and Acipenseridse. For 
this suborder I have considered the term " Acipenseroiclei " more suitable than 
the Miillerian " Chondrostei." 

10. Professor Cope has included Eurynotus along with Palceoniscus, Lepi- 
dotus, Pholidophorus, &c, in the family Lepidotidae, while he has placed Platy- 
somus along with Tetragonolepis and Dapedius in the Dapediidee, and retained 
the Pycnodonts as a family by themselves. All these three families are in- 
cluded in his order of Isospondyli. 

The whole question then resolves itself into the following : — In what sort of 
relationship do the Platysomid fishes stand to each of the three families of 
Dapediidse, Pycnodontidae, and Pakeoniscidae 1 

Relationship to the Dapediidoe. 

In approaching this question special notice must first be taken of the genus 
Tetragonolepis of Bronn (Agassiz partim), the peculiar form of whose scales has 
frequently led to its association with the Platysomidae, or with the Pycnodontidae. 
It is certainly impossible to regard Tetragonolepis as a member of the Pycnodont 
family, nor can it in any classification be disassociated from Dapedius. On this 
point Wagner and Cope are undoubtedly right, for the mere fact that the scales 
of Tetragonolepis have their internal rib or keel placed along the anterior 
margin, cannot outweigh the manifest resemblance which it betrays to Dapedius 
in the osteology of the head, in the internal skeleton, and in the form of the 
body and fins. To see that Tetragonolepis has a Dapedioid and not a Pycnodont 
head, one need only look at the beautiful figure of T. discus given by Sir Philip 
Grey-Egerton himself in his paper on the genus; and as regards the denti- 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^). 381 

tion, Dr Wagner, after noticing the absence of the characteristic Pycnodont 
" Vorkiefer " or premandibular bone, states that the teeth have the same con- 
figuration as in JEchmodus* 

If therefore Tetragonolepis belongs, not to the Pycnodontidse, but to the 
Dapediidse (Stylodontes, Wagner), it is to my mind also a step in the wrong 
direction to include Platysomus with it in the same family. 

For the Dapediidse (including Tetragonolepis) differ most materially from 
Platysomus and its allies in having a few-rayed semiheterocercal Lepidosteoid 
caudal fin, instead of the many-rayed heterocercal and Acipenseroid one of 
Platysomus ; in the manner in which the rays of the dorsal and anal fins corre- 
spond in number to their supporting interspinous bones ; in the presence of long 
ribs, and of well-ossified hemivertebra (though the notochord is also persistent); 
and in the absence of infraclavicular plates. With these obvious differences in 
the structure of the body is associated, as might be expected, an equally striking 
dissimilarity in the osteology of the head, as may be seen by referring to the 
restored figure of the head of Dapedius which I have constructed (PI. VI. 
fig. 13), after careful study of the large series of specimens in the collections of 
Lord Enniskillen, of the British Museum, and of the Museum of Practical 
Geology. f Without entering into any detailed description, it may be sufficient 
to point out that the general features here exhibited are not those of the 
Platysomidse, but those of the more modern type of Ganoids exemplified in the 
fossil Lepidotus, Semionotus, &c, and in the recent Lepidosteus and Amia ; in 
particular, we may note the completely Teleosteoid aspect of the opercular 
apparatus in which the preoperculum does not extend forwards on the cheek, 
and has associated with it an operculum, suboperculum, and interoperculum, 
arranged quite according to the ordinary pattern. The styliform shape of the 
teeth in some Platysomidae, and the deep form of the body in the Dapediidee, 
with the shape of the scales in the special genus Tetragonolepis, seem to me to 
be characters of small importance when placed against the differences in general 
structure, which certainly forbid their association in one " family," according to 

* " Miinchener Gelehrte Anzeigen," 1860. Dr Wagner here uses Qubnstedt's name Pleurolepis for 
Tetragonolepis of Broim, and Tetragonolepis for jiEchmodus of Egerton. JEchmodus is distinguished 
from Dapedius, De la Beche, only in having the apices of the teeth simple instead of bifid ; but as Sir 
Philip Grey-Egerton has himself pointed out, both forms of tooth may occur in the same specimen, 
and the name JEchmodus is therefore not maintainable. As to the use of " Pleurolepis" its priority 
over Tetragonolepis cannot be maintained. It is true that Quenstedt first pointed out that Tetra- 
gonolepis semicinctus, Bronn, was generically distinct from the other species added by Agassiz to the 
same genus, but surely, instead of inventing a new name for the first, and passing Tetragonolepis on to 
the others, he ought to have preserved the original generic name for the original type. 

t The restored figure of the head of "AZchmodus," given by Professor Young in his paper " On the 
Affinities of Platysomus," is incorrect in at least one important particular, namely, in representing the 
parietals as pushed outwards to a position behind the squamosals by an intruding compound " supra- 
occipital." The plate, which he has lettered as " post-frontal," seems to me to be only a member of the 
circumorbital rin". 



382 RAMSAY H. TRAQTJAIR ON THE 

the usual conceptions of the limits of such a zoological division. To my mind, 
those differences express a separation of still wider extent than one of mere 
" family " importance. 



Relationship of the Platysomidce to the Pycnodontidce. 

The Pycnodonts form a remarkable and most distinctly characterised family 
of extinct fishes, which range from the Liassic to the Eocene rocks inclusive, 
and whose zoological position is even yet rather problematic in its nature. 
And the Platysomidas seem to be still less related to them than even to the 
Dapediidse. 

The Pycnodonts may be said to resemble the Platysomidae in the following 
few points : — 

1. The shape of the body is deep ; the dorsal fin extends from near the 
middle of the back to the tail pedicle, and the anal agrees with that of Platy- 
somus at least, in being nearly the counterpart of the dorsal in form and position. 
The contour of the top of the head slopes steeply downwards and forwards, and 
usually shows a slight convexity in front of the orbit, which is placed rather 
high up and far back ; the snout is pointed and " prognathic " in aspect. 

2. The scales, sometimes limited to the anterior part of the body, are mostly 
high and narrow, and have their internal rib or keel coincident with the anterior 
margin, and passing up into a strong spine, which articulates with the bevelled- 
off lower extremity of the rib of the scale next above. 

3. The notochord is persistent. 

The differences, on the other hand, are of a very much more important 
character — 

1. The osteology of the head of the Pycnodontidse is not yet in every 
particular satisfactorily elucidated; certain facts are, however, well established, 
which are completely at variance with anything observable in the Platysomidse. 
The most salient feature in the Pycnodont head is the altogether peculiar 
construction of the masticatory apparatus. The maxilla is a thin edentulous 
lamina, which is rarely seen. The long premaxillary bones carry a few styliform 
or chisel-shaped " incisor " teeth, behind which the roof of the mouth is occu- 
pied by a long median bone, supposed to be the vomer, or united parasphenoid 
and vomer. The straight sides of this bone slightly converge anteriorly, so 
that it is narrower in front than behind, it is gently convex longitudinally, and 
bears several rows of rounded or oval flattened crushing teeth, there being usually 
five of these rows, one median and two lateral. This bone, with its formidable 
armature, bites below into a longitudinal hollow formed by the apposed right 
and left rami of the very stout mandible, each ramus being provided also with 
several rows of flattened teeth, usually four, and at its symphyseal extremity, 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 383 

also with a peculiar accessory premandibular piece, the "Vorkiefer" of the 
Germans, which carries a few " incisors " like the opposed premaxilla. It need 
hardly be said that nothing at all like this remarkable arrangement occurs in 
any one of the Platysomidae, not even in Cheirodus, in which the margin at 
least of the maxilla is edentulous, but whose palatal teeth are borne upon the 
moveable pterygoid bones like those of Eurynotus. 

In many other respects the head in the Pycnodonts differs remarkably from 
that in the Platysomidae. For instance, the greater part of the cheek is 
covered by a mosaic of small polygonal plates, as is also the throat between 
the mandible and the lower extremities of the clavicles. Different opinions 
have been expressed as to the number of opercular pieces ; like Quenstedt, I 
have myself been only able to distinguish one, the operculum, below which are 
only two narrow branchiostegal rays instead of the long series, which in the 
Platysomidae extends forwards below the mandible ; and from this, as well as 
the appearance of the throat, it seems pretty clear that the external branchial 
cleft or opening was limited below, as in the modern Plectognathi, and did not 
form the long slit seen both in the Platysomidse and Palaeoniscidae. 

2. The clavicle differs in shape at its lower extremity from that of the 
Platysomidse, and the infraclavicular plates are altogether absent. 

3. The vertebral axis is notochordal, but the neural and haemal spines 
spring from well-developed hemivertebras, which in Pycnodus join each other 
by suture above and below on the sides of the chorda. The neural and haemal 
arches are connected with each other by horizontal denticulated articular 
processes, and the spinous processes are very long, the neural ones in front of 
the dorsal fin reaching nearly to the margin of the body. The abdominal 
region is provided with long and well-developed ribs. 

4. The dorsal and anal fins are supported each by only one set of inter- 
spinous bones, and these have their proximal extremities inserted between the 
extremities of the neural and haemal spines, as in modern fishes. 

5. Fulcra are entirely absent from all the fins, and the rays of the dorsal 
and anal correspond in number to their supporting interspinous bones, to whose 
extremities they are articulated. 

6. The caudal fin is only semiheterocercal, and in those genera in which 
the entire body is covered with scales (Gyrodus, Mesturus), the heterocercy 
is almost completely masked, when the scales are well preserved in the caudal 
region. 

Many genera, mostly founded upon fragmentary remains, have been added 
to the Pycnodontidae, chiefly or only on account of the possession of flattened 
teeth, and in some of these instances, e.g., the reptilian Placodus, the reference 
to this family has been subsequently found to be rather wide of the mark. But, 
looking at these forms whose claim to be considered as Pycnodonts is established 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 F 



384 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

by a knowledge of the entire fish, no more compact or sharply defined group 
can be found in the whole range of ichthyology. In spite of the persistence of 
the notochord, the whole structure of these fishes evinces a high degree of 
specialisation, and the absence of connecting links with more generalised forms 
renders the systematic position of the family indeed hard to determine, though 
the structure of the internal skeleton seems to indicate that it appertains rather 
to the great Lepidosteoid series of Ganoids than to any other. One thing is 
certain, namely, that the Pycnoclontidae are widely separated from the 
Platysomidae by an assemblance of characters, upon which the anatomist is 
compelled to place very much greater weight than upon the mere external form 
of the scales.* 



The Suborder " Lepidopleuridee" of Professor Young. 

We have already seen in the introduction to this paper that Professor 
Young, unable to include the Platysomidae and Pycnodonts in one " family," 
proposed, apparently as a sort of compromise, to institute the " suborder " of 
Lepidopleuridce, in which both should be comprised, and which should be 
equivalent to the suborders Amiaclas, Lepidosteidse, Crossopterygidse, 
Lepidosteidse, and Acanthodidae, in Professor Huxley's system. We may 
now briefly analyse Professor Young's definition of the " Lepidopleuridse," with 
the view of coming to some conclusion as to its validity as a suborder of 
Ganoids. 

He states that the Lepidopleuridae are, — 

" Ganoids with heterocercal equilobate tails. Body rhomboidal, covered 
with rhombic scales articulated by strong ribs traversing their anterior margin 
internally. Dorsal fin equal to half the length of the trunk. Anal fin also with 
an elongate base. Ventrals when present small. Paired fins non-lobate. 
Branchiostegal rays not taking the forms of broad plates. Notochord 
persistent. Arches well ossified." 

Some of these characters are obviously inapplicable to many prominent 
members of the assemblage of fishes which Professor Young here proposes to 

* Besides Agassiz's " Poissons Fossiles," the following works may be consulted in connection with 
the structure of the Pycnodontidas : — 

Grey-Egerton, Sir Philip. "On the Affinities of Platysomus." Qu. J. Geol. Soc. v. 1849. 

Wagner, Dr A. "Beitrage zui Kenntniss der in don lithographischen Schiefern Bayerns abgel;i- 
gerten urweltlichen Fische." Ahh. Bayer. Ac. vi. 1850. 

Wagner, Dr A. " Monographic der fossilon Fische aus den lithographischen Schiefern Bayerns," 
pt. L Ahh. Bayer. Ac. ix. 1861. 

I moi LiicHE, Victor. "Poissons Fossiles du Bugcy," pt. i. Paris, 1854. 

lli'KEL, J. J. " Beitrage zui' Kenntniss der fossilen Fische Oesterrcichs." Denkschr. Wien. Ac. 
xi. 1856. 

Qubnbtbdt, F. A " Handhuch der Petrefactenkunde," second ed. Tubingen, 1867. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 385 

bring together. The Pycnodonts are not heterocercal in the same sense as Platy- 
somus, Eurynotus, &c, but are nearly as homocercal as the Salmonidse ; nor is 
the tail of Eurynotus, or of Mesolepis " equilobate." The anal fin of Eurynotus 
has not an elongate, but a short base, and the ventral fins, both in it and in 
Mesolepis, are of very respectable size. 

Other characters, whatever value they may have in distinguishing families and 
genera, are hardly admissible in the definition of a " suborder " of fishes, being 
merely part of the endless variations and coincidences in external form which 
the process of specialisation brings out in forms which may either be very dis- 
tantly related or closely allied. Such are the deep shape of the body (which 
here cannot be called "rhomboidal" in every case), the length of the dorsal and 
anal fins, and the small size of the ventrals, even if these peculiarities of the 
two last named fins held good with all the genera, which is not the case. 
Similarly, I cannot look upon the form of the scales as being a character of 
prime importance, though it certainly is of greater value than the depth of the 
body, or the length or size of a fin. 

For, if we compare the scales of Palceoniscus (PI. VI. fig. 16), or of Eury- 
notus (PI. III. fig. 3), with those of Platysomus (PI. VI. figs. 3, 4) and of 
Gyrodus (PI. VI. figs. 14, 15), it becomes perfectly clear that the so-called 
" scale rib " or " Lepidopleuron " of the last-named genera is no special or 
isolated phenomenon, but is, after all, nothing more or less than that vertical 
keel which is characteristic of the under surface of the scales in almost all 
rhombiferous Ganoids, and which ordinarily passes up into or ends a little in 
front of the base of the articular spine, besides being bevelled off inferiorly by 
the anterior margin of the little fossette which lodges the spine of the scale next 
below. This keel may be in some cases prominent, in others obsolete, in some 
more or less central, in others placed at or near the anterior margin. Of course 
in the true Pycnodonts these " scale ribs " form very prominent objects from 
the thinness, and in some cases the entire absence of the rest of the scale. But 
for my own part, I cannot understand how the mere marginal position of such a 
keel can ever carry with it so great a morphological importance as to entitle it 
to be used as a subordinal character, especially when contradicted by obvious 
facts of structure, cranial, or otherwise. But it is indeed hardly necessary, at 
the present day, when Agassiz's system of classification of fishes, according to 
their scales, is a thing of the past, to dwell upon the fact that all attempts to 
found any large groups upon the mere external configuration of these append- 
ages must prove utterly futile. 

Again, the non-lobate nature of the paired fins, and the branchiostegal rays 
not taking the form of broad (jugular) plates, are characters shared also by the 
Amioid and Lepidosteoid Ganoids, and in many of the latter the notochord is 
also persistent, with well-ossified arches. It is here not meant that no 



386 RAMSAY H. TRAQTJAJR ON THE 

characters can be used in the definition of a group except such as are 
altogether absent from every other with which it is compared. For example, it 
is perfectly legitimate in comparing the Acipenseroid and Lepidosteoid 
Ganoids to bring forward the presence of infraclavicular plates in the former 
and their absence in the latter, although these plates are also present in 
Crossopterygii, because the latter are in their turn separated from the 
Acipenseroidei by other important characters, such as the presence of jugular 
plates and the lobation of paired fins. What we require is that the assemblage 
of characters shall be exclusive. And it certainly seems to me that the 
characters assigned by Professor Young to his Lepidopleuridse are, both taken 
individually, and in the aggregate, quite insufficient either to characterise a sub- 
order, or to differentiate the fishes therein included from the Lepidosteidse of 
Professor Huxley ; while, on the other hand, the wide gulf which exists between 
the PlatysomidaB and Pycnodontidse, in certain very essential points of structure, 
is ignored. 

The suborder Lepidopleuridse must, therefore, in my opinion, be abandoned, 
and the affinities of the Platysomidse traced in another direction. 



Affinities of the Platysomidce with the Palmoniscidw. 

The Platysomidae agree with the Palseoniscidse in the following points : — 

1. The vertebral axis is notochordal; the neural and haemal spines are short; 
and there are two sets of interspinous bones, proximal and distal, supporting 
the rays of the dorsal and probably also of the anal fin. 

2. The fins are fulcratecl. 

3. The rays of the median fins are more numerous than their supporting 
interspinous bones, which they overlap with their proximal extremities ; they 
are closely set, closely jointed, and in the anterior part of each fin the demi- 
rays are closely imbricated. 

4. The caudal fin is completely heterocercal and acipenseroid in aspect, and 
the upper margin of the body-prolongation is set with a row of pointed imbri- 
cating V-scales. 

5. The paired fins are similar in structure in both families, though the ventrals 
are small in some Platysomidae, and not observed in others. The shoulder 
girdle is composed of the same elements, which in both families have an exceed- 
ingly similar shape, and include well-marked infraclavicular plates. 

G. The osteology of the head is morphologically similar in both. The cranial 
roof bones correspond, plate for plate, both in number and in their relative posi- 
tions to each other, and the nasal opening on each side is situated between the 
median superethmoidal and the dermal anterior frontal, As in the Palseonis- 
cida3, the preoperculum extends forwards on the cheek, and the other oper- 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^. 387 

cular bones, as well as the branchiostegal rays, are extremely alike. The 
hyomandibular is a rod-like bone, without evidence of appended symplectic ; 
the bony palate consists of three elements — pterygoid, mesopterygoid (?), and 
quadrate — similarly related to each other as in the Pakeoniscidse, and the 
mandible is also identical in its construction. 

7. The scales of Eurynotus are quite conformable in shape to the type 
characteristic of the Palaeoniscidse, and the dissimilarity observed in the 
other genera of Platysomidse is not of so essential a character as has been 
supposed. 

On the other hand, the differences between the two groups, though striking 
enough, are quite insufficient to conceal the close affinity between them. 

1. In the Platysomidae the body tends to become deep and short, and to 
assume an ovoid, circular, or rhombic contour. 

2. Though still conformable in essential morphological features to the Palse- 
oniscoid type, the cranial osteology in the Platysomidae has undergone a 
remarkable modification characteristic of the family. 

In Palawniscus, as in the recent Polyodon, the direction of the axis of the 
base of the skull continues forwards that of the vertebral column in pretty 
nearly a straight line. The premaxillae are very small, the anterior frontal 
and the median superethmoidal short, and the latter forms a prominence 
over the front of the mouth. The mouth, with its enormously Avide gape, is 
itself, as it were, drawn backwards by the great posterior obliquity of the 
hyomandibular, and, coincident with this, the orbit assumes a remarkably 
anterior position close to the snout, and also close above the front part of the 
mouth, the upper margin of the maxilla being consequently suddenly excavated 
or cut away to make room for it. 

In the Platysomidie, on the other hand, along with the deepening of the 
body, the line of the base of the skull, assuming a downward and forward slope, 
forms an angle with that of the vertebral axis, the contour of the top of the 
head becoming also more or less steep and inclined. Altering its backward 
obliquity, the hyomandibular has now become, as it were, in pendulum fashion, 
swung forwards, so as to assume either a vertical or a slightly forward as well 
as downward direction, while the bones of the ethmoidal region become 
elongated downwards and forwards. The mouth is thus carried downwards 
and forwards, and becomes less wide than in the Palaeoniscidse, and more or 
less " prognathous," while the nostrils and orbits, remaining behind, appear 
remarkably high up in relation to the mouth and snout, while all that remains 
of the ethmoidal prominence of the Pakeoniscidae is a slight convexity in the 
contour of the head in front of the orbits. The maxilla consequently no longer 
requires to have the front part of its upper margin cut away to accommodate 
the eye, and appears as a simple triangular plate, and a large anterior subor- 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 G 



388 RAMSAY H. TRAQUATR ON THE 

bital or " laduymal" becomes developed to fill up the space between it and the 
anterior frontal. 

This type of skull, which reaches its most extreme development in Platy- 
somus, is strongly marked even in Eurynotus, but not so much so in Benedenius, 
although the Platysomid nature of the last mentioned genus is sufficiently indi- 
cated by the backward position of the orbit and the vertical direction of the 
hyomandibular bone. 

3. While the Pakeonisciclae, with very few exceptions {Gonatodus, Micvo- 
conodus), possess acutely conical teeth of different sizes, that form of tooth is 
in the Platysomidse either absent or very rarely seen. But the remarkable 
differences in the external shape of the teeth displayed by the various genera 
of Platysomidse themselves amply show that the shape of the teeth is here of 
very little systematic value. 

4. In the majority of Platysomidee the scales of the body have the keel of 
the internal surface, which passes above into the articular spine, coincident 
with, or close to the anterior margin. This is, however, not the case in 
Eurynotus. 

5. The dorsal fin has an elongated base, and the anal fin tends to assume a 
similar form, though it is short-based in Benedenius and Eurynotus. 

6. The ventral fins are in some Platysomidas very small (Platysofnus), or 
possibly absent, as in Cheirodus. 

Weighing these points of resemblance and difference together, it is quite 
obvious that the latter are of a much more superficial nature than the former ; 
in other words, the Platysomid type is simply a modification of the Pakeonis- 
coid one. The Platysomidse are specialised Palmoniscidw. 

Stray glimpses of the progress of this specialisation are also, in fact, exhibited 
to us in contemplating the series of Platysomid genera. Benedenius, though 
in my opinion standing upon the Platysomid side of the boundary, is consider- 
ably more Pahconiscoid in aspect than the rest of the family. The head of 
Eurynotus is decidedly, indeed strongly, Platysomid in structure, but from the 
body it would, in spite of its long dorsal fin, be hard to refuse it a place in the 
Pakeoniscidse. The anal fin in Benedenius and Eurynotus is short-based, like 
that of Elonirlithys ; that of Mesolepis has already considerably extended in 
length, while in Clieirodiis and Platysomus the anal has become nearly as long 
as the dorsal. 

The genera of Platysomidrc do not, however, form a straight line. Cheir- 
ikI ns branches off in a rather different direction from Platysomus, and it is 
abundantly evident that, although the relationship of the Platysomid genera to 
each other and to the Pakeoniscidse favours the doctrine of Evolution, many 
genera have yet to be discovered before the line of descent can be satisfactorily 
exhibited. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 



389 



Final Summary. 

We are now, I think, justified in concluding, — 

1. That the Platysomidse are specialised forms, which have, if the doctrine of 
descent be true, been derived from the Pakeoniscidae. Their structure presents 
us simply with a modification of the Palseoniscoid type, and wherever the Palse- 
oniscidas are placed in the system, thither the Platysomidne must follow.* 

2. The resemblances between the Platysomidse and the Dapediiche and 
Pycnodontidre are mere resemblances of analogy, and not of real affinity. The 
Dapediidae are related not to the Palreoniscidse or Platysomidea, but to the 
other semiheterocercal Ganoids of the Jurassic era (Lepidotus, &c), and the 
Pycnodonts are highly specialised forms, whose general affinities point in the 
same direction. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Throughout these figures the same letters apply to the same bones. 



p. Parietal. 

sq. Squamosal or dermal-pterotic. 
/. Frontal. 
p.f. Posterior frontal or clermal-sphenotic. 
a.f. Anterior frontal ordermal-ectoethmoidal. 
e. Median superethmoidal. 
p.mx. Premaxilla. 
mx. Maxilla. 
pt. Pterygoid. 
ni.pt, Mesopterygoicl. 
h.m. Hyomandibular. 
ar. Articular. 
(i.g. Angular. 
d. Dentary. 



sp. Splenial. 

op. Operculum. 

i.op. Interoperculum. 

p.op. Preoperculum. 

or. Branchiostegal. 

s.o. Suborbital. 

s.t. Supratemporal 

n. Nasal opening. 

or. Orbit. 

p.t. Post-temporal. 

s.cl. Supraclavicular. 

d. Clavicle. 

p.cl. Postclavicular. 
i.cl. Infra-clavicular. 



Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Restored figure of Eurynotus crenatus, Ag. From a large suite of specimens in the 
Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, and other collections. 

Fig. 2. External surface of one of the anterior flank scales of the same species ; magnified four 
diameters. Burdiehouse. 

Fig. 3. Internal or attached surface of a similar scale. 

Fig. 4. External surface of a scale from a position further back on the side of the body; mag- 
nified four diameters. West Calder. 

* I have already (Mem. Palaeontogr. Soc, 1877) stated my reasons for placing the Paheoniscida: 
and consequently also the Platysomidse rather in the Acipenseroid than in the Lepidosteoid suborder of 
Ganoids. To reopen this question is, however, beyond the scope of the present essay. 



390 RAMSAY H. TRAQUAIR ON THE 

Fig. 5. External surface of a scale from the commencement of the tail pedicle; magnified four 

diameters. Burdiehouse. 
Fig. 6. Internal surface of a similar scale. 
Fig. 7. One of the V-shaped ridge-scales of the tail. 
Fig. 8. Scales from the side of the caudal body-prolongation. 
Fig. 9. Inner aspect of similar scales. 
Fig. 10. Internal surface of maxilla of Eurynotus crenatus ; magnified two diameters. From 

Burdiehouse. 
Fig. 11. Internal surface of maxilla of an Eurynotus (E. fimbriatus ?); natural size. From South 

Queensferry. 
Fig. 12. Oral aspect of a pterygoid bone, found lying on the same slab with the last, and along 

with numerous scales of Eurynotus ; natural size. 
Fig. 13. Outer, or sculptured surface of the maxilla of an Eurynotus, from a disjointed speci- 
men ; natural size. From Loanhead. 
Fig. 14. Internal surface of a similar maxilla ; enlarged one-half. From the same locality. 
Fig. 15. Palatal teeth of Eurynotus, showing the worn or " dimpled" aspect, magnified four 

diameters. From the same locality. 
Fig. 16. Sketch of the left clavicle of Eurynotus. 
Fig. 17. Reduced outline of the specimen of Benedenius Deneensis, figured in Prof. De Koninck's 

" Faune de calcaire carbonifere de la Belgique," pi. ii. 



Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Mesolepis scalaris, Young; natural size. From a specimen from Fenton, Staffordshire, 

in the collection of J. Ward, Esq., F.G.S. Longton. 
Fig. 2. External surface of a scale from the flank of Mesolepis scalaris ; magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 3. Internal aspect of a scale from the flank of the type specimen of Mesolepis Wardi 

Young ; magnified three diameters. 
Fig. 4. Internal surface of a scale from the same specimen, situated opposite the origin of the 

anal fin ; magnified three diameters. 
Fig. 5. Internal surface of another scale situated near the last ; magnified three diameters. 
Fig. 6. Sketch of maxilla and mandible of a specimen of Mesolepis, in the collection of Dr 

Rankin of Carluke ; magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 7. Three teeth from the mandible of the same specimen ; magnified twenty diameters. 
Fig. 8. Mandibular teeth of Mesolepis micropterus, Traq. ; magnified eighteen diameters. 
Fig. 9. Restored outline of the head and external cranial bones of Mesolepis. 
Fig. 10. Head of Eurysomus macrurus, Ag. sp. ; natural size. From a specimen from Midderidge, 

in the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. 
Fig. 11. Three mandibular teeth in the same specimen; magnified five diameters. 
Fig. 12. Outline of the bones of the head as exhibited in the only known specimen of War- 
dichthys cyclosoma, Traq. 
Fig. 13. Scales from the lateral line of Wardichthys cyclosoma ; magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 14. Internal surface of a flank scale of Wardichthys ; magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 15. Several scales from near the ventral margin of Wardichthys ; magnified two 

diameters. 



STRUCTURE AND AFFINITIES OF THE PLATYSOMID^E. 391 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Restored figure of Cheirodus granulosus, Young sp. From a suite of specimens from 
North Staffordshire, in the collection of J. Ward, Esq., F.G.S. 

Fig. 2. Pterygo-quadrate apparatus of the same species, showing three constituent elements ; 
natural size. North Staffordshire. 

Fig. 3, Pterygoid bone, separate, seen from the oral aspect. North Staffordshire. 

Fig. 4. Maxilla, seen from the internal aspect, showing the supermarginal band of tooth-like 
tubercles. North Staffordshire. 

Fig. 5. Maxilla, seen from the external aspect. 

Fig. 6. Splenial element of mandible, inner or oral aspect. North Staffordshire. 

Fig. 7. The same bone from the outer aspect. 

Fig. 8. The same bone, seen from above. 

Fig. 9. Dentary element of the mandible of a smaller specimen, seen from the outer aspect ; the 
external layer of the bone injured in the middle. Manchester Coal Field. 

Fig. 10. Diagrammatic restoration of the palato-quadrate, mandibular, and opercular arrange- 
ments in Cheirodus, as seen from the inner aspect. 

Fig. 11. Interoperculum, seen from the inner aspect. Manchester Coal Field. 

Fig. 12. Clavicle, seen from the inner aspect. Manchester Coal Field. 

Fig. 13. External aspect of a flank scale belonging to a very large disjointed specimen ; natural 
size. Manchester Coal Field. 

Fig. 14. Inner aspect of a similar scale. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Restored outline of Platysomus striatus, Ag. 

Fig. 2. Scale from the flank of Platysomus striatus ; magnified two diameters. 

Fig. 3. Scale from the flank of Platysomus parvxdus, Ag. ; magnified two and a-half diameters. 

Fig. 4. Internal surface of a similar scale. 

Fig. 5. Restored outline of Platysomus parvxdus, Ag.; the scales of the body omitted. From a 

suite of specimens in the collection of J. Ward, Esq., F.G.S. 
Fig. 6. Roof bones of the posterior part of the top of the head of Platysomus parvulus, as shown 

in an ironstone cast of their inner surfaces. Fenton, Staffordshire. 
Fig. 7. Median superethmoidal and anterior frontal bones of the same species ; magnified two 

diameters. 
Fig. 8. Preoperculum of PL parvulus, internal aspect ; magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 9. Maxilla of PI. parvulus ; magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 10. Branchiostegal ray, detached, of PL Forsteri, Hancock and Atthey. 
Fig. 11. Maxillary teeth of PL parvulus ; magnified fifteen diameters. 
Fig. 12. Restored outline of the bones of the outside of the head and shoulder girdle of 

Palaioniscus Frcieslebeni, Ag. 
Fig. 13. Restored outline of the bones of the outside of the head of Dapedius. 
Fig. 14. Scales from the flank of Gyrodus front atus, Ag. ; seen from the inner surface, and 

magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 15. Scales from the caudal region of the same species, also seen from the inner aspect. 
Fig. 16. Scales of Palwoniscus Freieslebeni ; seen from the inner aspect, and magnified six 

diameters. 
VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 H 



( 393 ) 



ILL— The Anatomy of the Northern Beluga (Beluga catodon, Gray; Delphin- 
apterus leucas, Pallas) compared ivith that of other Whales. By Morrison 
Watson, M.D., F.K.S.E., and Alfred H. Young, M.B., &c, of the 
Owens College, Manchester. (Plates VII. and VIII.) 

(Read 21st April 1879.) 

During the spring of 1878, owing to the enterprise of Mr Farini, English 
naturalists had the rare opportunity of inspecting three living specimens of the 
northern Beluga or white whale. Descriptive accounts of their capture off the 
coast of Labrador, and likewise of the methods which, successfully carried out, 
ensured their safe transmission to this country, appeared at the time in various 
periodicals.* On the arrival of the whales in England, one was forwarded to the 
Pomona Gardens, Manchester, where it was placed in a large tank for purposes 
of exhibition. Though apparently adapting itself to its new home, the whale 
never appeared to recover from the combined effects of its capture and 
compulsory voyage ; but growing rapidly worse, its condition became so 
precarious that it was deemed advisable to send it to Blackpool, in the hope 
that the advantages of a marine aquarium might prove beneficial. Notwith- 
standing every precaution, however, the whale did not reach its destination, 
but succumbed on the way. 

On hearing of its death, Mr Farini, with great courtesy, placed the carcase 
at our disposal. Unfortunately, a misunderstanding arose as to its locality, so 
that an unavoidable delay necessarily ensued, during which the railway 
authorities, naturally anxious to get rid of the rapidly putrefying mass, sent the 
whale to a boiling-down yard, whence it was not rescued until it had to some 
extent been mutilated. 

The body, therefore, when it came into our possession, was neither so 
perfect nor so fresh as was necessary for an investigation of its entire 
anatomy, and on this account a myological description of the specimen could 
not be attempted ; consequently our observations, which, so far, have been 
confined to the soft parts, relate chiefly to the visceral anatomy. 

* An interesting account both of this and of a prior attempt to introduce whales into England 
was issued in pamphlet form by Mr H. Lee, F.L.S., &c. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 I 



394 DR MORRISON WATSON AND MR ALFRED H. YOUNG 

The anatomy of Beluga has previously engaged the attention of Dr 
Barclay * in this country, and of Professor Wyman t in America. The 
descriptions of both these anatomists are, however, so very incomplete, even 
in respect of the few structures commented upon, that we are enabled, whilst 
supplementing their observations, to record also the result of the investigation 
of several parts hitherto unnoticed, and to complete a detailed account of the 
whole of the viscera. The external characters of the white whale being already 
well known from the description of Drs Barclay and Neill, a further reference 
to them is rendered superfluous. 

On such points as it has seemed desirable, our description of the soft parts 
has been supplemented by means of illustrations sketched by one of ourselves 
from recent dissections ; these, we trust, will render this memoir of more 
value to future observers. 

Dr Barclay's specimen, a nearly adult male, was shot in the Firth of Forth 
during the year 1815. Prior to this two young Belugas had been cast ashore 
near Thurso ; whilst subsequently but a single instance of its occurrence on the 
British coast is recorded, being that of a specimen which was stranded on one 
of the Orkney Islands in 1845. 

The Beluga examined by us was a female, which, from its size, and from the 
condition of its epiphysial ossifications, we judged to be three-fourths grown. 
Teeth were present in both the upper and lower jaws. Its dimensions were as 
follows : — 



FT. IX. 



Length from the truncated extremity of the snout (following the 
curvature of the spine) to the notch in the middle line of the t&il, 

Length from snout to blow hole, . 

Breadth of blow hole, .... 

Length from snout to eye, 

From snout to base of pectoral fin, 

Length of pectoral fin, .... 

Breadth of pectoral fin at the base, 

„ „ broadest part, . 

Breadth of caudal fin, . 

Depth of notch in caudal fin, 

From junction of pectoral fin with body over dorsum, to corre- 
sponding part on opposite side, . . . . 2 7 

In the course of this paper frequent reference has necessarily been made to 
the writings of previous observers. To avoid the necessity of numerous lengthy 

• " Account of a r.cluga or White Whale," Memoirs of the Wemerian Natural History Society, 
vol iii. 

t " Description of a White Fish or White Whale " (Beluga borealie), Boston Journal of Natural 
History, vol. vii. 



8 


7£ 





Hi 





91 

-2 





9 


2 


2 





10 





4 





H 


1 


8£ 





U 



ON THE ANATOMY OF THE NORTHERN BELUGA. 395 

footnotes, we subjoin a list of the principal memoirs which have been 
consulted with regard to the soft parts of other cetaceans. In the text, the 
source of all references is specified by stating the page of the article referred 
to along with its numerical designation according to the list here given : — 

I. Carte and Macalister : " On the Anatomy of Bakenoptera rostrata," Phil. Trans., 
1868, part i. 

II. Murie : " On the Organisation of the Caaing Whale" (Globioccphalus melas). Trans. 
Zool. Soc, vol. viii. 

III. Wyman : " Description of a White Fish or White Whale" (Beluga borealis, Lesson). 

Boston Jour, of Nat. Hist., vol. vii. 

IV. Jackson : " Dissection of a Spermaceti Whale, and three other Cetaceans." Boston 

Jour, of Nat. Hist. vol. v. 

V. Murie : " On Lagenorhynclms cdbirostris." Jour. Linn. Soc, Zoology, vol. xi. 

VI. Macalister : " On some Points in the Anatomy of Globioccphalus Svineval." Proc. 
Zool, Soc, 1867. 

VII. Perrin: "Notes on the Anatomy of Bakenoptera rostrata." Proc. Zool. Soc, 1870. 

VIII. Barclay and Neill : " Account of a Beluga or White Whale." Memoirs of the 
Wernerian Soc, vol. iii. 

IX. Turner: "A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Pilot Whale (Globiocephalns 
Svineval)." Jour, of Anat. and Phys., vol. ii. 

X. Murie : " On Bisso's Grampus " (G. Eissoamcs). Jour, of Anat. and Phys., vol. v. 

XI. Fischer : " On Grampus griseus." Annal de Science Naturelle (5th Series), 
Tome viii., Zoology, 1869. 

XII. Flower: " On Physalus Antiquorum." Proc. Zool. Soc, 1865. 

XIII. Abernethy : Phil. Trans., 1796. 

XIV. Gray's Chinese Eepository, 1838. 

XV. Stannius: " Beschreibung der Muskeln des Tummlers." Miiller's Archiv. f. 
Anat., 1849. 

XVI. Hunter : " On the Economy and Structure of Whales." Phil. Trans., 1787. 

XVII. Turner : " An Account of the Great Finner Whale (Balamoptera Sibbaldii) 
stranded at Longniddry." Trans. Boy. Soc. Edin.., vol. xxvi. 

XVIII. Meckel : Anatomie Comparee. 
XIX. Mayer : " Uber den bau des Organes der Stimme." Nova, Acta Acad., Leo-Car., 

1851, vol. xxiii. 
XX. Eecent Memoirs on the Cetacea, by Eschricht, Bernhardt, Lilljeborg. Edited 
by Flower, Bay Soc. 

XXI. Owen : Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

XXII. Hunter's " Essays and Observations." Edited by Owen, vol. ii. 
XXIII. Gulliver : " Notes on a Cetaceous Animal stranded on the North-East Coast of 
Ireland." Proc Zool. Soc, 1853. 



396 DR MORRISON WATSON AND MR ALFRED H. YOUNG 

XXIV. Sandifokt: " Nieuwe verhandelingen, Koninklijk nederlandsche Instit.," 1831. 
XXV. Bukmeister : " On the Anatomy of Pontoporia Blainvillii." Proc. Zool. Soc, 

1867. 
XXVI. Fleming: "Description of a small-headed Narwhal cast ashore in Zetland." 

Memoirs of the Wernerian Soc, vol. i. 

XXVII. Knox : Catalogue of Anatomical Preparations of Whales. Edin., 1838. 

XXVIII. Eschricht : "Die Nordischen Wallthiere." 1848. 

XXIX. Malm : "Monographie illustree du Baleinoptere." Stockholm, 1867. 

XXX. Major : " On the Structure of the Brain of the White Whale." Jour, of Anat. 
and Phys., 1879. 

XXXI. Cuvier : Lemons d' Anatomic 

XXXII. Vicq. D'azyr: " Memoirs sur la voix." Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences, 1779. pi. 
vii. figs. 1, 2, and 3. 

XXXIII. Turner : " Further Observations on the Stomach of Cetacea." Jour, of Anat. and 

Phys., vol. iii. 

XXXIV. Murie : " On the Anatomy of a Fin Whale" (Physahcs antiquorum). Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1865. 

XXXV. " Cyclopaedia of Anatomy." Art. Cetacea, vol. i. 

XXXVI. Home : " On the Structure of the different Cavities of the Stomach of the Whale." 
Phil. Trans., 1807, part i. 

XXXVII. Heddle : " On a Whale of the genus Physahis." Proc. Zool. Soc, 1856. 

XXXVIII. Crisp : " On some Parts of the Anatomy of the Porpoise (Phoccena communis)." 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1864. 

XXXIX. Murie : " On the Saiga Antelope (Saiga tartarica)." Proc. Zool. Soc, 1870. 

XL. Flower : Trans. Zool. Soc, vi. p. 115. 

XLI. Burmeister: "On a New Cetacean." Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., 1866, third 
series, vol. xvii. 

Digestive Organs. 

Tongue. — The tongue, from the anterior border of the hyoid bone to the tip, 
measures 9 inches in length and has a uniform breadth of 2^ inches. The 
anterior 4 inches of the organ is alone clearly defined from the floor of the 
mouth by means of a well-marked groove which indicates the separation 
between these parts. Posteriorly this groove disappears, so that the posterior 
half of the tongue forms the floor of the mouth, its upper surface being quite 
continuous with that of the cheek. In form, the tongue reminds one to some 
extent of the sole of a shoe, being flattened from above downward, with its 
anterior extremity uniformly rounded. Its upper surface is flat and smooth, 
and its anterior or free margin is provided with numerous flattened foliaceous 
pr< ejections of the mucous membrane. The posterior two thirds of the upper 



ON THE ANATOMY OF THE NORTHERN BELUGA. 397 

surface present numerous little depressions resembling pin holes, which become 
much larger toward the root of the organ. These openings, which are also 
present in numbers on the region of the cheek, indicate the ducts of numerous 
mucous glands which lie immediately underneath the mucous membrane. The 
tongue of Beluga does not appear to differ much from that of other toothed 
whales. In Globiocephalus intermedins, according to Macalister,"* not only the 
tip, but also the margins of the organ are free, whereas in Beluga the latter are 
attached along nearly their whole length. Dr Murie t refers to the presence 
of a distinct frcenum in Globiocephalus melas, but this structure is not recog- 
nisable in Beluga. In respect of the very close attachment of the tongue to 
the sides and floor of the mouth, Beluga appears to approach the whalebone 
whales, in which the organ is perfectly immobile, and to differ in various 
degrees from the other toothed species, in nearly all of which greater mobility 
is conferred upon this organ than in the white whale. The presence of fringe- 
like processes of mucous membrane on the margins of the tongue did not escape 
the notice of Professor WymanJ in Beluga. They appear to be somewhat 
exceptional among the Cetacea. Dr Jackson,§ however, speaks of the tongue 
of the sperm whale as being provided anteriorly with " numerous fissures and 
granulations," an arrangement which appears to resemble closely that described 
above in Beluga. Their presence is also recorded by Dr Murie || in Lageno- 
rhynchus albirostris. 

Salivary Glands. — The presence of these is doubtful. At the same time, it 
is well to state that we detected an apparently glandular body which occupied 
the usual position of the sub-maxillary gland. In size it resembled the gland 
of the same name in the human subject, and what we took to be a duct could 
be traced upward into the muscular substance of the tongue. The unsatisfac- 
tory condition of the parts, however, prevented its termination being clearly 
defined. Macalister 1" searched in vain for any trace of a salivary gland in 
Globiocephalus, but a rudimentary parotid was noticed by him in, Balwnoptera 
rostrata** 

Tonsil and Uvula. — On opening the pharynx no trace of either of these 
structures could be distinguished. Such is also the case according to Murie tt 
and Macalister \% in Globiocephalus melas. 

Pharynx. — The muscular wall of the pharnyx is separable into three 
distinct constrictors. The superior constrictor consists of two planes of fibres, 
readily separable one from another. These may be distinguished as the 
superficial and the deep. The superficial fibres arise in front of the blow hole, 
but, unfortunately, their exact attachment to the bone could not be made out, 

* I. p. 230. f II- P- 251. % III. p. 610. § IV. p. 140. 

|| V. p. 143. f VI. p. 480. ** I. p. 222. tt H p. 253. 

tt VI. p. 478. 

VOL. XXIX. PART I. 5 K 



398 DR MORRISON WATSON" AND MR ALFRED H. YOUNG 

as the pharnyx had been separated from the skull. These fibres pass backward 
on the side of the pharnyx, and become continuous with those of the opposite 
side behind that tube. They intermingle also with the fibres of the stylo- 
pharyngeus. The deeper fibres lie immediately under cover of the mucous 
membrane of the pharynx, and are most easily dissected from the inside of the 
tube. They form a constrictor or sphincter of the spiracle, and surround that 
cavity almost to its external opening. They are aggregated so as to form a 
muscular ring of great strength which surrounds the lower aperture of the 
spiracle. In other words, we have in these last mentioned fibres a means 
whereby the spiracular cavity may be shut off from the pharynx, whilst the 
upper fibres of the muscle may be regarded as being of service in producing 
alterations in the form and capacity of that chamber. 

The Middle Constrictor arises from the posterior border of the thyro-hyal 
bone. The fibres pass backward, and blend behind the pharynx with those of 
the superior and inferior constrictors. 

The Inferior Constrictor arises from the whole length of th